Displaying all 19 publications

  1. Yuen CW,, Halim MA,, Najimudin N,, Azzam G,
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a brain disease attributed to the accumulation of extracellular senile plaques comprising β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). In this study, a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) containing the human beta amyloid Aβ42 gene which exhibited paralysis when expressed, was used to study the anti-paralysis effect of salvianolic acid A. Various concentrations ranging from 1 μg/ml to 100 μg/ml of salvianolic acid A were tested which exhibited the highest effect on the worm at the concentration of 100 μg/ml. For anti-aggregation effect, 14 μg/ml of salvianolic acid A (within 4 mg/ml of Danshen) showed a significant level of inhibition of the formation of Aβ fibrils. An amount of 100 μg/ml of salvianolic acid A had the potential in reducing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) but did not totally obliterate the ROS production in the worms. Salvianolic acid A was found to delay the paralysis of the transgenic C. elegans, decrease Aβ42 aggregation and decrease Aβ-induced oxidative stress.
  2. Azlan A, Halim MA, Azzam G
    Genomics, 2020 03;112(2):1273-1281.
    PMID: 31381967 DOI: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2019.07.016
    The free-living flatworm Macrostoma lignano (M. lignano) is an emerging model organism for aging and regeneration research. Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) have important roles in many biological processes such as aging, stem cell maintenance and differentiation. However, to date, there is no systematic identification of lincRNAs in M. lignano. By using public RNA-seq data, we identified a total of 2547 lincRNA transcripts in M. lignano genome. We discovered that M. lignano lincRNAs shared many characteristics with other species such as shorter in length, lower GC content, and lower in expression compared to protein-coding genes. Unlike protein-coding genes, M. lignano lincRNAs showed higher tendency to be expressed in temporal and region-specific fashion. Additionally, co-expression network analysis and functional enrichment suggest that M. lignano lincRNAs have potential roles in regeneration. This study will provide important resources and pave the way for investigations on non-coding genes involved in aging and regeneration.
  3. Rozali A, Khairuddin H, Mohd Sidik S, Halim MA, Mohd Zin B, Sulaiman A
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jun;63(2):91-5.
    PMID: 18942290
    This paper describes the pattern of diving accidents treated in a military hospital-based recompression chamber facility in Peninsular Malaysia. A retrospective study was carried out to utilize secondary data from the respective hospital medical records from 1st January 1996 to 31st December 2004. A total of 179 cases categorized as diving accidents received treatment with an average of 20 cases per year. Out of 179 cases, 96.3% (n = 173) received recompression treatment. Majority were males (93.3%), civilians (87.2%) and non-Malaysian citizens (59.2%). Commercial diving activities contributed the highest percentage of diving accidents (48.0%), followed by recreational (39.2%) and military (12.8%). Diving accidents due to commercial diving (n = 86) were mainly contributed by underwater logging activities (87.2%). The most common cases sustained were decompression illness (DCI) (96.1%). Underwater logging and recreational diving activities which contribute to a significant number of diving accidents must be closely monitored. Notification, centralised data registration, medical surveillance as well as legislations related to diving activities in Malaysia are essential to ensure adequate monitoring of diving accidents in the future.
  4. Azlan A, Halim MA, Mohamad F, Azzam G
    Insect Sci, 2021 Aug;28(4):917-928.
    PMID: 32621332 DOI: 10.1111/1744-7917.12847
    The Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) is an important vector that transmit multiple diseases including West Nile encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis and lymphatic filariasis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) involve in many biological processes such as development, infection, and virus-host interaction. However, there is no systematic identification and characterization of lncRNAs in Cx. quinquefasciatus. Here, we report the first lncRNA identification in Cx. quinquefasciatus. By using 31 public RNA-seq datasets, a total of 4763 novel lncRNA transcripts were identified, of which 3591, 569, and 603 were intergenic, intronic, and antisense respectively. Examination of genomic features revealed that Cx. quinquefasciatus shared similar characteristics with other species such as short in length, low GC content, low sequence conservation, and low coding potential. Furthermore, compared to protein-coding genes, Cx. quinquefasciatus lncRNAs had lower expression values, and tended to be expressed in temporally specific fashion. In addition, weighted correlation network and functional annotation analyses showed that lncRNAs may have roles in blood meal acquisition of adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. This study presents the first systematic identification and analysis of Cx. quinquefasciatus lncRNAs and their association with blood feeding. Results generated from this study will facilitate future investigation on the function of Cx. quinquefasciatus lncRNAs.
