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  1. Kamal Eddin FB, Fen YW
    Molecules, 2020 Jun 15;25(12).
    PMID: 32549390 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25122769
    For a healthy life, the human biological system should work in order. Scheduled lifestyle and lack of nutrients usually lead to fluctuations in the biological entities levels such as neurotransmitters (NTs), proteins, and hormones, which in turns put the human health in risk. Dopamine (DA) is an extremely important catecholamine NT distributed in the central nervous system. Its level in the body controls the function of human metabolism, central nervous, renal, hormonal, and cardiovascular systems. It is closely related to the major domains of human cognition, feeling, and human desires, as well as learning. Several neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease are related to the extreme abnormalities in DA levels. Therefore, the development of an accurate, effective, and highly sensitive method for rapid determination of DA concentrations is desired. Up to now, different methods have been reported for DA detection such as electrochemical strategies, high-performance liquid chromatography, colorimetry, and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. However, most of them have some limitations. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy was widely used in biosensing. However, its use to detect NTs is still growing and has fascinated impressive attention of the scientific community. The focus in this concise review paper will be on the principle of SPR sensors and its operation mechanism, the factors that affect the sensor performance. The efficiency of SPR biosensors to detect several clinically related analytes will be mentioned. DA functions in the human body will be explained. Additionally, this review will cover the incorporation of nanomaterials into SPR biosensors and its potential for DA sensing with mention to its advantages and disadvantages.
  2. Fen YW, Yunus WM, Talib ZA, Yusof NA
    PMID: 25004894 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2014.06.081
    In this study, novel active nanolayers in combination with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system for zinc ion (Zn(2+)) detection has been developed. The gold surface used for the SPR system was modified with the novel developed active nanolayers, i.e. chitosan and chitosan-tetrabutyl thiuram disulfide (chitosan-TBTDS). Both chitosan and chitosan-TBTDS active layers were fabricated on the gold surface by spin coating technique. The system was used to monitor SPR signal for Zn(2+) in aqueous media with and without sensitivity enhancement by TBTDS. For both active nanolayers, the shift of resonance angle is directly proportional to the concentration of Zn(2+) in aqueous media. The higher shift of resonance angle was obtained for chitosan-TBTDS active nanolayer due to a specific binding of TBTDS with Zn(2+). The chitosan-TBTDS active nanolayer enhanced the sensitivity of detection down to 0.1 mg/l and also induced a selective detection towards Zn(2+).
  3. Fauzi NIM, Fen YW, Omar NAS, Hashim HS
    Sensors (Basel), 2021 Jun 03;21(11).
    PMID: 34204853 DOI: 10.3390/s21113856
    Insecticides are enormously important to industry requirements and market demands in agriculture. Despite their usefulness, these insecticides can pose a dangerous risk to the safety of food, environment and all living things through various mechanisms of action. Concern about the environmental impact of repeated use of insecticides has prompted many researchers to develop rapid, economical, uncomplicated and user-friendly analytical method for the detection of insecticides. In this regards, optical sensors are considered as favorable methods for insecticides analysis because of their special features including rapid detection time, low cost, easy to use and high selectivity and sensitivity. In this review, current progresses of incorporation between recognition elements and optical sensors for insecticide detection are discussed and evaluated well, by categorizing it based on insecticide chemical classes, including the range of detection and limit of detection. Additionally, this review aims to provide powerful insights to researchers for the future development of optical sensors in the detection of insecticides.
  4. Zainudin AA, Fen YW, Yusof NA, Al-Rekabi SH, Mahdi MA, Omar NAS
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2018 Feb 15;191:111-115.
    PMID: 29024848 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2017.10.013
    In this study, the combination of novel valinomycin doped chitosan-graphene oxide (C-GO-V) thin film and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system for potassium ion (K+) detection has been developed. The novel C-GO-V thin film was deposited on the gold surface using spin coating technique. The system was used to monitor SPR signal for K+ in solution with and without C-GO-V thin film. The K+ can be detected by measuring the SPR signal when C-GO-V thin film is exposed to K+ in solution. The sensor produces a linear response for K+ ion up to 100ppm with sensitivity and detection limit of 0.00948°ppm-1 and 0.001ppm, respectively. These results indicate that the C-GO-V film is high potential as a sensor element for K+ that has been proved by the SPR measurement.
