Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 27 in total

  1. Alwi M, Hamid ZA, Zambahari R
    Br Heart J, 1992 Jul;68(1):6-8.
    PMID: 1515294
    Continuous wave Doppler recordings of the turbulent jet through the restrictive orifice of a left atrial partition in a patient with corrected transposition of the great arteries and cor triatriatum showed alternate bands of high intensity diastolic and low intensity systolic signals with preservation of the normal configuration of the diastolic E and A peaks. It is thought that Doppler studies in cor triatriatum will provide useful complementary haemodynamic information in the echocardiographic diagnosis of this anomaly.
  2. Omar Zaki SS, Katas H, Hamid ZA
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2015 Nov;85:31-44.
    PMID: 26051352 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.05.017
    Chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) have potential applications in stem cell research. In this study, ex vivo cytotoxicity of CSNPs on mouse bone marrow-derived (MBMCs) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) was determined. MBMCs were exposed to CSNPs of different particle sizes at various concentrations for up to 72 h. Cytotoxicity effect of CSNPs on MBMCs was determined using MTT, Live/Dead Viability/Cytotoxicity assays and flow cytometry analysis of surface antigens on HSCs (Sca-1(+)), myeloid-committed progenitors (CD11b(+), Gr-1(+)), and lymphoid-committed progenitors (CD45(+), CD3e(+)). At 24 h incubation, MBMCs' viability was not affected by CSNPs. At 48 and 72 h, significant reduction was detected at higher CSNPs concentrations. Small CSNPs (200 nm) significantly reduced MBMCs' viability while medium-sized particle (∼400 nm) selectively promoted MBMCs growth. Surface antigen assessment demonstrated lineage-dependent effect. Significant decrease in Sca-1(+) cells percentage was observed for medium-sized particle at the lowest CSNPs concentration. Meanwhile, reduction of CD11b(+) and Gr-1(+) cells percentage was detected at high and intermediate concentrations of medium-sized and large CSNPs. Percentage of CD45(+) and CD3e(+) cells along with ROS levels were not significantly affected by CSNPs. In conclusion, medium-sized and large CSNPs were relatively non-toxic at lower concentrations. However, further investigations are necessary for therapeutic applications.
  3. Abdul Rashid RM, Mohamed M, Hamid ZA, Dahlui M
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(10):5901-4.
    PMID: 24289597
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of different methods of recall for repeat Pap smear among women who had normal smears in the previous screening.
    DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled study.
    SETTING: All community clinics in Klang under the Ministry of Health Malaysia.
    PARTICIPANTS: Women of Klang who attended cervical screening and had a normal Pap smear in the previous year, and were due for a repeat smear were recruited and randomly assigned to four different methods of recall for repeat smear.
    INTERVENTION: The recall methods given to the women to remind them for a repeat smear were either by postal letter, registered letter, short message by phone (SMS) or phone call.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and percentage of women who responded to the recall within 8 weeks after they had received the recall, irrespective whether they had Pap test conducted. Also the numbers of women in each recall method that came for repeat Pap smear.
    RESULTS: The rates of recall messages reaching the women when using letter, registered letter, SMS and phone calls were 79%, 87%, 66% and 68%, respectively. However, the positive responses to recall by letter, registered letter, phone messages and telephone call were 23.9%, 23.0%, 32.9% and 50.9%, respectively (p<0.05). Furthermore, more women who received recall by phone call had been screened (p<0.05) compared to those who received recall by postal letter (OR=2.38, CI=1.56-3.62).
    CONCLUSION: Both the usual way of sending letters and registered letters had higher chances of reaching patients compared to using phone either for sending messages or calling. The response to the recall method and uptake of repeat smear, however, were highest via phone call, indicating the importance of direct communication.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Kelang, Selangor, Malaysia
  4. Misman MA, Azura AR, Hamid ZA
    Carbohydr Polym, 2015 Sep 5;128:1-10.