  5. Zarkasi KZ, Halim MA, Nazari TF, Daud F
    Data Brief, 2018 Aug;19:514-519.
    PMID: 29900350 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.05.052
    This article contains data on the bacterial communities and its diversity associated with Anadara granosa. The A. granosa samples were obtained from two major estuaries in Penang, Malaysia using a culture dependent and 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing approaches. A. granosa, a commercial blood cockles and popular seafoods, is fragile to the surrounding environments. Thus, our research focused to better understand the bacterial communities and it diversity in the A. granosa, as well as on the generation of a metagenomic library from A. granosa to further understanding on it diversity. The bacteria Vibrionaceae (34.1%) was predominant in the A. granosa from both environments followed by Enterobacteriaceae (33.3%) and Bacillaceae (16.75%). Vibrio sp., Klebsiella sp., and Bacillus subtilis were the most abundant species present. The data generated in this research is the first metagenomic examination of A. granosa and will provide as a baseline to understand the bacterial communities associated with A. granosa and its surrounding natural environments.
  6. Bajgiran M, Azlan A, Shamsuddin S, Azzam G, Halim MA
    Data Brief, 2021 Oct;38:107413.
    PMID: 34632013 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2021.107413
    Ageing is defined as gradual decline of physiological, cellular and molecular state of an organism with time. The age-associated cell dysfunctions usually cause chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancers and other age-related diseases. Many of the genes and pathways involved in ageing are conserved in different species. These genes and pathways have been categorised into nine cellular and molecular hallmarks, namely, genomic instability, telomere attrition, loss of proteostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, epigenetic alterations, deregulated nutrient sensing, stem cell exhaustion, cellular senescence and altered intercellular communication. Despite countless studies on ageing, the molecular mechanism of ageing is poorly understood. Here, we performed genome wide transcriptome mapping of ageing process in D. melanogaster. In which, transcriptomic analysis conducted on the 1 day and 60 days flies. Illumina Hiseq platform were used to generate raw data. Afterwards, further analysis including differential expression analysis, GO classification and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed. The raw data were uploaded to SRA database and the BioProject ID is PRJNA718442. These data provide the basis for future research in order to discover the genes and pathways involved in ageing.
  7. Halim MA, Rahman AY, Sim KS, Yam HC, Rahim AA, Ghazali AH, et al.
    Genome Announc, 2016;4(1).
    PMID: 26893411 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00005-16
    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus durus type strain ATCC 35681, which can fix atmospheric nitrogen even in the presence of nitrate.
  8. Halim MA, Tan FHP, Azlan A, Rasyid II, Rosli N, Shamsuddin S, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2020 May;27(3):7-19.
    PMID: 32684802 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2020.27.3.2
    Ageing is a phenomenon where the accumulation of all the stresses that alter the functions of living organisms, halter them from maintaining their physiological balance and eventually lead to death. The emergence of epigenetic tremendously contributed to the knowledge of ageing. Epigenetic changes in cells or tissues like deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, modification of histone proteins, transcriptional modification and also the involvement of non-coding DNA has been documented to be associated with ageing. In order to study ageing, scientists have taken advantage of several potential organisms to aid them in their study. Drosophila melanogaster has been an essential model in establishing current understanding of the mechanism of ageing as they possess several advantages over other competitors like having homologues to more than 75% of human disease genes, having 50% of Drosophila genes are homologues to human genes and most importantly they are genetically amenable. Here, we would like to summarise the extant knowledge about ageing and epigenetic process and the role of Drosophila as an ideal model to study epigenetics in association with ageing process.
