Curcumin adalah satu rempah tradisional yang mempunyai potensi untuk menyembuhkan pelbagai jenis penyakit inflamatori, termasuk artritis. Kajian ini dijalankan untuk memerhatikan kesan-kesan curcumin ke atas perubahan histopatologi dan aras interleukin-1β (IL-1β) di dalam artritis aruhan kolagen (CIA). Tiga puluh ekor tikus jantan Sprague-Dawley (150+50 g) dibahagikan kepada lima kumpulan secara rawak. Satu kumpulan dijadikan kumpulan kawalan normal (CTRL), manakala selebihnya disuntik dengan 150 μg emulsi kolagen secara subkutan pada hari 0. Kumpulan CTRL dan CIA-Curcumin-d0 masing-masing diberi suplimentasi harian minyak zaitun oil (1 ml/kg) dan curcumin (110 mg/ml/ kg) bermula pada hari 0. Kumpulan CIA-OV (kawalan negatif), CIA-Beta dan CIA-Curcumin-d14 pula, masing-masing diberi suplimentasi harian minyak zaitun (1 ml/kg), Betamethasone (0.5 mg/ml/kg), dan curcumin (110 mg/ml/kg) bermula pada hari 14. Suplimentasi harian tersebut diberi kepada tikus-tikus sehingga hari ke 42. Kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa kumpulan CIA-Beta (**P=0.00) dan CIA-Curcumin-d0 (**P=0.01) masing-masing mempamerkan purata skor histologi yang lebih rendah secara signifikan berbanding kumpulan CIA-OV. Aras IL-1β di dalam serum untuk kumpulan CIA-Beta dan CIA-Curcumin-d0 tidak meningkat secara signifikan pada hari ke 42 berbanding hari 0. Purata peningkatan aras IL-1β dari hari 0 ke hari 42 juga adalah rendah secara signifikan (**P≤0.01) untuk semua kumpulan CIA berbanding kumpulan CIA-OV. Tidak terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan dalan purata skor histologi dan aras IL-1β kumpulan of CIA-Curcumin-d0 berbanding kumpulan CIA-Beta. Kesimpulannya suplimentasi awal curcumin berpotensi untuk meminimakan perubahan yang disebabkan penyakit artritis aruhan kolagen pada tikus.
Menopause, a cessation of menstrual bleeding, is directly related to serious
illness confined to cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as hypertension and stroke. The oestrogen withdrawal and consumption of high cholesterol diet has
a detrimental effect on cardiovascular function and metabolism in menopausal
women. The present study was aimed to develop the hypertensive rat model in
the ovariectomised Sprague Dawley rats fed with 2% cholesterol diet following a
short term period. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three
groups; Sham control (sham), ovariectomized control fed with normal diet (Ovx
+N), ovariectomized rats fed with 2% cholesterol diet (Ovx + Cho) for four weeks.
At the end of the study, the food intake and body weight were measured. The
systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure was determined. OVX+Cho showed
significant increase in physiological changes such as body weight and food intake
compared to Ovx+N group. The significant increase in systolic, diastolic and mean
blood pressure was observed in Ovx+Cho group. Based on the above findings,
it is believed that feeding cholesterol diet for four weeks (short term) results in
significant increase in the blood pressure, food intake and body weight in the
The fruit extract of Garcinia atroviridis (G. atroviridis) contains hydroxycitric acid and flavonoids, which have been reported to have a hypolipidaemic property. This extract with solvent methanol was used to investigate its effects on serum lipid profiles of guinea pigs fed a high cholesterol diet.
Consumption of repeatedly heated soy oil has been linked with incidence of atherosclerosis particularly in oestrogen deficient states. In the present study, effect of curcumin extract on the prevention of atherosclerosis was evaluated.
