Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 25 in total

  1. Keat CH, Ghani NA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(12):7701-6.
    PMID: 24460356
    BACKGROUND: In a prospective cohort study of antiemetic therapy conducted in Malaysia, a total of 94 patients received low emetogenic chemotherapy (LEC) with or without granisetron injections as the primary prophylaxis for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This study is a retrospective cost analysis of two antiemetic regimens from the payer perspective.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cost evaluation refers to 2011, the year in which the observation was conducted. Direct costs incurred by hospitals including the drug acquisition, materials and time spent for clinical activities from prescribing to dispensing of home medications were evaluated (MYR 1=$0.32 USD). As reported to be significantly different between two regimens (96.1% vs 81.0%; p=0.017), the complete response rate of acute emesis which was defined as a patient successfully treated without any emesis episode within 24 hours after LEC was used as the main indicator for effectiveness.

    RESULTS: Antiemetic drug acquisition cost per patient was 40.7 times higher for the granisetron-based regimen than for the standard regimen (MYR 64.3 vs 1.58). When both the costs for materials and clinical activities were included, the total cost per patient was 8.68 times higher for the granisetron-based regimen (MYR 73.5 vs 8.47). Considering the complete response rates, the mean cost per successfully treated patient in granisetron group was 7.31 times higher (MYR 76.5 vs 10.5). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) with granisetron-based regimen, relative to the standard regimen, was MYR 430.7. It was found to be most sensitive to the change of antiemetic effects of granisetron-based regimen.

    CONCLUSIONS: While providing a better efficacy in acute emesis control, the low incidence of acute emesis and high ICER makes use of granisetron as primary prophylaxis in LEC controversial.