  9. Halim MA, Choo QC, Ghazali AHA, Wajidi MFF, Najimudin N
    Lett Appl Microbiol, 2021 May;72(5):610-618.
    PMID: 33525052 DOI: 10.1111/lam.13455
    Paenibacillus durus strain ATCC 35681T is a Gram-positive diazotroph that displayed capability of fixing nitrogen even in the presence of nitrate or ammonium. However, the nitrogen fixation activity was detected only at day 1 of growth when cultured in liquid nitrogen-enriched medium. The transcripts of all the nifH homologues were present throughout the 9-day study. When grown in nitrogen-depleted medium, nitrogenase activities occurred from day 1 until day 6 and the nifH transcripts were also present during the course of the study albeit at different levels. In both studies, the absence of nitrogen fixation activity regardless of the presence of the nifH transcripts raised the possibility of a post-transcriptional or post-translational regulation of the system. A putative SigA box sequence was found upstream of the transcription start site of nifB1, the first gene in the major nitrogen fixation cluster. The upstream region of nifB2 showed a promoter recognizable by SigE, a sigma factor normally involved in sporulation.
  10. Manickam S, Thangadurai S, Azlan A, Amin Z, Azzam G, Halim MA
    Data Brief, 2022 Dec;45:108748.
    PMID: 36426000 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2022.108748
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding single-stranded RNAs with approximately 22 nucleotides in length that negatively regulate the mRNA translation of a target gene. MiR-2b-1 belongs to the largest miR-2 family in Drosophila melanogaster with 8 members and this miRNA family is conserved in invertebrates. miRNAs play key roles in gene regulation, cell proliferation, cell death, cell differentiation and cell developmental homeostasis in multicellular organisms. Its role in various human diseases is continuously being studied. miRNAs also found out to be crucial in maintaining stem cell niche in D. melanogaster gonads. We have identified that ectopic overexpression of miR-2b-1 of D. melanogaster causes testicular bulging (a tumour like phenotype) in 3-5 days old adult flies. Hence, we have performed a transcriptomic (RNA-seq) analysis to understand the role of miR-2b-1 in the development, maintenance, and differentiation of D. melanogaster adult testis stem cells. Data are available from GEO (accession number GSE211399).
  11. Shrestha R, Lim SH, Altice FL, Copenhaver M, Wickersham JA, Saifi R, et al.
    J Community Health, 2020 02;45(1):10-19.
    PMID: 31375976 DOI: 10.1007/s10900-019-00713-x
    In settings where stigma and discrimination toward men who have sex with men (MSM) are high or illegal, like in Malaysia, innovative methods to anonymously reach them are urgently needed. The near ubiquitous availability of mobile technology, including smartphones, has the potential to open new frontiers (such as mHealth) to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The extent to which MSM use mHealth tools for HIV and STI prevention in the Malaysia context, however, is unknown. A cross-sectional online survey in 622 Malaysian MSM was conducted between July and November 2017. Participants were recruited via advertisements on mobile apps frequently used by MSM. In addition to demographic, smartphone access and utilization, and other information were assessed using logistic regression to determine factors associated with the use of a smartphone to search for online sexual health information. Nearly all (99.2%) participants owned a smartphone, with 63% reported having used one to seek sexual health information, including HIV/STIs. Overall, 96% used smartphones to find sexual partners, with high levels of HIV risk behavior reported. Independent correlates of smartphone use to seek online sexual health information included older age (aOR 0.943, p = 0.005), higher education (aOR 2.14, p = 027), recent (past year) HIV testing (aOR 3.91, p = 0.026), and seeking sexual partners using geosocial networking apps (aOR 5.58, p = 0.006). These findings suggest high smartphone use by high-risk MSM to seek sexual health information and suggests that mHealth strategies may be an effective strategy to engage MSM in HIV prevention activities.
  12. Gheith OA, Nagib AM, Halim MA, Mahmoud T, Nair P, Abo-Atya H, et al.
    Iran J Kidney Dis, 2023 Jan;1(1):47-53.