    PMID: 26005134 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.04.004
    Starch-graft-acrylonitrile (ANS) is compounded with carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The control XNBR and the ANS/XNBR latex films were prepared through a coagulant dipping process. The films were subjected to ageing and soil burial procedures. For the biodegradation experiment, the surface of the film was assessed after the 2nd, 4th and 8th week of soil burial. The ANS, XNBR, and ANS/XNBR colloidal stability were determined with a Malvern Zetasizer. For the dipped latex films, the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties were analyzed. The addition of ANS into the XNBR latex increased the stability of the colloidal dispersions, decreased the latex film tensile strength, but increased the elongation at break due to the bipolar interaction of the ANS and XNBR particles. The ANS/XNBR latex films aged faster than the control films while the morphological analysis showed the existence of a starch crystal region and the formation of microbial colonies on the surfaces of the films. Based on the TGA-DTA curves, a higher ΔT was observed for the ANS/XNBR latex films signifying high thermal energy needed for the film to thermally degrade.
  5. Vijakumaran U, Nordin F, Hamid ZA, Abdullah M, Jun TG
    Protein Pept Lett, 2020;27(11):1092-1101.
    PMID: 32484079 DOI: 10.2174/0929866527666200525164135
    The cell membrane is a protective layer that strictly controls the passage of molecules restricting the delivery of biomolecules such as drugs, oligonucleotides, peptides, and siRNA into the cells. This shortcoming has been overcome by the discovery of Cell-Penetrating Peptides (CPPs) that has undergone 30 years of evolution. To date, CPPs are largely modified to improve its efficacy and to suit the different delivery applications. The modes of CPPs penetration are still an unresolved mystery and requires further investigations to increase its effectiveness and to diversify its use. Despite having huge potential as a biomolecule carrier, CPPs also have some drawbacks. In this review, the natural and synthetic CPPs, the modifications that have been conducted on CPPs to improve its efficacy, its extended applications, modes of penetration and limitation as well as challenges will be discussed.
  6. Abdul Samat A, Abdul Hamid ZA, Jaafar M, Yahaya BH
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Sep 13;13(18).
    PMID: 34577988 DOI: 10.3390/polym13183087
    Surgical reconstruction of extensive tracheal lesions is challenging. It requires a mechanically stable, biocompatible, and nontoxic material that gradually degrades. One of the possible solutions for overcoming the limitations of tracheal transplantation is a three-dimensional (3D) printed tracheal scaffold made of polymers. Polymer blending is one of the methods used to produce material for a trachea scaffold with tailored characteristics. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the mechanical and in vitro properties of a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polylactic acid (PLA) blend as a potential material for 3D printed tracheal scaffolds. Both materials were melt-blended using a single screw extruder. The morphologies (as well as the mechanical and thermal characteristics) were determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, tensile test, and Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC). The samples were also evaluated for their water absorption, in vitro biodegradability, and biocompatibility. It is demonstrated that, despite being not miscible, TPU and PLA are biocompatible, and their promising properties are suitable for future applications in tracheal tissue engineering.
  7. Dewi R, Hamid ZA, Rajab NF, Shuib S, Razak SA
    Hum Exp Toxicol, 2020 May;39(5):577-595.
    PMID: 31884827 DOI: 10.1177/0960327119895570
    Benzene is a known hematotoxic and leukemogenic agent with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) niche being the potential target. Occupational and environmental exposure to benzene has been linked to the incidences of hematological disorders and malignancies. Previous studies have shown that benzene may act via multiple modes of action targeting HSCs niche, which include induction of chromosomal and micro RNA aberrations, leading to genetic and epigenetic modification of stem cells and probable carcinogenesis. However, understanding the mechanism linking benzene to the HSCs niche dysregulation is challenging due to complexity of its microenvironment. The niche is known to comprise of cell populations accounted for HSCs and their committed progenitors of lymphoid, erythroid, and myeloid lineages. Thus, it is fundamental to address novel approaches via lineage-directed strategy to elucidate precise mechanism involved in benzene-induced toxicity targeting HSCs and progenitors of different lineages. Here, we review the key genetic and epigenetic factors that mediate hematotoxicological effects by benzene and its metabolites in targeting HSCs niche. Overall, the use of combined genetic, epigenetic, and lineage-directed strategies targeting the HSCs niche is fundamental to uncover the key mechanisms in benzene-induced hematological disorders and malignancies.