  5. Daniyal WMEMM, Fen YW, Abdullah J, Sadrolhosseini AR, Saleviter S, Omar NAS
    PMID: 30594850 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2018.12.031
    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a label-free optical spectroscopy that is widely used for biomolecular interaction analysis. In this work, SPR was used to characterize the binding properties of highly sensitive nanocrystalline cellulose-graphene oxide based nanocomposite (CTA-NCC/GO) towards nickel ion. The formation of CTA-NCC/GO nanocomposite has been confirmed by FT-IR. The SPR analysis result shows that the CTA-NCC/GO has high binding affinity towards Ni2+ from 0.01 until 0.1 ppm with binding affinity constant of 1.620 × 103 M-1. The sensitivity for the CTA-NCC/GO calculated was 1.509° ppm-1. The full width at half maximum (FWHM), data accuracy (DA), and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) have also been determined using the obtained SPR curve. For the FWHM, the value was 2.25° at 0.01 until 0.08 ppm and decreases to 2.12° at 0.1 until 10 ppm. The DA for the SPR curves is the highest at 0.01 until 0.08 ppm and lowest at 0.1 until 10 ppm. The SNR curves mirrors the curves of SPR angle shift where the SNR increases with the Ni2+ concentrations. For the selectivity test, the CTA-NCC/GO has the abilities to differentiate Ni2+ in the mixture of metal ions.
  6. Anas NAA, Fen YW, Omar NAS, Daniyal WMEMM, Ramdzan NSM, Saleviter S
    Sensors (Basel), 2019 Sep 06;19(18).
    PMID: 31489912 DOI: 10.3390/s19183850
    About 71% of the Earth's surface is covered with water. Human beings, animals, and plants need water in order to survive. Therefore, it is one of the most important substances that exist on Earth. However, most of the water resources nowadays are insufficiently clean, since they are contaminated with toxic metal ions due to the improper disposal of pollutants into water through industrial and agricultural activities. These toxic metal ions need to be detected as fast as possible so that the situation will not become more critical and cause more harm in the future. Since then, numerous sensing methods have been proposed, including chemical and optical sensors that aim to detect these toxic metal ions. All of the researchers compete with each other to build sensors with the lowest limit of detection and high sensitivity and selectivity. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have emerged as a highly potential sensing material to incorporate with the developed sensors due to the advantages of GQDs. Several recent studies showed that GQDs, functionalized GQDs, and their composites were able to enhance the optical detection of metal ions. The aim of this paper is to review the existing, latest, and updated studies on optical sensing applications of GQDs-based materials toward toxic metal ions and future developments of an excellent GQDs-based SPR sensor as an alternative toxic metal ion sensor.
  7. Ramdzan NSM, Fen YW, Anas NAA, Omar NAS, Saleviter S
    Molecules, 2020 May 30;25(11).
    PMID: 32486124 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25112548
    Great efforts have been devoted to the invention of environmental sensors as the amount of water pollution has increased in recent decades. Chitosan, cellulose and nanocrystalline cellulose are examples of biopolymers that have been intensively studied due to their potential applications, particularly as sensors. Furthermore, the rapid use of conducting polymer materials as a sensing layer in environmental monitoring has also been developed. Thus, the incorporation of biopolymer and conducting polymer materials with various methods has shown promising potential with sensitively and selectively toward heavy metal ions. In this feature paper, selected recent and updated investigations are reviewed on biopolymer and conducting polymer-based materials in sensors aimed at the detection of heavy metal ions by optical methods. This review intends to provide sufficient evidence of the potential of polymer-based materials as sensing layers, and future outlooks are considered in developing surface plasmon resonance as an excellent and valid sensor for heavy metal ion detection.
  8. Saad SM, Abdullah J, Rashid SA, Fen YW, Salam F, Yih LH
    Mikrochim Acta, 2019 11 19;186(12):804.
