Displaying all 11 publications

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  1. Salleh NA, Ismail S, Ab Halim MR
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):309-315.
    PMID: 27695274 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.188873
    BACKGROUND: Curcuma xanthorrhiza is a native Indonesian plant and traditionally utilized for a range of illness including liver damage, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer.
    OBJECTIVE: The study determined the effects of C. xanthorrhiza extracts (ethanol and aqueous) and their constituents (curcumene and xanthorrhizol) on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inhibition studies were evaluated both in rat liver microsomes and in human recombinant UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 enzymes. p-nitrophenol and beetle luciferin were used as the probe substrates for UGT assay while 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as the probe for GST assay. The concentrations of extracts studied ranged from 0.1 to 1000 μg/mL while for constituents ranged from 0.01 to 500 μM.
    RESULTS: In rat liver microsomes, UGT activity was inhibited by the ethanol extract (IC50 =279.74 ± 16.33 μg/mL). Both UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 were inhibited by the ethanol and aqueous extracts with IC50 values ranging between 9.59-22.76 μg/mL and 110.71-526.65 μg/Ml, respectively. Rat liver GST and human GST Pi-1 were inhibited by ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively (IC50 =255.00 ± 13.06 μg/mL and 580.80 ± 18.56 μg/mL). Xanthorrhizol was the better inhibitor of UGT1A1 (IC50 11.30 ± 0.27 μM) as compared to UGT2B7 while curcumene did not show any inhibition. For GST, both constituents did not show any inhibition.
    CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that C. xanthorrhiza have the potential to cause herb-drug interaction with drugs that are primarily metabolized by UGT and GST enzymes.
    SUMMARY: Findings from this study would suggest which of Curcuma xanthorrhiza extracts and constituents that would have potential interactions with drugs which are highly metabolized by UGT and GST enzymes. Further clinical studies can then be designed if needed to evaluate the in vivo pharmacokinetic relevance of these interactions Abbreviations Used: BSA: Bovine serum albumin, CAM: Complementary and alternative medicine, cDNA: Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid, CDNB: 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, CuSO4.5H2O: Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, CXEE: Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanol extract, CXAE: Curcuma xanthorrhiza aqueous extract, GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, GSH: Glutathione, GST: Glutathione S-transferase, KCl: Potassium chloride, min: Minutes, MgCl2: Magnesium chloride, mg/mL: Concentration (weight of test substance in milligrams per volume of test concentration), mM: Milimolar, Na2CO3: Sodium carbonate, NaOH: Sodium hydroxide, nmol: nanomol, NSAIDs: Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, p-NP: para-nitrophenol, RLU: Relative light unit, SEM: Standard error of mean, UDPGA: UDP-glucuronic acid, UGT: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase.
    KEYWORDS: Curcuma xanthorrhiza; UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; glutathione transferase; xanthorrhizol
  2. Syaripuddin K, Kumar A, Sing KW, Halim MR, Nursyereen MN, Wilson JJ
    Ecotoxicology, 2014 Sep;23(7):1164-71.
    PMID: 24840106 DOI: 10.1007/s10646-014-1258-y
    In large man-made reservoirs such as those resulting from hydroelectric dam construction, bacteria transform the relatively harmless inorganic mercury naturally present in soil and the submerged plant matter into toxic methylmercury. Methylmercury then enters food webs and can accumulate in organisms at higher trophic levels. Bats feeding on insects emerging from aquatic systems can show accumulation of mercury consumed through their insect prey. In this study, we investigated whether the concentration of mercury in the fur of insectivorous bat species was significantly higher than that in the fur of frugivorous bat species, sampled near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia. Bats were sampled at Temenggor Lake and Kenyir Lake and fur samples from the most abundant genera of the two feeding guilds-insectivorous (Hipposideros and Rhinolophus) and frugivorous (Cynopterus and Megaerops) were collected for mercury analysis. We found significantly higher concentrations of total mercury in the fur of insectivorous bats. Mercury concentrations also differed significantly between insectivorous bats sampled at the two sites, with bats from Kenyir Lake, the younger reservoir, showing higher mercury concentrations, and between the insectivorous genera, with Hipposideros bats showing higher mercury concentrations. Ten bats (H. cf. larvatus) sampled at Kenyir Lake had mercury concentrations approaching or exceeding 10 mg/kg, which is the threshold at which detrimental effects occur in humans, bats and mice.
  3. Wilson JJ, Sing KW, Halim MR, Ramli R, Hashim R, Sofian-Azirun M
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2014;13(1):920-5.
    PMID: 24634112 DOI: 10.4238/2014.February.19.2