  8. Nordin F, Hamid ZA, Chan L, Farzaneh F, Hamid MK
    Methods Mol Biol, 2016;1448:159-73.
    PMID: 27317180 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3753-0_12
    Non-integrating lentiviral vectors or also known as integrase-defective lentiviral (IDLV) hold a great promise for gene therapy application. They retain high transduction efficiency for efficient gene transfer in various cell types both in vitro and in vivo. IDLV is produced via a combined mutations introduced on the HIV-based lentiviral to disable their integration potency. Therefore, IDLV is considered safer than the wild-type integrase-proficient lentiviral vector as they could avoid the potential insertional mutagenesis associated with the nonspecific integration of transgene into target cell genome afforded by the wild-type vectors.Here we describe the system of IDLV which is produced through mutation in the integrase enzymes at the position of D64 located within the catalytic core domain. The efficiency of the IDLV in expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene in transduced human monocyte (U937) cell lines was investigated. Expression of the transgene was driven by the spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV) LTRs. Transduction efficiency was studied using both the IDLV (ID-SFFV-GFP) and their wild-type counterparts (integrase-proficient SFFV-GFP). GFP expression was analyzed by fluorescence microscope and FACS analysis.Based on the results, the number of the GFP-positive cells in ID-SFFV-GFP-transduced U937 cells decreased rapidly over time. The percentage of GFP-positive cells decreased from ~50 % to almost 0, up to 10 days post-transduction. In wild-type SFFV-GFP-transduced cells, GFP expression is remained consistently at about 100 %. These data confirmed that the transgene expression in the ID-SFFV-GFP-transduced cells is transient in dividing cells. The lack of an origin of replication due to mutation of integrase enzymes in the ID-SFFV-GFP virus vector has caused the progressive loss of the GFP expression in dividing cells.Integrase-defective lentivirus will be a suitable choice for safer clinical applications. It preserves the advantages of the wild-type lentiviral vectors but with the benefit of transgene expression without stable integration into host genome, therefore reducing the potential risk of insertional mutagenesis.
  9. Mohd Sabee MMS, Kamalaldin NA, Yahaya BH, Abdul Hamid ZA
    J Mater Sci Mater Med, 2020 May 04;31(5):45.
    PMID: 32367409 DOI: 10.1007/s10856-020-06380-y
    Recently, surface engineered biomaterials through surface modification are extensively investigated due to its potential to enhance cellular homing and migration which contributes to a successful drug delivery process. This study is focused on osteoblasts response towards surface engineered using a simple sodium hydroxide (NaOH) hydrolysis and growth factors conjugated poly(lactic acid) (PLA) microspheres. In this study, evaluation of the relationship of NaOH concentration with the molecular weight changes and surface morphology of PLA microspheres specifically wall thickness and porosity prior to in vitro studies was investigated. NaOH hydrolysis of 0.1 M, 0.3 M and 0.5 M were done to introduce hydrophilicity on the PLA prior to conjugation with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Morphology changes showed that higher concentration of NaOH could accelerate the hydrolysis process as the highest wall thickness was observed at 0.5 M NaOH with ~3.52 µm. All surface modified and growth factors conjugated PLA microspheres wells enhanced the migration of the cells during wound healing process as wound closure was 100% after 3 days of treatment. Increase in hydrophilicity of the surface engineered and growth factors conjugated PLA microspheres provides favorable surface for cellular attachment of osteoblast, which was reflected by positive DAPI staining of the cells' nucleus. Surface modified and growth factors conjugated PLA microspheres were also able to enhance the capability of the PLA in facilitating the differentiation process of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteogenic lineage since only positive stain was observed on surface engineered and growth factors conjugated PLA microspheres. These results indicated that the surface engineered and growth factors conjugated PLA microspheres were non-toxic for biological environments and the improved hydrophilicity made them a potential candidate as a drug delivery vehicle as the cells can adhere, attach and proliferate inside it.