    PMID: 31745737 DOI: 10.1007/s00604-019-3913-8
    A fluorometric assay is described for highly sensitive quantification of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Reporter oligos were immobilized on graphene quantum dots (GQDs), and quencher oligos were immobilized on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Target DNA was co-hybridized with reporter oligos on the GQDs and quencher oligos on AuNPs. This triggers quenching of fluorescence (with excitation/emission peaks at 400 nm/530 nm). On introducing target into the system, fluorescence is quenched by up to 95% by 100 nM concentrations of target oligos having 20 bp. The response to the fliC gene of E. coli O157:H7 increases with the logarithm of the concentration in the range from 0.1 nM to 150 nM. The limit of detection is 1.1 ± 0.6 nM for n = 3. The selectivity and specificity of the assay was confirmed by evaluating the various oligos sequences and PCR product (fliC gene) amplified from genomic DNA of the food samples spiked with E. coli O157:H7. Graphical abstractSchematic representation of fluorometric assay for highly sensitive quantification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 based on fluorescence quenching gene assay for fliC gene of E. coli O157:H7.
  9. Anuar MF, Fen YW, Zaid MHM, Omar NAS, Khaidir REM
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Jun 04;13(11).
    PMID: 32512704 DOI: 10.3390/ma13112555
    In this work, waste coconut husk ash was used to prepare a ZnO-SiO2 composite. Solid-state technique was used to fabricate the composite due to its producibility, simple procedure as well as lower production cost. At high sintering temperatures ranging from 600 °C to 1000 °C, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks of the Zn2SiO4 showed high intensity, which indicated high crystallinity. Furthermore, the formation of broad bands of ZnO4, Si-O-Si, and SiO4 were detected by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and the bands became narrower with the increment of sintering temperature. Besides, the morphological image from field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed the formation of densely packed grains and smooth surface composite with the increase of sintering temperature. Upon obtaining the absorbance spectrum from Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, the optical band gap was calculated to be 4.05 eV at 1000 °C. The correlation between the structural and optical properties of ZnO-SiO2 composite was discussed in detail.
  10. Daniyal WMEMM, Fen YW, Saleviter S, Chanlek N, Nakajima H, Abdullah J, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Feb 02;13(3).
    PMID: 33540931 DOI: 10.3390/polym13030478
    In this study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study chitosan-graphene oxide (chitosan-GO) incorporated with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) and cadmium sulfide quantum dot (CdS QD) composite thin films for the potential optical sensing of cobalt ions (Co2+). From the XPS results, it was confirmed that carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen elements existed on the PAR-chitosan-GO thin film, while for CdS QD-chitosan-GO, the existence of carbon, oxygen, cadmium, nitrogen, and sulfur were confirmed. Further deconvolution of each element using the Gaussian-Lorentzian curve fitting program revealed the sub-peak component of each element and hence the corresponding functional group was identified. Next, investigation using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) optical sensor proved that both chitosan-GO-based thin films were able to detect Co2+ as low as 0.01 ppm for both composite thin films, while the PAR had the higher binding affinity. The interaction of the Co2+ with the thin films was characterized again using XPS to confirm the functional group involved during the reaction. The XPS results proved that primary amino in the PAR-chitosan-GO thin film contributed more important role for the reaction with Co2+, as in agreement with the SPR results.
  11. Kamal Eddin FB, Fen YW, Omar NAS, Liew JYC, Daniyal WMEMM
    PMID: 34333400 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2021.120202
    Due to the crucial role of dopamine (DA) in health and peripheral nervous systems, it is particularly important to develop an efficient and accurate sensor to monitor and determine DA concentrations for diagnostic purposes and diseases prevention. Up to now, using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors in DA determination is very limited and its application still at the primary stage. In this work, a simple and ultra-sensitive SPR sensor was constructed for DA detection by preparation of chitosan- graphene quantum dots (CS-GQDs) thin film as the sensing layer. Other SPR measurements were conducted using different sensing layers; GQDs, CS for comparison. The proposed thin films were prepared by spin coating technique. The developed CS-GQDs thin film-based SPR sensor was successfully tested in DA concentration range from 0 fM to 1 pM. The designed SPR sensor showed outstanding performance in detecting DA sensitively (S = 0.011°/fM, R2 = 0.8174) with low detection limit of 1.0 fM has been achieved for the first time. The increased angular shift of SPR dip, narrow full width half maximum of the SPR curves, excellent signal-to-noise ratio and figure of merit, and a binding affinity constant (KA) of 2.962 PM-1 demonstrated the potential of this sensor to detect DA with high accuracy. Overall, it was concluded that the proposed sensor would serve as a valuable tool in clinical diagnostic for the serious neurological disorders. This in turns has a significant socio-economic impact.