  2. Md Ghani NA, Liong CY, Jemain AA
    Forensic Sci Int, 2010 May 20;198(1-3):143-9.
    PMID: 20211535 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2010.02.011
    The task of identifying firearms from forensic ballistics specimens is exacting in crime investigation since the last two decades. Every firearm, regardless of its size, make and model, has its own unique 'fingerprint'. These fingerprints transfer when a firearm is fired to the fired bullet and cartridge case. The components that are involved in producing these unique characteristics are the firing chamber, breech face, firing pin, ejector, extractor and the rifling of the barrel. These unique characteristics are the critical features in identifying firearms. It allows investigators to decide on which particular firearm that has fired the bullet. Traditionally the comparison of ballistic evidence has been a tedious and time-consuming process requiring highly skilled examiners. Therefore, the main objective of this study is the extraction and identification of suitable features from firing pin impression of cartridge case images for firearm recognition. Some previous studies have shown that firing pin impression of cartridge case is one of the most important characteristics used for identifying an individual firearm. In this study, data are gathered using 747 cartridge case images captured from five different pistols of type 9mm Parabellum Vektor SP1, made in South Africa. All the images of the cartridge cases are then segmented into three regions, forming three different set of images, i.e. firing pin impression image, centre of firing pin impression image and ring of firing pin impression image. Then geometric moments up to the sixth order were generated from each part of the images to form a set of numerical features. These 48 features were found to be significantly different using the MANOVA test. This high dimension of features is then reduced into only 11 significant features using correlation analysis. Classification results using cross-validation under discriminant analysis show that 96.7% of the images were classified correctly. These results demonstrate the value of geometric moments technique for producing a set of numerical features, based on which the identification of firearms are made.
  3. Ghani NA, Norizan SN, Chan XY, Yin WF, Chan KG
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(7):11760-9.
    PMID: 24995373 DOI: 10.3390/s140711760
    We report the degradation of quorum sensing N-acylhomoserine lactone molecules by a bacterium isolated from a Malaysian marine water sample. MALDI-TOF and phylogenetic analysis indicated this isolate BM1 clustered closely to Labrenzia sp. The quorum quenching activity of this isolate was confirmed by using a series of bioassays and rapid resolution liquid chromatography analysis. Labrenzia sp. degraded a wide range of N-acylhomoserine lactones namely N-(3-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-(3-hydroxyhexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-hydroxy-C6-HSL). Re-lactonisation bioassays confirmed Labrenzia sp. BM1 degraded these signalling molecules efficiently via lactonase activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a Labrenzia sp. capable of degrading N-acylhomoserine lactones and confirmation of its lactonase-based mechanism of action.
  4. Ghani NA, Sulaiman J, Ismail Z, Chan XY, Yin WF, Chan KG
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(4):6463-73.
    PMID: 24721765 DOI: 10.3390/s140406463
    Two microbial isolates from a Malaysian shoreline were found to be capable of degrading N-acylhomoserine lactones. Both Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry and 18S rDNA phylogenetic analyses confirmed that these isolates are Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Quorum quenching activities were detected by a series of bioassays and rapid resolution liquid chromatography analysis. The isolates were able to degrade various quorum sensing molecules namely N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-(3-hydroxyhexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-hydroxy-C6-HSL). Using a relactonisation assay to verify the quorum quenching mechanism, it is confirmed that Rh. mucilaginosa degrades the quorum sensing molecules via lactonase activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of the fact that Rh. mucilaginosa has activity against a broad range of AHLs namely C6-HSL, 3-oxo-C6-HSL and 3-hydroxy-C6-HSL.
  5. Rahman K, Ghani NA, Kamil AA, Mustafa A, Kabir Chowdhury MA
    PLoS One, 2013;8(5):e63503.
    PMID: 23691055 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063503
    Pedestrian movements are the consequence of several complex and stochastic facts. The modelling of pedestrian movements and the ability to predict the travel time are useful for evaluating the performance of a pedestrian facility. However, only a few studies can be found that incorporate the design of the facility, local pedestrian body dimensions, the delay experienced by the pedestrians, and level of service to the pedestrian movements. In this paper, a queuing based analytical model is developed as a function of relevant determinants and functional factors to predict the travel time on pedestrian facilities. The model can be used to assess the overall serving rate or performance of a facility layout and correlate it to the level of service that is possible to provide the pedestrians. It has also the ability to provide a clear suggestion on the designing and sizing of pedestrian facilities. The model is empirically validated and is found to be a robust tool to understand how well a particular walking facility makes possible comfort and convenient pedestrian movements. The sensitivity analysis is also performed to see the impact of some crucial parameters of the developed model on the performance of pedestrian facilities.
  6. Khalid R, Nawawi MK, Kawsar LA, Ghani NA, Kamil AA, Mustafa A
    PLoS One, 2013;8(4):e58402.
    PMID: 23560037 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058402
    M/G/C/C state dependent queuing networks consider service rates as a function of the number of residing entities (e.g., pedestrians, vehicles, and products). However, modeling such dynamic rates is not supported in modern Discrete Simulation System (DES) software. We designed an approach to cater this limitation and used it to construct the M/G/C/C state-dependent queuing model in Arena software. Using the model, we have evaluated and analyzed the impacts of various arrival rates to the throughput, the blocking probability, the expected service time and the expected number of entities in a complex network topology. Results indicated that there is a range of arrival rates for each network where the simulation results fluctuate drastically across replications and this causes the simulation results and analytical results exhibit discrepancies. Detail results that show how tally the simulation results and the analytical results in both abstract and graphical forms and some scientific justifications for these have been documented and discussed.
