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  1. Sheikhy Narany T, Ramli MF, Aris AZ, Sulaiman WN, Fakharian K
    Environ Monit Assess, 2014 Sep;186(9):5797-815.
    PMID: 24891071 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-014-3820-8
    In recent years, groundwater quality has become a global concern due to its effect on human life and natural ecosystems. To assess the groundwater quality in the Amol-Babol Plain, a total of 308 water samples were collected during wet and dry seasons in 2009. The samples were analysed for their physico-chemical and biological constituents. Multivariate statistical analysis and geostatistical techniques were applied to assess the spatial and temporal variabilities of groundwater quality and to identify the main factors and sources of contamination. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that seven factors explained around 75% of the total variance, which highlighted salinity, hardness and biological pollution as the dominant factors affecting the groundwater quality in the Plain. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted on the dataset to evaluate the spatio-temporal variation. The results showed that there were no significant temporal variations between the two seasons, which explained the similarity between six component factors in dry and wet seasons based on the PCA results. There are also significant spatial differences (p > 0.05) of the parameters under study, including salinity, potassium, sulphate and dissolved oxygen in the plain. The least significant difference (LSD) test revealed that groundwater salinity in the eastern region is significantly different to the central and western side of the study area. Finally, multivariate analysis and geostatistical techniques were combined as an effective method for demonstrating the spatial structure of multivariate spatial data. It was concluded that multiple natural processes and anthropogenic activities were the main sources of groundwater salinization, hardness and microbiological contamination of the study area.
  2. Sheikhy Narany T, Ramli MF, Aris AZ, Sulaiman WN, Juahir H, Fakharian K
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:419058.
    PMID: 24523640 DOI: 10.1155/2014/419058
    Hydrogeochemical investigations had been carried out at the Amol-Babol Plain in the north of Iran. Geochemical processes and factors controlling the groundwater chemistry are identified based on the combination of classic geochemical methods with geographic information system (GIS) and geostatistical techniques. The results of the ionic ratios and Gibbs plots show that water rock interaction mechanisms, followed by cation exchange, and dissolution of carbonate and silicate minerals have influenced the groundwater chemistry in the study area. The hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater show a shift from low mineralized Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3, and Ca-Cl water types to high mineralized Na-Cl water type. Three classes, namely, C1, C2, and C3, have been classified using cluster analysis. The spatial distribution maps of Na(+)/Cl(-), Mg(2+)/Ca(2+), and Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) ratios and electrical conductivity values indicate that the carbonate and weathering of silicate minerals played a significant role in the groundwater chemistry on the southern and western sides of the plain. However, salinization process had increased due to the influence of the evaporation-precipitation process towards the north-eastern side of the study area.
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