  10. Md Rasib SZ, Md Akil H, Khan A, Abdul Hamid ZA
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 May 01;128:531-536.
    PMID: 30708001 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.01.190
    An earlier study showed that the behaviour of chitosan-poly(methacrylic acid‑co‑N‑isopropylacrylamide) [chitosan‑p(MAA‑co‑NIPAM)] hydrogels synthesized at different reaction times are affected with regard to their pH and temperature sensitivities. The study was continued in this paper to identify the effects of different reaction times on the degradation, efficiency of rifampicin (Rif) loading and the Rif release profile under two different pH conditions (acidic and basic). The results that were obtained showed that the hydrogel had a faster degradation rate in the acidic condition than in the basic condition, where there was a loss of approximately 50% and 20%, respectively in its original weight within two weeks. The Rif loading efficiency was within 50% and the drug release was controlled by characteristics that were developed beyond the polymerization stages of the synthesis. Therefore, the reaction time for the synthesis of the hydrogel can be considered as a way to control the behaviour of the hydrogel as well as to modify the drug release profile in the chitosan‑p(MAA‑co‑NIPAM) hydrogel.
  11. Jubaidi FF, Zainalabidin S, Taib IS, Hamid ZA, Budin SB
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 May 12;22(10).
    PMID: 34065781 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22105094
    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is one of the major mortality risk factors among diabetic patients worldwide. It has been established that most of the cardiac structural and functional alterations in the diabetic cardiomyopathy condition resulted from the hyperglycemia-induced persistent oxidative stress in the heart, resulting in the maladaptive responses of inflammation and apoptosis. Flavonoids, the most abundant phytochemical in plants, have been reported to exhibit diverse therapeutic potential in medicine and other biological activities. Flavonoids have been widely studied for their effects in protecting the heart against diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy. The potential of flavonoids in alleviating diabetic cardiomyopathy is mainly related with their remedial actions as anti-hyperglycemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic agents. In this review, we summarize the latest findings of flavonoid treatments on diabetic cardiomyopathy as well as elucidating the mechanisms involved.
  12. Lim JV, Bee ST, Tin Sin L, Ratnam CT, Abdul Hamid ZA
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Oct 14;13(20).
    PMID: 34685309 DOI: 10.3390/polym13203547
    Carbon can form different allotropes due to its tetravalency. Different forms of carbon such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers, graphene, fullerenes, and carbon black can be used as nanofillers in order to enhance the properties of polymer nanocomposites. These carbon nanomaterials are of interest in nanocomposites research and other applications due to their excellent properties, such as high Young's Modulus, tensile strength, electrical conductivity, and specific surface area. However, there are some flaws that can be found in the carbon nanoparticles such as tendency to agglomerate, insoluble in aqueous or organic solvents or being unreactive with the polymer surface. In this study, the aim is to study functionalization in order to rectify some of these shortcomings by attaching different functional groups or particles to the surface of these carbon nanoparticles; this also enables the synthesis of high-performance polymer nanocomposites. The main findings include the effects of functionalization on carbon nanoparticles and the applications of polymer nanocomposites with carbon nanoparticles as nanofillers in the industry. Additionally, the different methods used to produce polymer composites such as in situ polymerization, solution mixing and melt blending are studied, as these methods involve the dispersion of carbon nanofillers within the polymer matrix.
  13. Adi O, Ahmad AH, Fong CP, Hamid ZA, Panebianco N
    Am J Emerg Med, 2021 Oct;48:374.e1-374.e3.