Thermally oxidized oil generates reactive oxygen species that have been implicated in several pathological processes including hypertension. This study was to ascertain the role of inflammation in the blood pressure raising effect of heated soybean oil in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and were fed with the following diets, respectively, for 6 months: basal diet (control); fresh soybean oil (FSO); five-time-heated soybean oil (5HSO); or 10-time-heated soybean oil (10HSO). Blood pressure was measured at baseline and monthly using tail-cuff method. Plasma prostacyclin (PGI(2) ) and thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2) ) were measured prior to treatment and at the end of the study. After six months, the rats were sacrificed, and the aortic arches were dissected for morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. Blood pressure was increased significantly in the 5HSO and 10HSO groups. The blood pressure was maintained throughout the study in rats fed FSO. The aortae in the 5HSO and 10HSO groups showed significantly increased aortic wall thickness, area and circumferential wall tension. 5HSO and 10HSO diets significantly increased plasma TXA(2) /PGI(2) ratio. Endothelial VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were significantly increased in 5HSO, as well as LOX-1 in 10HSO groups. In conclusion, prolonged consumption of repeatedly heated soybean oil causes blood pressure elevation, which may be attributed to inflammation.
In this case report, we report the absence of the fourth tendon of flexor digitorium superficialis (FDS) to the little finger with a concurrent anomalous muscular belly of flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) in the palm. The FDS originated from the medial epicondyle, divided into three tendons for the index, middle and ring fingers with the little finger devoid of any attachment. The FDP exhibited a muscular belly which passed deep to the flexor retinaculum (FR) and continued for another 4 cm thereby dividing into four slips for the index, middle, ring and little fingers. The presence of the muscular belly of the FDP lead us to think whether it was an adhesion between the tendons of the FDP, so we proceeded to histological analysis. The tissue was processed and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Abundant longitudinal muscle fibers with peripherally situated nuclei confirmed it to be a skeletal muscle. Absence of the tendon of FDS to little finger may influence the flexion movement in the middle and proximal interphalangeal joints. Presence of anomalous muscle belly of FDP in the palm may mimic any soft tissue tumour, compress neurovascular structures or even pose difficulty while performing tendon transplant surgeries.
Curcuma longa (CL) or turmeric is an Ayurvedic herb that has been traditionally used to treat inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a well established experimental auto-immune mediated polyarthritis in susceptible strains of rodents. The main aim of the study was to observe the inflammatory, macroscopic and radiological changes in the arthritic ankle joints of experimentally collagen-induced arthritis animals treated with or without CL extract.
This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of three forms of vitamin E supplements following nicotine treatment on bone histomorphometric parameters in an adult male rat model. Rats were divided into seven groups: baseline (B, killed without treatment), control (C, normal saline for 4 months), nicotine (N, nicotine for 2 months), nicotine cessation (NC), tocotrienol-enhanced fraction (TEF), gamma-tocotrienol (GTT), and alpha-tocopherol (ATF). Treatments for the NC, TEF, GTT, and ATF groups were performed in two phases. For the first 2 months they were given nicotine (7 mg/kg), and for the following 2 months nicotine administration was stopped and treatments with respective vitamin E preparations (60 mg/kg) were commenced except for the NC group, which was allowed to recover without treatment. Rats in the N and NC groups had lower trabecular bone volume, mineral appositional rate (MAR), and bone formation rate (BFR/BS) and higher single labeled surface and osteoclast surface compared to the C group. Vitamin E treatment reversed these nicotine effects. Both the TEF and GTT groups, but not the ATF group, had a significantly higher trabecular thickness but lower eroded surface (ES/BS) than the C group. The tocotrienol-treated groups had lower ES/BS than the ATF group. The GTT group showed a significantly higher MAR and BFR/BS than the TEF and ATF groups. In conclusion, nicotine induced significant bone loss, while vitamin E supplements not only reversed the effects but also stimulated bone formation significantly above baseline values. Tocotrienol was shown to be slightly superior compared to tocopherol. Thus, vitamin E, especially GTT, may have therapeutic potential to repair bone damage caused by chronic smoking.