  7. Ghani NA, Ahmad R, Rahman RA, Yunus MR, Putra SP, Ramli R
    J Maxillofac Oral Surg, 2009 Dec;8(4):316-9.
    PMID: 23139535 DOI: 10.1007/s12663-009-0077-9
    Ranula is a mucous extravasation cyst which occurs as a result of trauma or obstruction of the sublingual or minor salivary gland or the duct itself.
  8. Saibul N, Shariff ZM, Lin KG, Kandiah M, Ghani NA, Rahman HA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2009;18(3):412-22.
    PMID: 19786390
    This paper reports on the presence of dual burden households in Orang Asli (OA, indigenous people) communities and its associated factors. A total of 182 OA households in two districts in Selangor with the required criteria (182 non-pregnant women of child bearing age and 284 children aged 2-9 years old) participated in the study. Height and weight of both women and children were measured. Energy intake and food variety score (FVS) were determined using three 24-hour diet recalls. While 58% were underweight and 64% of the children were stunted, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women were 31% and 20% respectively. The percentage of dual burden households (overweight mother/underweight child) was 25.8% while 14.8% households had normal weight mother/normal weight child. The mean food variety score (FVS) was similar for women (7.0+/-2.1) and children (6.9+/-1.9). Dual burden households were associated with women's employment status (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 2.65-5.66), FVS of children (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.95) and FVS of women (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.02- 1.89). The FVS of children (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.89) and women (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.64-2.77) remained significant even when dual burden households were compared to only households with normal weight mother/normal weight child. In these OA communities, food variety may predict a healthier diet in children, but may increase the risk of overweight and obesity in adults. Efforts to address households with dual burden malnutrition should consider promotion of healthy diets and lifestyle for all members.
  9. Nirmala K, Zainuddin AA, Ghani NA, Zulkifli S, Jamil MA
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res, 2009 Feb;35(1):48-54.
    PMID: 19215547 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2008.00829.x
    To compare the efficacy of a single dose of 100 microg intramuscular carbetocin to a single dose of intramuscular syntometrine (0.5 mg ergometrine and 5IU oxytocin), in preventing post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) in high risk patients following vaginal delivery.
  10. Ghani NA, Jaafar R, Ishak S, Zainuddin AA, Mukari SA, Mahdy ZA
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res, 2007 Apr;33(2):195-8.
    PMID: 17441895
    We report the case of a 25-year-old Malay woman, admitted for preterm delivery at 35 weeks' gestation. Vaginal swab did not isolate any organism. She delivered a baby girl who developed respiratory distress syndrome, requiring ventilation. Although chest radiograph showed hyaline membrane disease with pneumonia, septic workout was negative. The mother was discharged on the next day. Seven days postpartum, the mother presented with fever and fits and was diagnosed to have meningo-encephalitis. Lumbar puncture isolated group B Streptococcus (GBS) and MRI revealed a superior cerebellar abscess. She was treated and survived the episode. This case illustrates the uncommon situation where GBS infection was confirmed via maternal septic workout rather than neonatal, although both presented with severe disease.
  11. Chan HK, Hassali MA, Lim CJ, Saleem F, Ghani NA
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2016 Apr-Jun;14(2):699.
    PMID: 27382422 DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2016.02.699
    BACKGROUND: Inadequacies of drug labeling have been frequently reported among Malaysian healthcare institutes, in which the Hospital Information System (HIS) is used.
    OBJECTIVE: To identify potential areas to improve the existing labels used for pediatric liquid medications.
    METHODS: This study was qualitative in nature, whereby focus group discussions (FGDs), face-to-face interviews (FTFIs), and onsite observation were used for data collection. Pharmacists stationed at three units (outpatient, inpatient and clinical pharmacy) of a tertiary hospital were targeted. Both FGDs and FTFIs were facilitated using a semi-structured interview guide, video-recorded and transcribed verbatim. All transcripts were thematically analyzed using content analysis approach.
    RESULTS: Thirteen pharmacists participated in FGDs, while five were approached for FTFIs. Data analysis resulted in four major themes: format of labels, presentation of medication instructions, insufficiency of information, and the need for external aids and education. Participants unanimously agreed on the need for enlarging font sizes of key information. Suggestions were made to use more specific instructions for administration times and pictograms to illustrate important directions. The absence of information about storage, stability and handling of liquid medications was also highlighted. While discussion mainly focused on improving drug labeling, participants consistently stressed the need for an instruction sheet and pharmacist-based, one-to-one education regarding medication instructions.
    CONCLUSION: This study provides important insights into critical shortcomings in current labeling practice, underlying the need for developing a new label that incorporates a new format, additional information and pictograms for pediatric liquid medications.
    KEYWORDS: Child; Drug labeling; Hospital; Hospital Information Systems; Malaysia; Medication Errors; Pharmacy Service
  12. Ewa-Choy YW, Pingguan-Murphy B, Abdul-Ghani NA, Jahendran J, Chua KH
    Biomater Res, 2017;21:19.
    PMID: 29075508 DOI: 10.1186/s40824-017-0105-7
    BACKGROUND: The three-dimensional (3D) system is one of the important factors to engineer a biocompatible and functional scaffold for the applications of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. The 3D alginate hydrogels system has previously been shown to potentially promote chondrogenesis. The chondrocytic differentiation of co-cultured adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and nasal chondrocytes (NCs) within alginate constructs are hypothesized to be influenced by concentration of alginate hydrogel. In this study, we evaluated the effects of alginate concentration on chondrogenic differentiation of ADSCs and NCs co-cultured in a biological approach.