    PMID: 33773866 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajem.2021.03.032
    Superior Vena Cava (SVC) syndrome is caused by SVC obstruction by external compression or intraluminal thrombus. Patients with the condition can present with upper body swelling, shortness of breath and shock. This case report highlights the use of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) to evaluate a patient with SVC syndrome in the emergency department. The test offers many advantages over computed tomography (CT), venography, and magnetic resonance imaging which are limited in hemodynamically unstable patients. A 60-year-old male presented with acute respiratory distress and shock. The POCUS showed the presence of a right lung consolidation and SVC thrombus. CT revealed the presence of a large mediastinal mass causing compression of the SVC with clot seen inside the vessel. The patient was thrombolysed with intravenous streptokinase and his hemodynamics improved. Further investigation confirmed the diagnosis of lymphoma. The SVC can be visualized with transthoracic echocardiography using either the suprasternal, right supraclavicular or right parasternal approach. In this case, the presence of consolidation of the right lung mass provided an acoustic window for the visualization of the SVC using the right parasternal view, thereby allowing for more rapid diagnosis and management.
  14. Bee SL, Bustami Y, Ul-Hamid A, Lim K, Abdul Hamid ZA
    J Mater Sci Mater Med, 2021 Aug 23;32(9):106.
    PMID: 34426879 DOI: 10.1007/s10856-021-06590-y
    Combination of bioactive material such as hydroxyapatite (HAp) with antibacterial agents would have great potential to be used as bone implant materials to avert possible bacterial infection that can lead to implant-associated diseases. The present study aimed to develop an antibacterial silver nanoparticle-decorated hydroxyapatite (HAp/AgNPs) nanocomposite using chemical reduction and thermal calcination approaches. In this work, natural HAp that was extracted from chicken bone wastes is used as support matrix for the deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to produce HAp/AgNPs nanocomposite. XRD, FESEM-EDX, HRTEM, and XPS analyses confirmed that spherical AgNPs were successfully synthesized and deposited on the surface of HAp particles, and the amount of AgNPs adhered on the HAp surface increased with increasing AgNO3 concentration used. The synthesized HAp/AgNPs nanocomposites demonstrated strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, where the antibacterial efficiency is relied on the amount and size of deposited AgNPs. In addition, the in vitro bioactivity examination in Hank's balanced salt solution showed that more apatite were grown on the surface of HAp/AgNPs nanocomposite when AgNO3 concentration used >1 wt.%. Such nanocomposite with enhanced bioactivity and antibacterial properties emerged as a promising biomaterial to be applied for dentistry and orthopedic implantology.
  15. Lim JV, Bee ST, Sin LT, Ratnam CT, Abdul Hamid ZA
    Polymers (Basel), 2022 Nov 01;14(21).
    PMID: 36365653 DOI: 10.3390/polym14214660
    In this study, water at high temperatures (150, 175, 200 °C) and in a vacuum state (-0.1 MPa) was applied to graphite nanosheets to enhance surface activity to promote the formation of oxygen-containing functional groups through supercritical water treatment. Nylon 610 nanocomposites (with treated or untreated nanosheets as nanofillers) were then synthesized using interfacial polymerization. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the water treatment did not alter the crystal structure of the carbon nanosheets. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed the presence of amide peaks within the nanocomposites, indicating the presence of hydrogen bonding between the nanosheets and the polymer matrix. The intensity of the amide peaks was higher for nanocomposites combined with treated nanosheets than untreated ones. This hydrogen bonding is beneficial to the conductivity of the nanocomposites. The conductivity of treated nanosheets/nylon nanocomposites generally decreased with increasing wt%, while the conductivity of untreated nanosheets/nylon nanocomposites increased with increasing wt%. The decrementing of conductivity in the treated nanosheets/nylon nanocomposites is due to the agglomeration of the nanosheets within the composite. This is in in line with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results which showed that at higher wt%, the aggregation condition tended to occur. The highest conductivity obtained is 0.004135 S/m, as compared to the conductivity of neat nylon 610, which is 10-14 S/m. This improvement in electrical properties can be attributed to the intact structure of the nanosheets and the interaction between the nanofillers and the nylon 610 matrix. The optimum nylon 610 nanocomposite synthesized was the one incorporated with 0.5 wt% graphite nanosheets treated at 200 °C and -0.1 MPa, which possess the highest conductivity.
  16. Matough FA, Budin SB, Hamid ZA, Alwahaibi N, Mohamed J
    Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J, 2012 Feb;12(1):5-18.
