The objective of the present study was to evaluate the species diversity of eels native to Aceh waters based on genetic data. Sampling was conducted in western coast waters of Aceh Province, Indonesia, from July to August 2016. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples, a genomic region from the 5' region of the cox1 gene was amplified and sequenced, and this was then used to analyse genetic variation. The genetic sequences were blasted into the NCBI database. Based on this analysis there were three valid species of eels that occurred in Aceh waters, namely Anguilla marmorata, A. bicolor bicolor, and A. bengalensis bengalensis.
Knowledge on the precise identification of fish resources is critical for sustainable fisheries management. This study employs the DNA barcoding approach to generate a molecular taxonomic catalogue of commercially important reef fishes in the waters of Weh Island (Aceh Province), the most northerly inhabited island in the biodiverse Indonesian Archipelago. The waters not only support artisanal fisheries but also a feeder for the industry in the greater island of Aceh. In total, 230 specimens from 72 species belonging to 32 genera and 17 families were DNA barcoded, representing a major segment of the captured reef fish taxa and a quarter of fish species diversity that had previously been recorded. The sequence read lengths were 639 bp revealing 359 conserved sites, 280 variable sites, 269 parsimony informative and 11 singletons. Our molecular findings paralleled the morphological identification with no evidence of cryptic species or new species discovery. This study is a significant contribution to the fisheries statistics of this area, which would facilitate assessment of species catch composition and hence for strategizing management plans. It is an important input to the DNA barcode library of Indonesian marine fishes and to the global DNA barcode entries in general.
Background The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of probiotic in the diet of keureling fish ( Tor tambra) fry. MethodsLactobacillus casei from Yakult® was used as a starter, and enhanced with Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga and molasses. The mixture was fermented for 7 days prior to use as probiotic in a formulated diet containing 30% crude protein. Four levels of probiotic dosage; 0 ml kg -1 (control), 5 ml kg -1, 10 ml kg -1 and 15 ml kg -1 were tested in this study. The fish was fed twice a day at 08.00 AM and 06.00 PM at the ration of 5% body weight for 80 days. Results The results showed that growth performance and feed efficiency increased with increasing probiotic dosage in the diet from control (no probiotic) to 10 ml kg -1 of probiotic dosage and then decreased when the dosage was increased up to 15 ml kg -1. Conclusions The best values for all measured parameters were recorded at the dosage of 10 ml kg -1. Therefore, it was concluded that the optimum dosage of enhanced probiotic for T. tambra fry was 10 ml kg -1 of feed.
This article describes the data of raw material compositions for formulating the diet for Indonesian short-fin eel, Anguilla bicolor Anguilla bicolor McClelland, 1844 elver. The data on growth performance, survival and feed utilization of eel elver from the formulated diet test results are also presented here. Four formulated diets and one commercial feed were tested for the eel elver. The formulated diet was formulated from animal and plant based protein sources such as; fish meal, cornmeal, soybean meal, fine bran, ebi-shrimp meal, golden snail meal, bloodmeal, and tapioca flour. Vitamins and minerals were added into the diet. In addition, probiotics and papain enzyme and its combination were also included into the experimental diets to boost the growth performance, survival and feed utilization of the fish. The tested treatments were; (A) commercial diet without probiotic and papain enzyme, (B) experimental diet without probiotic and papain enzyme, (C) experimental diet with probiotic 10 ml kg-1 feed, (D) experimental diet with papain enzyme 10 g kg-1 feed, (E) experimental diet with probiotic 10 ml kg-1 + papain 10 g kg-1 feed, (F) experimental diet with probiotic 5 ml kg-1 + papain 5 g kg-1 feed. Each experimental fish group was fed on an experimental diet twice a day at 08.00 AM and 06.00 PM at feeding level of 10% body weight for 60 days. The results showed that the weight gain ranged between 4.60 g to 5.92 g, daily growth rate between 0.063 g day-1 and 0.098 g per day-1, the specific growth rate varies from 0.72% day-1 to 1.35% day-1, survival rate 50.00% to 73.33%, feed conversion ratio from 2.35 to 4.17, and feed efficiency between 41.82% to 58.98%. The best treatment was found in fish fed on the experimental diet with papain enzyme 10 g kg-1 of feed.
Without drastic efforts to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate globalized stressors, tropical coral reefs are in jeopardy. Strategic conservation and management requires identification of the environmental and socioeconomic factors driving the persistence of scleractinian coral assemblages-the foundation species of coral reef ecosystems. Here, we compiled coral abundance data from 2,584 Indo-Pacific reefs to evaluate the influence of 21 climate, social and environmental drivers on the ecology of reef coral assemblages. Higher abundances of framework-building corals were typically associated with: weaker thermal disturbances and longer intervals for potential recovery; slower human population growth; reduced access by human settlements and markets; and less nearby agriculture. We therefore propose a framework of three management strategies (protect, recover or transform) by considering: (1) if reefs were above or below a proposed threshold of >10% cover of the coral taxa important for structural complexity and carbonate production; and (2) reef exposure to severe thermal stress during the 2014-2017 global coral bleaching event. Our findings can guide urgent management efforts for coral reefs, by identifying key threats across multiple scales and strategic policy priorities that might sustain a network of functioning reefs in the Indo-Pacific to avoid ecosystem collapse.
The discovery of multi-species synchronous spawning of scleractinian corals on the Great Barrier Reef in the 1980s stimulated an extraordinary effort to document spawning times in other parts of the globe. Unfortunately, most of these data remain unpublished which limits our understanding of regional and global reproductive patterns. The Coral Spawning Database (CSD) collates much of these disparate data into a single place. The CSD includes 6178 observations (3085 of which were unpublished) of the time or day of spawning for over 300 scleractinian species in 61 genera from 101 sites in the Indo-Pacific. The goal of the CSD is to provide open access to coral spawning data to accelerate our understanding of coral reproductive biology and to provide a baseline against which to evaluate any future changes in reproductive phenology.