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  1. Wafa SW, Ghazalli R
    PLoS One, 2020;15(4):e0232000.
    PMID: 32330177 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0232000
    With the on-going interest in implementing school policies to address the problem of childhood obesity in Malaysia, there is urgent need for information about the association between school environment and children's weight status. This study aims to investigate the association between school environmental factors (physical, economic, political and sociocultural) with BMI of school children in Terengganu. The school environment factors were assessed using a set of validated whole-school environmental mapping questionnaires, consisting of 76 criteria with four domains; physical environment (41 criteria), economic environment (nine criteria), political environment (nine criteria) and sociocultural environment (17 criteria). This involved face-to-face interview sessions with 32 teachers from 16 schools (eight rural and eight urban). In addition, 400 school children aged between 9 and 11 years of the selected schools were assessed for BMI (WHO 2007 reference chart), dietary intake (food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)) and physical activity level (physical activity questionnaire for children (PAQ-C)). Multiple regression was used to examine the association between school environment factors and BMI of the school children. Seven school environment criteria were found to be associated with BMI of school children when it was adjusted for calorie intake and physical activity level. About 33.4% of the variation in BMI of school children was explained by health professional involvement, simple exercise before class, encouragement to walk/ride bicycle to/from school, no high-calorie food sold, healthy options of foods and drinks at tuck shop, availability of policy on physical activity and training teacher as a role model. Policy makers should make urgent actions to address the obesogenic features of school environments. It should strive towards setting up healthy school environment and improving school curricula to promote healthy behaviours among the school children.
  2. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Ghazalli R, Chua CT
    Malays J Pathol, 1999 Jun;21(1):59-62.
    PMID: 10879280
    A 31-year-old Malay female presented with nephrotic syndrome without renal impairment. Renal biopsy features were in keeping with immunotactoid glomerulopathy (ITG). Non-Congophilic deposits were seen causing thickening of the glomerular capillary basement membrane with segmental accentuation, and widening of the mesangium. Immunofluorescence examination showed moderate amounts of IgG and C3 in the glomerular capillary walls with some in the mesangium. Ultrastructurally, 20-nm thick fibrils with microtubular organisation were present predominantly in the subendothelial region with similar fibrils in the mesangium. Although immunotactoid glomerulopathy and fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FG) have been recognised as entities with extracellular fibrillary material in the kidney, to date much remains to be clarified regarding these 2 conditions. While the renal biopsy findings in this patient are consistent with ITG, her clinical presentation is unlike that of usual ITG in that she is of a much younger age and has no associated haemopoietic disorder. Response to initial treatment of 8 weeks of prednisolone therapy was poor.
  3. Ong LM, Lim TO, Hooi LS, Morad Z, Tan PC, Wong HS, et al.
    Perit Dial Int, 2003 Dec;23 Suppl 2:S139-43.
    PMID: 17986534
    OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we undertook to establish therapeutic equivalence with respect to peritonitis and technique failure between the Carex disconnect system (B. Braun Carex, Mirandola, Italy) and the standard Ultra system (Baxter Healthcare, Tokyo, Japan) in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD).

    DESIGN: This multicenter, parallel group, randomized controlled trial involved 363 prevalent CAPD patients from 8 centers. The primary endpoint was peritonitis rate; secondary endpoints were technique failure and technical problems encountered. The duration of the evaluation was 1 year.

    RESULTS: The risk of peritonitis on Carex varied between the centers. We found a significant treatment-center interaction effect (likelihood ratio test: p = 0.03). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of peritonitis on Carex as compared with Ultra ranged from 0.4 to 7.2. In two centers, Carex was inferior to Ultra with regard to peritonitis; but, in five centers, the results were inconclusive. Equivalence was not demonstrated in any center. The overall rate of peritonitis in the Carex group was twice that in the Ultra group [IRR: 2.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.51 to 3.14]. Technique failure and technical problems were more common with the Carex system. Technique failure rate at 1 year was 44% in the Carex group and 22% in the Ultra group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Equivalence between the Carex disconnect system and the Ultra disconnect system could not be demonstrated. The risk of peritonitis on Carex varied significantly between centers.

  4. Ong LM, Hooi LS, Lim TO, Goh BL, Ahmad G, Ghazalli R, et al.
    Nephrology (Carlton), 2005 Oct;10(5):504-10.
    PMID: 16221103 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1797.2005.00444.x
    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil in the induction therapy of proliferative lupus nephritis.
    METHODS: Forty-four patients from eight centres with newly diagnosed lupus nephritis World Health Organization class III or IV were randomly assigned to either mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) 2 g/day for 6 months or intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVC) 0.75-1 g/m(2) monthly for 6 months in addition to corticosteroids.
    RESULTS: Remission occurred in 13 out of 25 patients (52%) in the IVC group and 11 out of 19 patients (58%) in the MMF group (P = 0.70). There were 12% in the IVC group and 26% in the MMF group that achieved complete remission (P = 0.22). Improvements in haemoglobin, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum albumin, serum complement, proteinuria, urinary activity, renal function and the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index score were similar in both groups. Twenty-four follow-up renal biopsies at the end of therapy showed a significant reduction in the activity score in both groups. The chronicity index increased in both groups but was only significant in the IVC group. Adverse events were similar. Major infections occurred in three patients in each group. There was no difference in gastrointestinal side-effects.
    CONCLUSIONS: MMF in combination with corticosteroids is an effective induction therapy for moderately severe proliferative lupus nephritis.
  5. Ong LM, Narayanan P, Goh HK, Manocha AB, Ghazali A, Omar M, et al.
    Nephrology (Carlton), 2013 Mar;18(3):194-200.
    PMID: 23311404 DOI: 10.1111/nep.12029
    The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of oral paricalcitol with oral calcitriol for treating secondary hyperparathyroidism.
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