    PMID: 36739490
    INTRODUCTION: Data regarding contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in kidney transplant (KT) recipients are scarce despite the distinct risk factors such as the use of immunosuppressive agents, sympathetic denervation, glomerular hyperfiltration, and high prevalence of the cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CIN in KT recipients who received low-osmolality iodine-based contrast material (CM) for radiological assessment.

    METHODS: Between 2010 and 2020, 79 of the 3180 KT recipients followed at Hamed Al-Essa organ transplant center received low-osmolality iodine-based contrast for radiological assessment for various indications. Preventive measures including holding metformin, intravenous hydration, sodium bicarbonate and N-acetylcysteine were given before contrast administration. CIN was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of 25% from the baseline within 72 hours.

    RESULTS: The enrolled patients were divided into two groups: those who developed CIN (n = 7) and those with no increase in serum creatinine level (n = 72). The mean age of the patients was 52.1 ± 12.3 years; 44 of them were males, and the cause of end-stage kidney disease was mostly diabetic nephropathy. The pre-transplant demographics were comparable between the two groups. Fortyseven cases received contrast for coronary angiography, and 32 received it for a CT scan. The graft function deteriorated in group 1, but no significant difference was found between the two groups at the end of the study.

    CONCLUSION: CIN is not uncommon in KT recipients receiving CM, especially with ischemic heart disease. Risk stratification, optimizing hemodynamics, and avoiding potential nephrotoxins are essential before performing CM-enhanced studies in KT recipients.  DOI: 10.52547/ijkd.7165.

  13. Ahmed MF, Molla MR, Saha M, Shahriar I, Rahman MS, Halim MA, et al.
    RSC Adv, 2019 Feb 22;9(12):6556-6567.
    PMID: 35518479 DOI: 10.1039/c9ra00070d
    Herein, we have investigated the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA), the most abundant globular protein, with a conventional cationic surfactant, cetyldimethylethylammonium bromide (CDMEAB), through a conductivity technique in the absence/presence of electrolyte solutions at various temperatures (298.15-323.15 K). The interaction of the protein with drugs/surfactants and other additives plays a crucial role in the body. Hence, the main concern of the study is to extract the impact of BSA on surfactant molecules and vice versa. From the specific conductivity versus concentration of surfactant plots, three different noticeable critical micelle concentration (c*) values were obtained for pure CDMEAB and its mixture with protein/protein + salts. The presence of BSA and electrolytes altered the c* values of CDMEAB revealing interactions among the studied constituents where the salt solutions reduced the c* values and created a convenient environment for favorable micellization. The negative magnitudes achieved for standard free energy changes (ΔG 0 m) suggest spontaneity of micellization while the values of ΔH 0 m and ΔS 0 m signified the existence of some electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The values of molar heat capacity (ΔC 0 m) were positive as well as small which was an indication of less structural deformation. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation for all atoms revealed that the salt ions promoted non-covalent interaction between BSA and CDMEAB, and such interactions were not observed in the absence of the salt. Protein structure remained nearly same in spite of strong interaction with CDMEAB as evident from the overall RMSD (root-mean-square deviation) values of the alpha carbons and backbone of the protein and RMSF (root-mean-square fluctuation) values of the amino acid residues present in BSA. In this work thermodynamic parameters of transfer (such as ΔG 0 m.tr., ΔH 0 m.tr., and ΔC 0 p.m.tr.) were also evaluated and the results are discussed in detail. Besides, contributions of enthalpy and entropy to free energy changes were also analyzed.
  14. Rosli R, Amiruddin N, Ab Halim MA, Chan PL, Chan KL, Azizi N, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(4):e0194792.