Edible oils have different effects on lipid profiles and on the propensity for producing lipid peroxidation products. These two properties of edible oils can affect arterial structure, ultimately leading to atherosclerosis. Hypertension is said to be a predisposing factor for atherosclerosis and can accelerate its process. This paper investigates the effects of three edible oils, namely soya bean oil, palm oil and ghee, on the ultrastructure of the aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats at the end of a 4 month feeding period. It was found that ghee produced significant structural changes to the aortic wall when compared with palm oil or soya bean oil, and that no noticeable structural differences were seen to occur on the aortas of the palm oil-fed and soya bean oil-fed groups of rats. This study suggests that the consumption of ghee, rather than palm or soya bean oil, is more likely to lead to the development of atherosclerosis.
Oxidative stress contributes to cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to study the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on plasma homocysteine and cardiac oxidative stress in rats fed with a high-methionine diet. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. The first group was the control. Groups 2-6 were fed 1% methionine diet for 10 weeks. From week 6 onward, folate (8 mg/kg diet) or palm TRF (30, 60 and 150 mg/kg diet) was added into the diet of groups 3, 4, 5 and 6. The rats were then killed. Palm TRF at 150 mg/kg and folate supplementation prevented the increase in plasma total homocysteine (4.14 ± 0.33 and 4.30 ± 0.26 vs 5.49 ± 0.25 mmol/L, p < 0.05) induced by a high-methionine diet. The increased heart thiobarbituric acid reactive substance in rats fed with high-methionine diet was also prevented by the supplementations of palm TRF (60 and 150 mg/kg) and folate. The high-methionine group had a lower glutathione peroxidase activity (49 ± 3 vs 69 ± 4 pmol/mg protein/min) than the control group. This reduction was reversed by palm TRF at 60 and 150 mg/kg diet (p < 0.05), but not by folate. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were unaffected by both methionine and vitamin supplementations. In conclusion, palm TRF was comparable to folate in reducing high-methionine diet-induced hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress in the rats' hearts. However, palm TRF was more effective than folate in preserving the heart glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity.
This study investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on aortic proatherosclerotic changes in rats fed with a high methionine diet. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. The first group was the control (fed with a basal diet). Another five groups were fed with 1% methionine diet for 10 weeks. From week 6 onward, folate (8 mg/kg diet) or palm TRF (30, 60, and 150 mg/kg diets) was added into the diet of the last four rat groups, respectively. The high methionine diet raised the plasma total homocysteine and aortic lipid peroxidation, which were reduced by the palm TRF and folate supplementations. Plasma nitric oxide was reduced in the high methionine group compared to the control (3.72 ± 0.57 versus 6.65 ± 0.53 μ mol/L, P < 0.05), which reduction was reversed by the palm TRF (60 and 150 mg/kg) and folate supplementations. The increased aortic vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in the methionine group (2.58 ± 0.29) was significantly reduced by the folate (1.38 ± 0.18) and palm TRF at 150 mg/kg (1.19 ± 0.23). Palm TRF was comparable to folate in reducing high methionine diet-induced plasma hyperhomocysteinemia, aortic oxidative stress, and inflammatory changes in rats.
Anomalous structures of the liver are incidentally detected during autopsies or during routine cadaveric dissection. The present study aimed to observe the abnormal shapes of quadrate lobe, accessory sulci and ligamentum teres of the liver.
Oil thermoxidation during deep frying generates harmful oxidative free radicals that induce inflammation and increase the risk of hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, aortic morphometry, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: control, fresh palm oil (FPO), one-time-heated palm oil (1HPO), five-time-heated palm oil (5HPO), or ten-time-heated palm oil (10HPO). Feeding duration was six months. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and monthly using tail-cuff method. After six months, the rats were sacrificed and the aortic arches were dissected for morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. FPO group showed significantly lower blood pressure than all other groups. Blood pressure was increased significantly in 5HPO and 10HPO groups. The aortae of 5HPO and 10HPO groups showed significantly increased thickness and area of intima-media, circumferential wall tension, and VCAM-1 than other groups. Elastic lamellae were disorganised and fragmented in 5HPO- and 10HPO-treated rats. VCAM-1 expression showed a significant positive correlation with blood pressure. In conclusion, prolonged consumption of repeatedly heated palm oil causes blood pressure elevation, adverse remodelling, and increased VCAM-1, which suggests a possible involvement of inflammation.