    Bats are important flagship species for biodiversity research; however, diversity in Southeast Asia is considerably underestimated in the current checklists and field guides. Incorporation of DNA barcoding into surveys has revealed numerous species-level taxa overlooked by conventional methods. Inclusion of these taxa in inventories provides a more informative record of diversity, but is problematic as these species lack formal description. We investigated how frequently documented, but undescribed, bat taxa are encountered in Peninsular Malaysia. We discuss whether a barcode library provides a means of recognizing and recording these taxa across biodiversity inventories. Tissue was sampled from bats trapped at Pasir Raja, Dungun Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. The DNA was extracted and the COI barcode region amplified and sequenced. We identified 9 species-level taxa within our samples, based on analysis of the DNA barcodes. Six specimens matched to four previously documented taxa considered candidate species but currently lacking formal taxonomic status. This study confirms the high diversity of bats within Peninsular Malaysia (9 species in 13 samples) and demonstrates how DNA barcoding allows for inventory and documentation of known taxa lacking formal taxonomic status.
  4. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A, Wahab PE, Halim MR
    Int J Mol Sci, 2010;11(10):3885-97.
    PMID: 21152306 DOI: 10.3390/ijms11103885
    Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 μmol m(-2)s(-1)) were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale). TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1) and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 μmol m(-2)s(-1). The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01) with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1). The ferric reducing (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 μmol m(-2)s(-1) of sun light. This study indicates the ability of different light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents.
  5. Ismail S, Hanapi NA, Ab Halim MR, Uchaipichat V, Mackenzie PI
    Molecules, 2010 May 14;15(5):3578-92.
    PMID: 20657500 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15053578
    The effects of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts on the in vitro glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU) by recombinant human UGTs, UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 were determined. The potential inhibitory effects of both of the extracts on the activity of each of the UGT isoforms were investigated using 4MU as the substrate. Incubations contained UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA) as the cofactor, MgCl(2), cell lysate of respective isoform, and 4MU at the approximate apparent K(m) or S(50) value of each isoform. Final concentrations of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts used were 0.025, 0.25, 2.5, 25 and 50 microg/mL and 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, 10 and 50 microg/mL respectively. Both extracts variably inhibited the activity of most of the isoforms in a concentration dependent manner. Andrographis paniculata extract was the better inhibitor of all the isoforms studied (IC(50) 1.70 microg/mL for UGT1A3, 2.57 microg/mL for UGT1A8, 2.82 microg/mL for UGT2B7, 5.00 micorg/mL for UGT1A1, 5.66 microg/mL for UGT1A6, 9.88 microg/mL for UGT1A7 and 15.66 microg/mL for UGT1A10). Both extracts showed less than 70% inhibition of UGT2B15, so the IC(50) values were >50 microg/mL. The inhibition of human UGTs by Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts in vitro suggests a potential for drug-herbal extract interactions in the therapeutic setting.
  6. Ghasemzadeh A, Talei D, Jaafar HZ, Juraimi AS, Mohamed MT, Puteh A, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2016;16(1):152.
    PMID: 27234523 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-1113-1
    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is one of the most important consumed crops in many parts of the world because of its economic importance and content of health-promoting phytochemicals.
  7. Abdul Rahman N, Abd Halim MR, Mahawi N, Hasnudin H, Al-Obaidi JR, Abdullah N
    Biomed Res Int, 2017;2017:2038062.
    PMID: 28503566 DOI: 10.1155/2017/2038062
    Corn was inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii either independently or as a mixture at ensiling, in order to determine the effect of bacterial additives on corn silage quality. Grain corn was harvested at 32-37% of dry matter and ensiled in a 4 L laboratory silo. Forage was treated as follows: bacterial types: B0 (without bacteria-control), B1 (L. plantarum), B2 (P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii), and B3 (combination of L. plantarum and P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii). Each 2 kg of chopped forage was treated with 10 mL of bacterial culture and allowed to ferment for 27 days. The first experiment determined the most suitable wavelength for detection of bacteria (490 nm and 419 nm for B1 and B2, resp.) and the preferable inoculation size (1 × 105 cfu/g). The second experiment analysed the effect of B1 and B2 applied singly or as a mixture on the fermentation characteristics and quality of corn silage. L. plantarum alone increased crude protein (CP) and reduced pH rapidly. In a mixture with P. freudenreichii, the final pH was the lowest compared to other treatments. As a mixture, inclusion of bacteria resulted in silage with lower digestibility than control. Corn silage treated with L. plantarum or P. freudenreichii either alone or mixed together produced desirable silage properties; however, this was not significantly better than untreated silage.
  8. Mat Udin AS, Uni S, Zainuri NA, Abdullah Halim MR, Belabut DA
    Trop Biomed, 2020 Dec 01;37(4):1152-1157.
    PMID: 33612768 DOI: 10.47665/tb.37.4.1152