    METHOD: The co-cultured cells of 2:1 ADSCs-to-NCs ratio were encapsulated in alginate constructs in one of three concentrations (1.0%, 1.2% and 1.5%) and cultured under serum free conditions for 7 days. Cell viability, cell proliferation, immunohistochemical, gycosaminogylycans (GAG) synthesis, and gene expression were examined.

    RESULTS: Overall, the 1.2% alginate concentration group was relatively effective in chondrocytic differentiation in comparable to other groups. The cell morphology, cell viability, and cell proliferation revealed initial chondrogenic differentiation by the formation of cell clusters as well as the high permeability for exchange of solutes. The formation of newly synthesis cartilage-specific extracellular matrix in 1.2% group was demonstrated by positive immunohistochemical staining of collagen type II. The co-cultured cells in 1.2% group highly expressed COL II, ACP and SOX-9, compared to 1.0% and 1.5% groups, denote the retention of cartilaginous-specific phenotype by suppressing the undifferentiation stem cell markers of SOX-2 and OCT-4. The study showed 1.2% group was less likely to differentiate towards osteogenesis by downregulating hyperthrophy chondrocytic gene of COL X and osseous marker genes of OSC and OSP.

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that variations in the alginate concentration of co-cultured ADSCs and NCs influenced the chondrogenesis. The remarkable biological performance on chondrogenic differentiation in regulating the concentration of alginate 3D culture provides new insights into the cell cross-talk and demonstrates the effectiveness in regenerative therapies of cartilage defects in tissue engineering.

  13. Abdul Ghani NA, Mohd Abdullah AAB, Abdul Hamid S, Yuhana MY, Ramli N
    Eur J Ophthalmol, 2020 Oct 19.
    PMID: 33070639 DOI: 10.1177/1120672120965499
    BACKGROUND: Deep cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a reversible yet potentially serious thromboembolic event. A number of reports suggest a relationship between long-haul flights and thromboembolic events, mainly deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). It is rarely reported to cause deep cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. We report a case of a bilateral papilledema after long-haul flight secondary to deep cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with subsequent complete recovery post corticosteroid and anticoagulant therapy.

    CASE: A case of a 21-year-old woman with no known medical illness who presented with gradual painless bilateral visual loss is described. She had a history of travelling on a long-haul flight 3 weeks prior to presentation. Examination showed presence of bilateral papilloedema, no vitritis, choroiditis and retinitis. Blood investigations showed raised international normalised ratio (INR). Otherwise, workup for infectious causes of optic disc swelling, connective tissue disease screening were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) of the brain showed loss of flow signal in the right transverse sinus and the left sigmoid sinus. Blood workup for preexisting hypercoagulable state was normal. She was diagnosed with deep cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and showed complete recovery with oral corticosteroid and anticoagulant therapy.

    CONCLUSION: Deep cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a potentially serious consequence of long-haul flights. A high index of suspicion along with radiological techniques is needed for early detection and initiation of anticoagulation for this reversible condition.

  14. Basri NI, Soon CH, Ali A, Abdul Ghani NA, Zainuddin AA
    PMID: 33675193 DOI: 10.1515/hmbci-2021-0001
    OBJECTIVES: We compared cases of phenotypic female patients who presented with male karyotype and underwent prophylactic gonadectomy.

    CASE PRESENTATION: Five patients with female phenotypes presented in early adulthood with primary amenorrhoea with varying degrees of puberty. One was tall with breast development. Another was very short with clitoromegaly and multiple co-morbidities. The other three had no secondary sexual characteristics. They were examined, after which hormonal profile, karyotyping, ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging were done to assess the site of gonads. Gonadectomy was performed once their 46 XY karyotype was confirmed. Results of histopathological examination of their gonads ranged from dysgenetic gonads to having testicular tissues and malignancy.

    CONCLUSION: Female patients with 46 XY karyotypes require prophylactic gonadectomy performed at different timings depending on diagnosis due to the malignancy risk. Pre-operative assessment is essential to locate the gonads prior to surgery.

  15. Ghani NA, Shohaimi S, Hee AK, Chee HY, Emmanuel O, Alaba Ajibola LS
    Trop Med Infect Dis, 2019 Feb 15;4(1).
    PMID: 30781369 DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed4010037
    BACKGROUND: Dengue has affected more than one-third of the world population and Malaysia has recorded an increase in the number of dengue cases since 2012. Selangor state recorded the highest number of dengue cases in Malaysia. Most of the dengue infections occur among people living in hotspot areas of dengue. This study aims to compare Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among communities living in hotspot and non-hotspot dengue areas.

