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  1. Huang D, Guo W, Gao J, Chen J, Olatunji JO
    Molecules, 2015;20(9):17405-28.
    PMID: 26393569 DOI: 10.3390/molecules200917405
    Clinacanthans nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau is a popular medicinal vegetable in Southern Asia, and its extracts have displayed significant anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism for this effect has yet to be established. This study investigated the antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of C. nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau 30% ethanol extract (CN30) in vivo. CN30 was prepared and its main components were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). CN30 had a significant inhibitory effect on tumor volume and weight. Hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining and TUNEL assay revealed that hepatoma cells underwent significant apoptosis with CN30 treatment, while expression levels of proliferation markers PCNA and p-AKT were significantly decreased when treated with low or high doses of CN30 treatment. Western blot analysis of PAPR, caspase-3, BAX, and Bcl2 also showed that CN30 induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, intracellular staining analysis showed that CN30 treatment increased the number of IFN-γ⁺ T cells and decreased the number of IL-4⁺ T cells. Serum IFN-γ and interleukin-2 levels also significantly improved. Our findings indicated that CN30 demonstrated antitumor properties by up-regulating the immune response, and warrants further evaluation as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment and prevention of cancers.
  2. Guo W, Wu X, Li Y, Gao J, Wang F, Jin Y, et al.
    J Drug Target, 2019 Apr 04.
    PMID: 30943812 DOI: 10.1080/1061186X.2019.1601199
    The present study evaluated biochemical as well as biophysical mechanisms behind the synergistic effects of curcumin and resveratrol during prostate carcinogenesis.

    METHODS: The rats were segregated into five groups that included normal control, 3,2'-dimethyl4amino
biphenyl (DMAB)
treated, DMAB + curcumin treated, DMAB + resveratrol treated and DMAB + curcumin + resveratrol treated.

    RESULTS: The DMAB treatment resulted in a significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation [LPO] in DMAB treated rats. Also, significant changes were recorded in the enzyme activities of both drug metabolizing enzyme and antioxidant enzymes after DMAB treatment. Further, radiorespirometric studies showed a significant increase in the 14C-glucose turnover as well as 14C-gulcose uptake in the prostate slices of DMAB treated rats. Moreover, a significant rise in the cell proliferation was confirmed indirectly by enhanced uptake of 3H-thymidine in the prostate slices of DMAB treated rats. Interestingly, combined treatment of curcumin and resveratrol to DMAB treated animals resulted in a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation, 14C glucose uptakes/turnover and 3H-thymidine uptake in the DMAB treated rats. Besides this, curcumin and resveratrol in combination significantly modulated biochemical indices including drug-metabolizing enzymes; antioxidant enzymes in DMBA treated rats.

    CONCLUSION: The study, therefore, concludes that the combination of curcumin and resveratrol holds strong modulatory potential against prostate carcinogenesis.

  3. Zhang Y, Xu W, Guo H, Zhang Y, He Y, Lee SH, et al.
    Cancer Res., 2017 Apr 17.
    PMID: 28416482 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-1633
    Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are thought to drive tumor initiation, metastasis, relapse and therapeutic resistance, but their specific pathogenic characters in many cancers including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have yet to be well defined. Here we develop findings that the growth factor HGF promotes CSC sphere formation in NSCLC cell populations. In patient-derived sphere-forming assays (PD-SFA) with HGF, CD49f and CD104 were defined as novel markers of lung CSC (LCSC). In particular, we isolated a subpopulation of CD166(+)CD49f(hi)CD104(-)Lin(-) LCSC present in all human specimens of NSCLC examined, regardless of their histological subtypes or genetic driver mutations. This specific cell population was tumorigenic and capable of self-renewal, giving rise to tumor spheres in vitro and orthotopic lung tumors in immune-compromised mice. Mechanistic investigations established that NOTCH1 was preferentially expressed in this cell subpopulation and required for self-renewal via the transcription factor HES1. Through a distinct HES1-independent pathway, NOTCH1 also protected LCSCs from cisplatin-induced cell death. Notably, treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor that blunts NOTCH1 function ablated self-renewing LCSC activity and restored platinum sensitivity in vitro and in vivo Overall, our results define the pathogenic characters of a cancer stem-like subpopulation in lung cancer, the targeting of which may relieve platinum resistance in this disease.
  4. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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