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  1. Foo KL, Woo M
    Med J Malaysia, 1992 Mar;47(1):31-7.
    PMID: 1387447
    Anaesthetic experience of the first nine patients in Singapore who underwent closed embolisation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations is reported. Six patients had neurolept analgesia and three had general anaesthesia.
  2. Foo KL, Hashim U, Muhammad K, Voon CH
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2014;9(1):429.
    PMID: 25221458 DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-9-429
    Nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) with hexagonal wurtzite structures were synthesized using an easy and low-cost bottom-up hydrothermal growth technique. ZnO thin films were prepared with the use of four different solvents, namely, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and 2-methoxyethanol, and then used as seed layer templates for the subsequent growth of the ZnO NRs. The influences of the different solvents on the structural and optical properties were investigated through scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. The obtained X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the synthesized ZnO NRs were single crystals and exhibited a preferred orientation along the (002) plane. In addition, the calculated results from the specific models of the refractive index are consistent with the experimental data. The ZnO NRs that grew from the 2-methoxyethanol seeded layer exhibited the smallest grain size (39.18 nm), largest diffracted intensities on the (002) plane, and highest bandgap (3.21 eV).
  3. Ramesh T, Foo KL, R H, Sam AJ, Solayappan M
    Sci Rep, 2019 11 19;9(1):17039.
    PMID: 31745139 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-53476-9
    Detection of host integrated viral oncogenes are critical for early and point-of-care molecular diagnostics of virus-induced carcinoma. However, available diagnostic approaches are incapable of combining both cost-efficient medical diagnosis and high analytical performances. To circumvent this, we have developed an improved IDE-based nanobiosensor for biorecognition of HPV-16 infected cervical cancer cells through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The system is fabricated by coating gold (Au) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods interfaced with HPV-16 viral DNA bioreceptors on top of the Interdigitated Electrode (IDE) chips surface. Due to the concurrently improved sensitivity and biocompatibility of the designed nanohybrid film, Au decorated ZnO-Nanorod biosensors demonstrate exceptional detection of HPV-16 E6 oncogene, the cancer biomarker for HPV infected cervical cancers. This sensor displayed high levels of sensitivity by detecting as low as 1fM of viral E6 gene target. The sensor also exhibited a stable functional life span of more than 5 weeks, good reproducibility and high discriminatory properties against HPV-16. Sensor current responses are obtained from cultured cervical cancer cells which are close to clinical cancer samples. Hence, the developed sensor is an adaptable tool with high potential for clinical diagnosis especially useful for economically challenged countries/regions.
  4. Haarindraprasad R, Hashim U, Gopinath SC, Kashif M, Veeradasan P, Balakrishnan SR, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(7):e0132755.
    PMID: 26167853 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132755
    The performance of sensing surfaces highly relies on nanostructures to enhance their sensitivity and specificity. Herein, nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of various thicknesses were coated on glass and p-type silicon substrates using a sol-gel spin-coating technique. The deposited films were characterized for morphological, structural, and optoelectronic properties by high-resolution measurements. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the deposited films have a c-axis orientation and display peaks that refer to ZnO, which exhibits a hexagonal structure with a preferable plane orientation (002). The thicknesses of ZnO thin films prepared using 1, 3, 5, and 7 cycles were measured to be 40, 60, 100, and 200 nm, respectively. The increment in grain size of the thin film from 21 to 52 nm was noticed, when its thickness was increased from 40 to 200 nm, whereas the band gap value decreased from 3.282 to 3.268 eV. Band gap value of ZnO thin film with thickness of 200 nm at pH ranging from 2 to 10 reduces from 3.263eV to 3.200 eV. Furthermore, to evaluate the transducing capacity of the ZnO nanostructure, the refractive index, optoelectric constant, and bulk modulus were analyzed and correlated. The highest thickness (200 nm) of ZnO film, embedded with an interdigitated electrode that behaves as a pH-sensing electrode, could sense pH variations in the range of 2-10. It showed a highly sensitive response of 444 μAmM-1cm-2 with a linear regression of R2 =0.9304. The measured sensitivity of the developed device for pH per unit is 3.72μA/pH.
  5. Perumal V, Hashim U, Gopinath SC, Haarindraprasad R, Foo KL, Balakrishnan SR, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015 Jul 16;5:12231.
    PMID: 26178973 DOI: 10.1038/srep12231
    Hybrid gold nanostructures seeded into nanotextured zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers (NFs) were created for novel biosensing applications. The selected 'spotted NFs' had a 30-nm-thick gold nanoparticle (AuNP) layer, chosen from a range of AuNP thicknesses, sputtered onto the surface. The generated nanohybrids, characterized by morphological, physical and structural analyses, were uniformly AuNP-seeded onto the ZnO NFs with an average length of 2-3 μm. Selective capture of molecular probes onto the seeded AuNPs was evidence for the specific interaction with DNA from pathogenic Leptospirosis-causing strains via hybridization and mis-match analyses. The attained detection limit was 100 fM as determined via impedance spectroscopy. High levels of stability, reproducibility and regeneration of the sensor were obtained. Selective DNA immobilization and hybridization were confirmed by nitrogen and phosphorus peaks in an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The created nanostructure hybrids illuminate the mechanism of generating multiple-target, high-performance detection on a single NF platform, which opens a new avenue for array-based medical diagnostics.
  6. Ten ST, Hashim U, Gopinath SC, Liu WW, Foo KL, Sam ST, et al.
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2017 Jul 15;93:146-154.
    PMID: 27660016 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2016.09.035
    Surface acoustic wave mediated transductions have been widely used in the sensors and actuators applications. In this study, a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SHSAW) was used for the detection of food pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E.coli O157:H7), a dangerous strain among 225 E. coli unique serotypes. A few cells of this bacterium are able to cause young children to be most vulnerable to serious complications. Presence of higher than 1cfu E.coli O157:H7 in 25g of food has been considered as a dangerous level. The SHSAW biosensor was fabricated on 64° YX LiNbO3 substrate. Its sensitivity was enhanced by depositing 130.5nm thin layer of SiO2 nanostructures with particle size lesser than 70nm. The nanostructures act both as a waveguide as well as a physical surface modification of the sensor prior to biomolecular immobilization. A specific DNA sequence from E. coli O157:H7 having 22 mers as an amine-terminated probe ssDNA was immobilized on the thin film sensing area through chemical functionalization [(CHO-(CH2)3-CHO) and APTES; NH2-(CH2)3-Si(OC2H5)3]. The high-performance of sensor was shown with the specific oligonucleotide target and attained the sensitivity of 0.6439nM/0.1kHz and detection limit was down to 1.8femto-molar (1.8×10(-15)M). Further evidence was provided by specificity analysis using single mismatched and complementary oligonucleotide sequences.
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