    METHOD: Communities living in 20 hotspot and 20 non-hotspot areas in Selangor were chosen in this study where 406 participants were randomly selected to answer questionnaires distributed at their housing areas. Total marks of each categories were compared using t-test.

    RESULT: Results show that there were significant mean differences in marks in Knowledge (p value: 0.003; 15.41 vs. 14.55) and Attitude (p value: < 0.001; 11.41 vs. 10.33), but not Practice (p value 0.101; 10.83 vs. 10.47) categories between communities of non-hotspot and hotspot areas. After considering two confounding variables which are education level and household income, different mean marks are found to be significant in Knowledge when education level acts as a covariate and Attitude when both act as covariates.

    CONCLUSION: Overall results show that people living in non-hotspot areas had better knowledge and attitude than people living in hotspot areas, but no difference was found in practice. This suggests that public health education should be done more frequently with people with a low education background and low household income, especially in hotspot areas to fight dengue outbreak and make dengue cases decrease effectively.

  16. Khoo TS, Jamal R, Abdul Ghani NA, Alauddin H, Hussin NH, Abdul Murad NA
    Stem Cell Rev Rep, 2020 04;16(2):251-261.
    PMID: 32016780 DOI: 10.1007/s12015-020-09956-x
    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 marked a major breakthrough in regenerative medicine, enabling reversal of terminally differentiated somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells. The embryonic stem (ES) cells-like pluripotency and unlimited self-renewal capability of iPS cells have granted them enormous potential in many applications, particularly regenerative therapy. Unlike ES cells, however, iPS cells exhibit somatic memories which were carried over from the tissue of origin thus limited its translation in clinical applications. This review provides an updated overview of the retention of various somatic memories associated with the cellular identity, age and metabolism of tissue of origin in iPS cells. The influence of cell types, stage of maturation, age and various other factors on the retention of somatic memory has been discussed. Recent evidence of somatic memory in the form of epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolic signatures and its functional manifestations in both in vitro and in vivo settings also have been reviewed. The increasing number of studies which had adopted isogenic cell lines for comparisons in recent years had facilitated the identification of genuine somatic memories. These memories functionally affect iPS cells and its derivatives and are potentially tumorigenic thus, raising concerns on their safety in clinical application. Various approaches for memory erasure had since being reported and their efficacies were highlighted in this review.
  17. Basri NI, Abd Ghani NA, Mahdy ZA, Abdul Manaf MR, Mohamed Ismail NA
    Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig, 2020 Apr 17;41(3).
    PMID: 32304300 DOI: 10.1515/hmbci-2019-0069
    Background The objective was to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of mefenamic acid and celecoxib in women with primary dysmenorrhea (PD) and to compare the quality of life of study participants pre- and post-treatment. Materials and methods This was a randomized crossover clinical trial conducted among sexually inactive female adults aged 18-25 years with PD. Participants were asked to rate their pain score and answer a validated quality of life questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L) before and after consumption of each medication in two menstrual cycles. The effectiveness of celecoxib and mefenamic acid in treating PD was compared with regard to reduction in pain score and the need for medical leave and rescue therapy. Drug tolerability was determined by comparing the occurrence of side effects of both drugs. Quality of life scores pre- and post-intervention were measured and compared. Results Mefenamic acid had a comparable effect to celecoxib in relieving symptoms of PD. Both drugs were equally tolerable and showed similar impacts on quality of life. Conclusions This study demonstrated that mefenamic acid and celecoxib had similar effectiveness in improving pain score and quality of life in women with PD.
  18. Ng BK, Lim PS, Shafiee MN, Ghani NA, Ismail NA, Omar MH, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:587438.
    PMID: 24073412 DOI: 10.1155/2013/587438