    PMID: 22375253
    Diabetes is considered to be one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. There is a growing scientific and public interest in connecting oxidative stress with a variety of pathological conditions including diabetes mellitus (DM) as well as other human diseases. Previous experimental and clinical studies report that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis and development of complications of both types of DM. However, the exact mechanism by which oxidative stress could contribute to and accelerate the development of complications in diabetic mellitus is only partly known and remains to be clarified. On the one hand, hyperglycemia induces free radicals; on the other hand, it impairs the endogenous antioxidant defense system in patients with diabetes. Endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways. Their functions in human cells are to counterbalance toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Common antioxidants include the vitamins A, C, and E, glutathione (GSH), and the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GRx). This review describes the importance of endogenous antioxidant defense systems, their relationship to several pathophysiological processes and their possible therapeutic implications in vivo.
  17. Hamid ZA, Tan HY, Chow PW, Harto KAW, Chan CY, Mohamed J
    Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J, 2018 May;18(2):e130-e136.
    PMID: 30210840 DOI: 10.18295/squmj.2018.18.02.002
    Objectives: The ex vivo maintenance of haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) is crucial to ensure a sufficient supply of functional cells for research or therapeutic applications. However, when exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a normoxic microenvironment, HSPCs exhibit genomic instability which may diminish their quantity and quality. This study aimed to investigate the role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) supplementation on the oxidative stress levels, genotoxicity and lineage commitment potential of murine haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs).

    Methods: This study was carried out at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between June 2016 and July 2017. Bone marrow cells were isolated from nine mice and cultured in a growth medium. Various concentrations of NAC between 0.125-2 μM were added to the culture for 48 hours; these cells were then compared to non-supplemented cells harvested from the remaining three mice as the control group. A trypan blue exclusion test was performed to determine cell viability, while intracellular ROS levels and genotoxicity were determined by hydroethidine staining and comet assay, respectively. The lineage commitment potential of erythroid, myeloid and pre-B-lymphoid progenitor cells was evaluated via colony-forming cell assay.

    Results: NAC supplementation at 0.25, 0.5 and 2 μM significantly increased cell viability (P <0.050), while intracellular ROS levels significantly decreased at 0.25 and 0.5 μM (P <0.050). Moreover, DNA damage was significantly reduced at all NAC concentrations (P <0.050). Finally, the potential lineage commitment of the cells was not significantly affected by NAC supplementation (P >0.050).

    Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that NAC supplementation may potentially overcome the therapeutic limitations of ex vivo-maintained HSPCs.

  18. Matough FA, Budin SB, Hamid ZA, Abdul-Rahman M, Al-Wahaibi N, Mohammed J
    Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J, 2014 Feb;14(1):e95-e103.
    PMID: 24516761
    This study was carried out to determine the effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) (200 mg/Kg) on biomarkers of oxidative stress on erythrocyte membranes and leukocyte deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
  19. Nik Md Noordin Kahar NNF, Osman AF, Alosime E, Arsat N, Mohammad Azman NA, Syamsir A, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Apr 07;13(8).
    PMID: 33917177 DOI: 10.3390/polym13081194
    The versatility of polymeric materials as healing agents to prevent any structure failure and their ability to restore their initial mechanical properties has attracted interest from many researchers. Various applications of the self-healing polymeric materials are explored in this paper. The mechanism of self-healing, which includes the extrinsic and intrinsic approaches for each of the applications, is examined. The extrinsic mechanism involves the introduction of external healing agents such as microcapsules and vascular networks into the system. Meanwhile, the intrinsic mechanism refers to the inherent reversibility of the molecular interaction of the polymer matrix, which is triggered by the external stimuli. Both self-healing mechanisms have shown a significant impact on the cracked properties of the damaged sites. This paper also presents the different types of self-healing polymeric materials applied in various applications, which include electronics, coating, aerospace, medicals, and construction fields. It is expected that this review gives a significantly broader idea of self-healing polymeric materials and their healing mechanisms in various types of applications.
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