    PMID: 29672525 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194792
    Comparative genomics and transcriptomic analyses were performed on two agronomically important groups of genes from oil palm versus other major crop species and the model organism, Arabidopsis thaliana. The first analysis was of two gene families with key roles in regulation of oil quality and in particular the accumulation of oleic acid, namely stearoyl ACP desaturases (SAD) and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (FAT). In both cases, these were found to be large gene families with complex expression profiles across a wide range of tissue types and developmental stages. The detailed classification of the oil palm SAD and FAT genes has enabled the updating of the latest version of the oil palm gene model. The second analysis focused on disease resistance (R) genes in order to elucidate possible candidates for breeding of pathogen tolerance/resistance. Ortholog analysis showed that 141 out of the 210 putative oil palm R genes had homologs in banana and rice. These genes formed 37 clusters with 634 orthologous genes. Classification of the 141 oil palm R genes showed that the genes belong to the Kinase (7), CNL (95), MLO-like (8), RLK (3) and Others (28) categories. The CNL R genes formed eight clusters. Expression data for selected R genes also identified potential candidates for breeding of disease resistance traits. Furthermore, these findings can provide information about the species evolution as well as the identification of agronomically important genes in oil palm and other major crops.
  15. Khati A, Wickersham JA, Rosen AO, Luces JRB, Copenhaver N, Jeri-Wahrhaftig A, et al.
    JMIR Form Res, 2022 Dec 23;6(12):e42939.
    PMID: 36563046 DOI: 10.2196/42939
    BACKGROUND: The use of smartphone apps can improve the HIV prevention cascade for key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM). In Malaysia, where stigma and discrimination toward MSM are high, mobile health app-based strategies have the potential to open new frontiers for HIV prevention. However, little guidance is available to inform researchers about the ethical concerns that are unique to the development and implementation of app-based HIV prevention programs.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to fill this gap by characterizing the attitudes and concerns of Malaysian MSM regarding HIV prevention mobile apps, particularly regarding the ethical aspects surrounding their use.

    METHODS: We conducted web-based focus group discussions with 23 MSM between August and September 2021. Using in-depth semistructured interviews, participants were asked about the risks and ethical issues they perceived to be associated with using mobile apps for HIV prevention. Each session was digitally recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were inductively coded using the Dedoose software (SocioCultural Research Consultants) and analyzed to identify and interpret emerging themes.

    RESULTS: Although participants were highly willing to use app-based strategies for HIV prevention, they raised several ethical concerns related to their use. Prominent concerns raised by participants included privacy and confidentiality concerns, including fear of third-party access to personal health information (eg, friends or family and government agencies), issues around personal health data storage and management, equity and equitable access, informed consent, and regulation.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study's findings highlight the role of ethical concerns related to the use of app-based HIV prevention programs. Given the ever-growing nature of such technological platforms that are intermixed with a complex ethical-legal landscape, mobile health platforms must be safe and secure to minimize unintended harm, safeguard user privacy and confidentiality, and obtain public trust and uptake.

  16. Singh R, Low ET, Ooi LC, Ong-Abdullah M, Nookiah R, Ting NC, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2014 Jun 30;5:4106.
    PMID: 24978855 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5106
    Oil palm, a plantation crop of major economic importance in Southeast Asia, is the predominant source of edible oil worldwide. We report the identification of the virescens (VIR) gene, which controls fruit exocarp colour and is an indicator of ripeness. VIR is a R2R3-MYB transcription factor with homology to Lilium LhMYB12 and similarity to Arabidopsis production of anthocyanin pigment1 (PAP1). We identify five independent mutant alleles of VIR in over 400 accessions from sub-Saharan Africa that account for the dominant-negative virescens phenotype. Each mutation results in premature termination of the carboxy-terminal domain of VIR, resembling McClintock's C1-I allele in maize. The abundance of alleles likely reflects cultural practices, by which fruits were venerated for magical and medicinal properties. The identification of VIR will allow selection of the trait at the seed or early-nursery stage, 3-6 years before fruits are produced, greatly advancing introgression into elite breeding material.
  17. Singh R, Ong-Abdullah M, Low ET, Manaf MA, Rosli R, Nookiah R, et al.
    Nature, 2013 Aug 15;500(7462):335-9.
