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  1. Gao M, Qu K, Zhang W, Wang X
    Neuroimmunomodulation, 2021;28(2):90-98.
    PMID: 33774633 DOI: 10.1159/000513297
    INTRODUCTION: Pediatric patients with epilepsy are prone to cognitive impairments during growth and long-term use of most antiepileptic drugs (AED). The affected children do not respond to conventional AED and may require novel drugs to manage the disease. Valproic acid, a first-line drug to treat epilepsy, is associated with serious side effects, which precludes its wider use. Thus, in the present study, we intended to develop novel substituted pyrazoles.

    METHODS: The molecules were tested for anticonvulsive activity in Swiss albino mice via maximal electroshock seizure and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole assays. The most potent molecule among the class was further assayed for its effect on behavioral and CNS depressant activity. The effect of the most potent compounds was also analyzed on various indices of oxidative stress and inflammation in mice.

    RESULTS: The designed compounds showed significant anticonvulsive activity in mice revealing 7h as the most potent anticonvulsive agent. The most potent anticonvulsant molecule 7h further showed no behavioral alteration and considerable CNS depressant activity. It also reduces the level of oxidative stress and inflammation in the mice.

    CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated utility of pyrazole derivatives as anticonvulsants against epilepsy.

  2. Zhou F, Cui J, Zhou J, Yang J, Li Y, Leng Q, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2018 Aug 15;633:776-784.
    PMID: 29602116 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.217
    Atmospheric deposition nitrogen (ADN) increases the N content in soil and subsequently impacts microbial activity of soil. However, the effects of ADN on paddy soil microbial activity have not been well characterized. In this study, we studied how red paddy soil microbial activity responses to different contents of ADN through a 10-months ADN simulation on well managed pot experiments. Results showed that all tested contents of ADN fluxes (27, 55, and 82kgNha-1 when its ratio of NH4+/NO3--N (RN) was 2:1) enhanced the soil enzyme activity and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and 27kgNha-1 ADN had maximum effects while comparing with the fertilizer treatment. Generally, increasing of both ADN flux and RN (1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 with the ADN flux of 55kgNha-1) had similar reduced effects on microbial activity. Furthermore, both ADN flux and RN significantly reduced soil bacterial alpha diversity (p<0.05) and altered bacterial community structure (e.g., the relative abundances of genera Dyella and Rhodoblastus affiliated to Proteobacteria increased). Redundancy analysis demonstrated that ADN flux and RN were the main drivers in shaping paddy soil bacteria community. Overall, the results have indicated that increasing ADN flux and ammonium reduced soil microbial activity and changed the soil bacterial community. The finding highlights how paddy soil microbial community response to ADN and provides information for N management in paddy soil.
  3. Cui J, Zhou F, Gao M, Zhang L, Zhang L, Du K, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2018 Oct;241:810-820.
    PMID: 29909307 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.06.028
    Six different approaches are applied in the present study to apportion the sources of precipitation nitrogen making use of precipitation data of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, including NO3- and NH4+), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and δ15N signatures of DIN collected at six sampling sites in the mountain region of Southwest China. These approaches include one quantitative approach running a Bayesian isotope mixing model (SIAR model) and five qualitative approaches based on in-situ survey (ISS), ratio of NH4+/NO3- (RN), principal component analysis (PCA), canonical-correlation analysis (CCA) and stable isotope approach (SIA). Biomass burning, coal combustion and mobile exhausts in the mountain region are identified as major sources for precipitation DIN while biomass burning and volatilization sources such as animal husbandries are major ones for DON. SIAR model results suggest that mobile exhausts, biomass burning and coal combustion contributed 25.1 ± 14.0%, 26.0 ± 14.1% and 27.0 ± 12.6%, respectively, to NO3- on the regional scale. Higher contributions of both biomass burning and coal combustion appeared at rural and urban sites with a significant difference between Houba (rural) and the wetland site (p 
  4. Gao M, Lin Y, Wang P, Jin Y, Wang Q, Ma H, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2021 Sep 05;417:126037.
    PMID: 33992013 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126037
    Chinese liquor distillers' grain (CLDG) is an abundant industrial organic waste showing high potential as feedstock for biofuel conversion. In this study, CLDG was used as substrate by microbial community in pit mud to produce medium-chain fatty acids (especially caproate). Simulated and real fermentation were used to evaluate the effect of ethanol and lactic acid being the electronic donors (EDs) during the anaerobic chain elongation (CE). The caproate concentration was achieved at 449 mg COD/g VS, with the corresponding high carbon selectivity at 37.1%. Microbial analysis revealed that the domestication of pit mud increased the abundance of Caproiciproducens (converting lactic acid into caproate) and Lactobacillus (producing lactic acid), leading to enhanced caproate production. The lactic acid conversion facilitated in full utilization of ethanol through CE consumption. The coexistence of EDs benefited the CE system and that this green energy production can be a promising high-performance biofuel donor for sustainable industrial production development.
  5. Gao M, Sun Y, Wang Q, Ma S, Guo X, Zhou L, et al.
    PMID: 34523748 DOI: 10.1002/bab.2254
    Nanomaterial on the sensing area elevates the biomolecular immobilization by its right orientation with a proper alignment, and zeolite is one of the suitable materials. In this research, the zeolite nanoparticles were synthesized using rice hush ash as the basic source and the prepared zeolite by the addition of sodium silicate was utilized to attach antibody as a probe on a gap-fingered dielectrode surface to identify the colon cancer biomarker, "colon cancer-secreted protein-2" (CCSP-2). Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and Field Emission Transmission Electron Microscopy images confirmed the size of the nanoparticle to be ∼15 nm and the occurrence of silica and alumina. Zeolite was modified on the electrode surface through the amine linker, and then anti-CCSP-2 was attached by an aldehyde linker. On this surface, CCSP-2 was detected and attained the detection limit to be 3 nM on the linear regression curve with 3-5 nM of CCSP-2. Estimated by the determination coefficient of y = 2.3952x - 4.4869 and R2 = 9041 with 3δ (n = 3). In addition, control proteins did not produce the notable current response representing the specific sensing of CCSP-2. This research is suitable to identify CCSP-2 at a lower level in the bloodstream under the physiological condition of a colon cancer patient.
  6. Klionsky DJ, Abdel-Aziz AK, Abdelfatah S, Abdellatif M, Abdoli A, Abel S, et al.
    Autophagy, 2021 Jan;17(1):1-382.
    PMID: 33634751 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280
    In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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