  12. Azis RS, Che Muda NN, Hassan J, Shaari AH, Ibrahim IR, Mustaffa MS, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2018 Nov 06;11(11).
    PMID: 30404131 DOI: 10.3390/ma11112190
    This paper investigates the effect of the ratio of ammonium nitrate (AN) on the structural, microstructural, magnetic, and alternating current (AC) conductivity properties of barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19). The BaFe12O19 were prepared by using the salt melt method. The samples were synthesized using different powder-to-salt weight ratio variations (1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6 and 1:7) of BaCO₃ + Fe₂O₃ and ammonium nitrate salt. The NH₄NO₃ was melted on a hot plate at 170 °C. A mixture of BaCO₃ and Fe₂O₃ were added into the NH₄NO₃ melt solution and stirred for several hours using a magnetic stirrer under a controlled temperature of 170 °C. The heating temperature was then increased up to 260 °C for 24 hr to produce an ash powder. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results show the intense peak of BaFe12O19 for all the samples and the presence of a small amount of the impurity Fe₂O₃ in the samples, at a ratio of 1:5 and 1:6. From the Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra, the band appears at 542.71 cm - 1 and 432.48 cm - 1 , which corresponding to metal⁻oxygen bending and the vibration of the octahedral sites of BaFe12O19. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images show that the grains of the samples appear to stick each other and agglomerate at different masses throughout the image with the grain size 5.26, 5.88, 6.14, 6.22, and 6.18 µm for the ratios 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, and 1:7 respectively. From the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis, the magnetic properties of the sample ratio at 1:3 show the highest value of coercivity Hc of 1317 Oe, a saturation magnetization Ms of 91 emu/g, and a remnant Mr of 44 emu/g, respectively. As the temperature rises, the AC conductivity is increases with an increase in frequency.
  13. Omar NAS, Fen YW, Saleviter S, Daniyal WMEMM, Anas NAA, Ramdzan NSM, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Jun 14;12(12).
    PMID: 31207960 DOI: 10.3390/ma12121928
    The emergence of unintentional poisoning and uncontrolled vector diseases have contributed to sensor technologies development, leading to the more effective detection of diseases. In this study, we present the combination of graphene-based material with surface plasmon resonance technique. Two different graphene-based material sensor chips were prepared for rapid and quantitative detection of dengue virus (DENV) and cobalt ion (Co2+) as an example of typical metal ions. As the fundamental concept of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor that relies on the refractive index of the sensor chip surface, this research focused on the SPR signal when the DENV and Co2+ interact with the graphene-based material sensor chip. The results demonstrated that the proposed sensor-based graphene layer was able to detect DENV and Co2+ as low as 0.1 pM and 0.1 ppm respectively. Further details in the detection and quantification of analyte were also discussed in terms of sensitivity, affinity, and selectivity of the sensor.
  14. Omar NAS, Fen YW, Ramli I, Sadrolhosseini AR, Abdullah J, Yusof NA, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Feb 28;13(5).
    PMID: 33671059 DOI: 10.3390/polym13050762
    This paper proposes a novel idea to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) optical sensor for detection of dengue virus type-2 envelope proteins (DENV-2 E-proteins) using polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer biopolymer-based nanocomposite thin film. For this purpose, two ranges of DENV-2 E-protein concentrations, i.e., 0.000008-0.0001 nM and 0.00008-0.005 nM were evaluated, and the lowest detectable concentration was achieved at 0.00008 nM. The incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer-based nanocomposite thin film with an SPR sensor exhibited a significant increase in sensitivity and binding affinity to a lower range DENV-2 E-protein concentrations. Moreover, the proposed sensor displayed good selectivity towards DENV-2 E-proteins and have an average recovery of 80-120%. The findings of this study demonstrated that PAMAM dendrimer-based nanocomposite thin film combined with SPR sensor is a promising diagnostic tool for sensitive and selective detection of DENV-2 E-proteins.
