METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on children with infantile esotropia aged 8-17 years old and their parents/guardians who attended two tertiary hospitals with a paediatric ophthalmology service from 2017 to 2018. The patients and parents answered the Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire (IXTQ), translated into Malay, at the time of enrolment and three months after the surgery.
RESULTS: Thirty-four children and one (each) of their parents/guardians were enrolled. Thirteen (38.2%) children had esotropia with angles of deviation of more than 50 prism dioptres. A total of 33 (97.1%) children achieved successful alignment correction three months after surgery. Surgery significantly improved the total mean scores of the children, which were 62.87 (17.05) preoperatively and 87.13 (13.26) postoperatively (p<0.001). There was statistically improvement in the total mean scores in the parent/guardian group, which was 37.07 (22.01) preoperatively and 75.39 (22.09) postoperatively (p<0.001). The parents/guardians functional, psychosocial and surgery subscales also had a significant increment in the score postoperatively (p<0.001). Older children and children with poorer visual acuity on presentation had a lower score preoperatively, while girls scored better postoperatively (p<0.05). Mothers scored significantly lower preoperatively and postoperatively (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Surgery significantly improved the HRQoL score in Malaysian children with infantile esotropia and their parents/guardians. The score was significantly higher in female children after the surgery. Mothers exhibited poor scores before and after surgery.
METHODS: A total of 760 voluntary donors who attended the Blood Bank, Penang Hospital or offsite blood donation campaigns from April to May 2014 were recruited. The ABO and RhD blood groups were determined by the conventional tile method and the solid phase method, in which the tube method was used as the gold standard.
RESULTS: For ABO blood grouping, the tile method has shown 100% concordance results with the gold standard tube method, whereas the solid-phase method only showed concordance result for 754/760 samples (99.2%). Therefore, for ABO grouping, tile method has 100% sensitivity and specificity while the solid phase method has slightly lower sensitivity of 97.7% but both with good specificity of 100%. For RhD grouping, both the tile and solid phase methods have grouped one RhD positive specimen as negative each, thus giving the sensitivity and specificity of 99.9% and 100% for both methods respectively.
CONCLUSION: The 'InTec Blood Grouping Test Kit' is suitable for offsite usage because of its simplicity and user friendliness. However, further improvement in adding the internal quality control may increase the test sensitivity and validity of the test results.
Materials and Methods: We examined RANKL expression in 39 patients (21 males, 18 females) by immunohistochemistry. Four patients (10%) were presented with tumor recurrence, eight patients (20%) were complicated with lung metastasis, and two patients (5%) were presented with both recurrence and lung metastasis. Positive RANKL expression was assessed according to a scoring system evaluating the percentage of the immunostained epithelial area and the staining intensity. The cumulative score was calculated to determine the final score value. Data were analyzed using PASW version 18.0 and independent t-test between nonrecurrence/recurrence groups, and nonlung metastasis/lung metastasis groups. Significance was set at P < 0.05.
Results: Thirty-two patients (82%) scored 3 in RANKL-staining percentage from whole stromal cell population (>75%), 6 patients scored 2, and 1 patient scored 1. Nine patients (23%) scored 3 in RANKL-staining intensity (most intense), 19 patients (48%) scored 2, and 11 patients (29%) scored 1. Twenty six patients (67%) had strong RANKL expression (total score of 5-6), 12 patients (31%) showed moderate score (3-4) whereas only 1 patient (2%) showed weak RANKL expression. Together, the mean value of RANKL-staining percentage was 2.79, intensity 1.95 and the total score 4.77. The mean RANKL-staining percentage between recurrence and nonrecurrence groups was statistically significant (P = 0.009). There was no significant difference in the mean staining intensity and total score between nonrecurrence and recurrence groups, and staining percentage staining intensity and a total cumulative score of RANKL expression between lung metastasis and nonlung metastasis groups.
Conclusion: RANKL expression is generally high in Stage III GCT and is a reliable prognostic marker in predicting the risk of local recurrence however not in lung metastasis.