    Objective. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of placental alpha microglobulin-1 assay and standard diagnostic methods for detecting rupture of membrane. Study Design. Prospective diagnostic study, between June 2011 to November 2011 at a tertiary centre. Initial evaluation included both the standard diagnostic methods for rupture of membranes and placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay. The actual rupture of membranes was diagnosed on review of the medical records after delivery (absence of membrane or a positive pad chart). Main Outcome Measures. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay and standard diagnostic methods for diagnosis of rupture of membrane. Results. A total of 211 patients were recruited. At initial presentation, 187 patients (88.6%) had ruptured membranes, while 24 patients (11.4%) had intact membranes. Placental alpha microglobulin-1 immunoassay confirmed rupture of membranes at initial presentation with a sensitivity of 95.7% (179 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (179 of 179), and negative predictive value of 75.0% (24 of 32). By comparison, the conventional standard diagnostic methods had a sensitivity of 78.1% (146 of 187), specificity of 100% (24 of 24), positive predictive value of 100% (146 of 146), and negative predictive value of 36.9% (24 of 65) in diagnosing rupture of membrane. Conclusion. Placental alpha-microglobulin-1 immunoassay is a rapid and accurate method for confirming the diagnosis of rupture of membrane. It was superior to conventional standard diagnostic methods (pooling, nitrazine, and ferning), the nitrazine test alone or fern test alone.
  19. Quraishi KS, Bustam MA, Krishnan S, Aminuddin NF, Azeezah N, Ghani NA, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2017 Oct;184:642-651.
    PMID: 28624742 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.06.037
    A promising method of Carbon dioxide (CO2) valorization is to use green microalgae photosynthesis to process biofuel. Two Phase Partitioning Bioreactors (TPPBR) offer the possibility to use non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) to enhance CO2 solubility; thus making CO2 available to maximize algae growth. This requires relatively less toxic hydrophobic Ionic Liquids (ILs) that comprise a new class of ionic compounds with remarkable physicochemical properties and thus qualifies them as NAPL candidates. This paper concerns the synthesis of ILs with octyl and butyl chains as well as different cations containing aromatic (imidazolium, pyridinium) and non-aromatic (piperidinum, pyrrolidinium) rings for CO2 absorption studies. The authors measured their respective toxicity levels on microalgae species, specifically, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii. Results revealed that octyl-based ILs were more toxic than butyl-based analogues. Such was the case for bmim-PF6 at double saturation with an absorbance of 0.11, compared to Omim-PF6 at 0.17, bmim-NTf2 at 0.02, and Omim-NTf2 at 0.14, respectively. CO2 uptake results for ILs bearing octyl-based chains compared to the butyl analog were 54% (nCO2/nIL) (i.e., moles of CO2 moles of IL) and 38% (nCO2/nIL), respectively. Conclusively, 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium absorbed 13% (nCO2/nIL) and appeared the least toxic, having an absorbance of 0.25 at 688 nm (double saturation at 7 d) compared to 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium, which showed the highest toxicity with zero absorbance. Accordingly, these findings suggest that 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium is capable of transporting CO2 to a system containing green microalgae without causing significant harm; thus allowing its use in TPPBR technology.
  20. Zakaria S, Mat-Husain SZ, Ying-Hwey K, Xin-Kai K, Mohd-Badawi A, Abd-Ghani NA, et al.
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2017 Dec;20(12):1360-1367.
    PMID: 29238472 DOI: 10.22038/IJBMS.2017.9610
    Objectives: Alcohol consumption induces oxidative stress on bone, which in turn increases the risk of osteoporosis. This study determined the effects of vitamin E on bone strength and bone mineral content in alcohol-induced osteoporotic rats.

    Materials and Methods: Three months old Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: (I) control group; (II) alcohol (3g/kg) + normal saline; (III) alcohol (3g/kg) + olive oil; (IV) alcohol (3g/kg) + alpha-tocopherol (60mg/kg) and (V) alcohol (3g/kg) + palm vitamin E (60mg/kg). The treatment lasted for three months. Following sacrifice, the right tibia was subjected to bone biomechanical test while the lumbar (fourth and fifth lumbar) and left tibia bones were harvested for bone mineral measurement.

    Results: Alcohol caused reduction in bone biomechanical parameters (maximum force, ultimate stress, yield stress and Young's modulus) and bone minerals (bone calcium and magnesium) compared to control group (P<0.05). Palm vitamin E was able to improve bone biomechanical parameters by increasing the maximum force, ultimate stress and Young's modulus (P<0.05) while alpha-tocopherol was not able to. Both alpha-tocopherol and palm vitamin E were able to significantly increase tibia calcium and magnesium content while only alpha-tocopherol caused significant increase in lumbar calcium content (P<0.05).

    Conclusion: Both palm vitamin E and alpha-tocopherol improved bone mineral content which was reduced by alcohol. However, only palm vitamin E was able to improve bone strength in alcohol treated rats.

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