  15. Anuar MF, Fen YW, Azizan MZ, Rahmat F, Mohd Zaid MH, Khaidir REM, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2021 Feb 28;14(5).
    PMID: 33670923 DOI: 10.3390/ma14051141
    Arecanut husk (AH) was selected as a material for silica replacement in the synthesis process of glass-ceramics zinc silicate and also the fact that it has no traditional use and often being dumped and results in environmental issues. The process of pyrolysis was carried out at temperature 700 °C and above based on thermogravimetric analysis to produce arecanut husk ash (AHA). The average purity of the silica content in AHA ranged from 29.17% to 45.43%. Furthermore, zinc oxide was introduced to AHA and zinc silicate started to form at sintering temperature 700 °C and showed increased diffraction intensity upon higher sintering temperature of 600 °C to 1000 °C based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The grain sizes of the zinc silicate increased from 1011 nm to 3518 nm based on the morphological studies carried out by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). In addition, the optical band gap of the sample was measured to be in the range from 2.410 eV to 2.697 eV after sintering temperature. From the data, it is believed that a cleaner production of low-cost zinc silicate can be achieved by using arecanut husk and have the potential to be used as phosphors materials.
  16. Rahmat F, Fen YW, Anuar MF, Omar NAS, Zaid MHM, Matori KA, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Feb 18;26(4).
    PMID: 33670482 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26041061
    In this paper, the structural and optical properties of ZnO-SiO2-based ceramics fabricated from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) were investigated. The OPEFB waste was burned at 600, 700 and 800 °C to form palm ash and was then treated with sulfuric acid to extract silica from the ash. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses confirmed the existence of SiO2 in the sample. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed that the particles displayed an irregular shape and became finer after leaching. Then, the solid-state method was used to produce the ZnO-SiO2 composite and the samples were sintered at 600, 800, 1000, 1200 and 1400 °C. The XRD peaks of the Zn2SiO4 showed high intensity, which indicated high crystallinity of the composite. FESEM images proved that the grain boundaries were larger as the temperature increased. Upon obtaining the absorbance spectrum from ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, the energy band gaps obtained were 3.192, 3.202 and 3.214 eV at room temperature, 600 and 800 °C, respectively, and decreased to 3.127, 2.854 and 2.609 eV at 1000, 1200 and 1400 °C, respectively. OPEFB shows high potential as a silica source in producing promising optical materials.
  17. Usman F, Dennis JO, Mkawi EM, Al-Hadeethi Y, Meriaudeau F, Fen YW, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Nov 04;12(11).
    PMID: 33158093 DOI: 10.3390/polym12112586
    To non-invasively monitor and screen for diabetes in patients, there is need to detect low concentration of acetone vapor in the range from 1.8 ppm to 5 ppm, which is the concentration range of acetone vapor in diabetic patients. This work presents an investigation for the utilization of chitosan-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor in the detection of trace concentration acetone vapor in the range of breath acetone in diabetic subjects. The structure, morphology, and elemental composition of the chitosan-PEG sensing layer were characterized using FTIR, UV-VIS, FESEM, EDX, AFM, and XPS methods. Response testing was conducted using low concentration of acetone vapor in the range of 0.5 ppm to 5 ppm using SPR technique. All the measurements were conducted at room temperature and 50 mL/min gas flow rate. The sensor showed good sensitivity, linearity, repeatability, reversibility, stability, and high affinity toward acetone vapor. The sensor also showed better selectivity to acetone compared to methanol, ethanol, and propanol vapors. More importantly, the lowest detection limit (LOD) of about 0.96 ppb confirmed the applicability of the sensor for the non-invasive monitoring and screening of diabetes.
  18. Omar NAS, Fen YW, Abdullah J, Mustapha Kamil Y, Daniyal WMEMM, Sadrolhosseini AR, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 02 11;10(1):2374.