Osteoporosis is a proven complication of long-term glucocorticoid therapy. Concern on glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis has increased dramatically in recent years with the widespread use of synthetic glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid action in bone depends upon the activity of 11βhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme (11βHSD1). This enzyme plays an important role in regulating corticosteroids by locally interconverting cortisone into active cortisol. This has been demonstrated in primary cultures of human, mouse or rat osteoblasts. Therefore, inhibition of this enzyme may reduce bone resorption markers. Piper sarmentosum (Ps) is a potent inhibitor of 11βHSD1 in liver and adipose tissue. In this study we determined the effect of Ps on 11βHSD1 activity in bones of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporotic rats.
Vitamin E is beneficial in restoring bone histomorphometric parameters in nicotine-treated rats. This study determined the effectiveness of 3 forms of vitamin E in restoring bone metabolism in nicotine-treated rats.
Tibial nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve and it is the main nerve innervating the muscles of the back of the leg. The tibial nerve divides into medial and lateral plantar nerves. The level of division may be important for surgical purpose. The main aim of the present study was to observe the exact level of division of the tibial nerve and discuss its clinical implications.
Oxidative stress plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases. The study investigated the effects of dietary palm tocotrienol-rich fraction on homocysteine metabolism in rats fed a high-methionine diet. Forty-two male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to six groups. Five groups were fed with high-methionine diet (1%) for 10 weeks. Groups 2 to 5 were also given dietary folate (8 mg/kg) and three doses of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (30, 60 and 150 mg/kg) from week 6 to week 10. The last group was only given basal rat chow. High-methionine diet increased plasma homocysteine after 10 weeks, which was prevented by the supplementations of folate and high-dose palm tocotrienol-rich fraction. Hepatic S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) content was unaffected in all groups but S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) content was reduced in the folate group. Folate supplementation increased the SAM/SAH ratio, while in the palm tocotrienol-rich fraction groups, the ratio was lower compared with the folate. Augmented activity of hepatic cystathionine β-synthase and lipid peroxidation content by high-methionine diet was inhibited by palm tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementations (moderate and high doses), but not by folate. The supplemented groups had lower hepatic lipid peroxidation than the high-methionine diet. In conclusion, palm tocotrienol-rich fraction reduced high-methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinaemia possibly by reducing hepatic oxidative stress in high-methionine-fed rats. It may also exert a direct inhibitory effect on hepatic cystathionine β-synthase.
Glucocorticoids cause osteoporosis by decreasing bone formation and increasing bone resorption activity. Glucocorticoid action in bones depends on the activity of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) enzyme, which plays an important role in regulating corticosteroids. 11β-HSD1 is expressed by human and rat osteoblasts. We aimed to investigate the relationship between 11β-HSD1 dehydrogenase activity and bone histomorphometric changes in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporotic bone in rats.
Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a relatively easy, reliable, and safe method for bone status assessment, but reference data for Asian males remain scarce. Our study aimed to determine the values for one QUS parameter, the speed of sound (SOS) at the calcaneus, in Malaysian Chinese men and to determine the association between the SOS and several demographic characteristics, such as age, weight, height, and body mass index. Three hundred forty-eight Malaysian Chinese men aged 40 yr and older were recruited, and their calcaneal QUS value was determined using the CM-200 densitometer (Furuno Electric, Nishinomiya City, Japan). The results indicated a significant correlation between SOS and age, and multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that age and height were important predictors of SOS. A significant reduction in SOS value was observed when men 60 yr and older were compared with men aged 40-49 yr. Compared with the reference data for Japanese males, Chinese men in Malaysia showed higher SOS values across all the age groups studied. In conclusion, there is an age-related decrease in SOS values in Malaysian Chinese men, and the SOS values established in this study can be used as a reference for future studies.