    Some filarial nematodes, such as Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, cause lymphatic diseases in humans in the tropics, whereas other filarial parasites from wild animals cause zoonotic diseases in humans worldwide. To elucidate the prevalence and diversity of filarial parasites in Malaysia, we investigated the filarial parasites from wild animals in Gemas, Negeri Sembilan. To find adult filarial parasites, we dissected 26 animals, which included five frogs, one skink, one snake, two birds, six common treeshrews, and 11 rats. Then, we examined microfilariae in the blood smears and skin snips obtained from each animal. We found two types of microfilariae in the blood smears of common treeshrews: one was very similar to Malayfilaria sofiani and the other closely resembled Brugia tupaiae. These findings indicate an additional distribution of these filarial parasites in Gemas.
  9. Takaoka H, Sofian-Azirun M, Chen CD, Lau KW, Halim MR, Low VL, et al.
    Zootaxa, 2017 Feb 21;4236(1):zootaxa.4236.1.8.
    PMID: 28264343 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4236.1.8
    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) lemborense sp. nov. is described based on adults, pupae and mature larvae from Flores, in the eastern part of the Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia. This new species is placed in the Simulium batoense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia Enderlein, representing the most eastern distribution record for the group. This new species is characterized by a narrow female frons and pupal gill with eight filaments, of which two filaments of the ventral pair are three to four times as long as the six other filaments. Taxonomic notes are provided to distinguish this new species from related species.
  10. Urabe M, Nor Hashim NE, Uni S, Iwaki T, Abdullah Halim MR, Marzuki ME, et al.
    Parasitol Int, 2020 Jun;76:102074.
    PMID: 32057926 DOI: 10.1016/j.parint.2020.102074
    We describe Morishitium polonicum malayense n. subsp. from Asian glossy starlings (Aplonis panayensis strigata) (Horsfield, 1821) (Passeriformis: Sturnidae) caught in Malaysia. The trematodes had parasitized the air sacs and the thoracic and body cavities of 40 out of 67 (59.7%) birds examined. The specimens each had an oral sucker, a postpharyngeal genital pore, and tandem testes, but lacked a ventral sucker. The morphological characteristics of our specimens were similar to those of M. polonicum polonicum (Machalska, 1980) from Poland. However, the anterior extremity of vitelline follicles of the present specimens sometimes extended to the level of pharynx. The oral sucker width, oral sucker width/pharynx width ratio, and intertesticular space metrics differed from those of M. p. polonicum. The maximum-likelihood trees based on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences indicated that the species from the present study formed a sister group with M. p. polonicum from the Czech Republic. The p-distances of COI and ITS2 sequences between the present specimens and M. p. polonicum from the Czech Republic were 6.9-7.5% and 0.6%, respectively. These genetic divergences indicate the border for intra- or interspecific variation of digeneans. The definitive host species and geographical distribution of the current specimens were distinct from those of M. p. polonicum from Europe. We thus concluded that the present specimens are ranked as a new subspecies of M. polonicum, namely M. polonicum malayense n. subsp.
  11. Uni S, Mat Udin AS, Agatsuma T, Saijuntha W, Junker K, Ramli R, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2017 Apr 20;10(1):194.
    PMID: 28427478 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-017-2105-9
    BACKGROUND: The filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold, 1877), Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) and B. timori Partono, Purnomo, Dennis, Atmosoedjono, Oemijati & Cross, 1977 cause lymphatic diseases in humans in the tropics, while B. pahangi (Buckley & Edeson, 1956) infects carnivores and causes zoonotic diseases in humans in Malaysia. Wuchereria bancrofti, W. kalimantani Palmieri, Pulnomo, Dennis & Marwoto, 1980 and six out of ten Brugia spp. have been described from Australia, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka and India. However, the origin and evolution of the species in the Wuchereria-Brugia clade remain unclear. While investigating the diversity of filarial parasites in Malaysia, we discovered an undescribed species in the common treeshrew Tupaia glis Diard & Duvaucel (Mammalia: Scandentia).

    METHODS: We examined 81 common treeshrews from 14 areas in nine states and the Federal Territory of Peninsular Malaysia for filarial parasites. Once any filariae that were found had been isolated, we examined their morphological characteristics and determined the partial sequences of their mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and 12S rRNA genes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region were then cloned into the pGEM-T vector, and the recombinant plasmids were used as templates for sequencing.

    RESULTS: Malayfilaria sofiani Uni, Mat Udin & Takaoka, n. g., n. sp. is described based on the morphological characteristics of adults and microfilariae found in common treeshrews from Jeram Pasu, Kelantan, Malaysia. The Kimura 2-parameter distance between the cox1 gene sequences of the new species and W. bancrofti was 11.8%. Based on the three gene sequences, the new species forms a monophyletic clade with W. bancrofti and Brugia spp. The adult parasites were found in tissues surrounding the lymph nodes of the neck of common treeshrews.

    CONCLUSIONS: The newly described species appears most closely related to Wuchereria spp. and Brugia spp., but differs from these in several morphological characteristics. Molecular analyses based on the cox1 and 12S rRNA genes and the ITS1 region indicated that this species differs from both W. bancrofti and Brugia spp. at the genus level. We thus propose a new genus, Malayfilaria, along with the new species M. sofiani.

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