    PMID: 32047209 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-59388-3
    In this work, sensitive detection of dengue virus type 2 E-proteins (DENV-2 E-proteins) was performed in the range of 0.08 pM to 0.5 pM. The successful DENV detection at very low concentration is a matter of concern for targeting the early detection after the onset of dengue symptoms. Here, we developed a SPR sensor based on self-assembled monolayer/reduced graphene oxide-polyamidoamine dendrimer (SAM/NH2rGO/PAMAM) thin film to detect DENV-2 E-proteins. Surface characterizations involving X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirms the incorporation of NH2rGO-PAMAM nanoparticles in the prepared sensor films. The specificity, sensitivity, binding affinity, and selectivity of the SPR sensor were then evaluated. Results indicated that the variation of the sensing layer due to different spin speed, time incubation, and concentration provided a better interaction between the analyte and sensing layer. The linear dependence of the SPR sensor showed good linearity (R2 = 0.92) with the lowest detection of 0.08 pM DENV-2 E-proteins. By using the Langmuir model, the equilibrium association constant was obtained at very high value of 6.6844 TM-1 (R2 = 0.99). High selectivity of the SPR sensor towards DENV-2 E-proteins was achieved in the presence of other competitors.
  19. Azis RS, Sulaiman S, Ibrahim IR, Zakaria A, Hassan J, Muda NNC, et al.
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2018 May 23;13(1):160.
    PMID: 29796949 DOI: 10.1186/s11671-018-2562-x
    Synthesis of nanocrystalline strontium ferrite (SrFe12O19) via sol-gel is sensitive to its modification parameters. Therefore, in this study, an attempt of regulating the pH as a sol-gel modification parameter during preparation of SrFe12O19 nanoparticles sintered at a low sintering temperature of 900 °C has been presented. The relationship of varying pH (pH 0 to 8) on structural, microstructures, and magnetic behaviors of SrFe12O19 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning microscope (FESEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Varying the pH of precursor exhibited a strong effect on the sintered density, crystal structure and magnetic properties of the SrFe12O19 nanoparticles. As the pH is 0, the SrFe12O19 produced relatively largest density, saturation magnetization, Ms, and coercivity, Hc, at a low sintering temperature of 900 °C. The grain size of SrFe12O19 is obtained in the range of 73.6 to 133.3 nm. The porosity of the sample affected the density and the magnetic properties of the SrFe12O19 ferrite. It is suggested that the low-temperature sintered SrFe12O19 at pH 0 displayed Ms of 44.19 emu/g and Hc of 6403.6 Oe, possessing a significant potential for applying in low-temperature co-fired ceramic permanent magnet.
  20. Usman F, Dennis JO, Meriaudeau F, Ahmed AY, Seong KC, Fen YW, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Sep 25;25(19).
    PMID: 32992942 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25194414
    The optical constants of Para-Toluene sulfonic acid-doped polyaniline (PANI), PANIchitosan composites, PANI-reduced graphene-oxide composites and a ternary composite comprising of PANI, chitosan and reduced graphene-oxide dispersed in diluted p-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA) solution and N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent have been evaluated and compared. The optical constant values were extracted from the absorbance spectra of thin layers of the respective samples. The potential utilization of the materials as the active sensing materials of surface plasmon resonance biosensors has also been assessed in terms of the estimated value of the penetration depth through a dielectric medium. The results show a reasonable dependence of the optical constant parameters on the solvent type. Higher real part refractive index (n) and real part complex dielectric permittivity (ε') values were observed for the samples prepared using PTSA solution, while higher optical conductivity values were observed for the NMP-based samples due to their relatively higher imaginary part refractive index (k) and imaginary part complex dielectric permittivity (ε″) values. In addition, NMP-based samples show improvement in terms of the penetration depth through a dielectric medium by around 9.5, 1.6, 4.4 and 2.9 times compared to PTSA-based samples for the PANI, PANI-chitosan, PANI-RGO and the ternary composites, respectively. Based on these, it is concluded that preparation of these materials using different dispersion solvents could produce materials of different optical properties. Thus, the variation of the dispersion solvent will allow the flexible utilization of the PANI and the composites for diverse applications.
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