    PMID: 23883927 DOI: 10.1038/nature12309
    Oil palm is the most productive oil-bearing crop. Although it is planted on only 5% of the total world vegetable oil acreage, palm oil accounts for 33% of vegetable oil and 45% of edible oil worldwide, but increased cultivation competes with dwindling rainforest reserves. We report the 1.8-gigabase (Gb) genome sequence of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, the predominant source of worldwide oil production. A total of 1.535 Gb of assembled sequence and transcriptome data from 30 tissue types were used to predict at least 34,802 genes, including oil biosynthesis genes and homologues of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), and other transcriptional regulators, which are highly expressed in the kernel. We also report the draft sequence of the South American oil palm Elaeis oleifera, which has the same number of chromosomes (2n = 32) and produces fertile interspecific hybrids with E. guineensis but seems to have diverged in the New World. Segmental duplications of chromosome arms define the palaeotetraploid origin of palm trees. The oil palm sequence enables the discovery of genes for important traits as well as somaclonal epigenetic alterations that restrict the use of clones in commercial plantings, and should therefore help to achieve sustainability for biofuels and edible oils, reducing the rainforest footprint of this tropical plantation crop.
  18. Singh R, Low ET, Ooi LC, Ong-Abdullah M, Ting NC, Nagappan J, et al.
    Nature, 2013 Aug 15;500(7462):340-4.
    PMID: 23883930 DOI: 10.1038/nature12356
    A key event in the domestication and breeding of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis was loss of the thick coconut-like shell surrounding the kernel. Modern E. guineensis has three fruit forms, dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), a hybrid between dura and pisifera. The pisifera palm is usually female-sterile. The tenera palm yields far more oil than dura, and is the basis for commercial palm oil production in all of southeast Asia. Here we describe the mapping and identification of the SHELL gene responsible for the different fruit forms. Using homozygosity mapping by sequencing, we found two independent mutations in the DNA-binding domain of a homologue of the MADS-box gene SEEDSTICK (STK, also known as AGAMOUS-LIKE 11), which controls ovule identity and seed development in Arabidopsis. The SHELL gene is responsible for the tenera phenotype in both cultivated and wild palms from sub-Saharan Africa, and our findings provide a genetic explanation for the single gene hybrid vigour (or heterosis) attributed to SHELL, via heterodimerization. This gene mutation explains the single most important economic trait in oil palm, and has implications for the competing interests of global edible oil production, biofuels and rainforest conservation.
  19. Ooi LC, Low ET, Abdullah MO, Nookiah R, Ting NC, Nagappan J, et al.
    Front Plant Sci, 2016;7:771.
    PMID: 27446094 DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00771
    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most productive oil bearing crop worldwide. It has three fruit forms, namely dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), which are controlled by the SHELL gene. The fruit forms exhibit monogenic co-dominant inheritance, where tenera is a hybrid obtained by crossing maternal dura and paternal pisifera palms. Commercial palm oil production is based on planting thin-shelled tenera palms, which typically yield 30% more oil than dura palms, while pisifera palms are female-sterile and have little to no palm oil yield. It is clear that tenera hybrids produce more oil than either parent due to single gene heterosis. The unintentional planting of dura or pisifera palms reduces overall yield and impacts land utilization that would otherwise be devoted to more productive tenera palms. Here, we identify three additional novel mutant alleles of the SHELL gene, which encode a type II MADS-box transcription factor, and determine oil yield via control of shell fruit form phenotype in a manner similar to two previously identified mutant SHELL alleles. Assays encompassing all five mutations account for all dura and pisifera palms analyzed. By assaying for these variants in 10,224 mature palms or seedlings, we report the first large scale accurate genotype-based determination of the fruit forms in independent oil palm planting sites and in the nurseries that supply them throughout Malaysia. The measured non-tenera contamination rate (10.9% overall on a weighted average basis) underscores the importance of SHELL genetic testing of seedlings prior to planting in production fields. By eliminating non-tenera contamination, comprehensive SHELL genetic testing can improve sustainability by increasing yield on existing planted lands. In addition, economic modeling demonstrates that SHELL gene testing will confer substantial annual economic gains to the oil palm industry, to Malaysian gross national income and to Malaysian government tax receipts.
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