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  1. Awaluddin A, Jali N, Bahari R, Jamil Z, Haron N
    Malays Fam Physician, 2015;10(3):27-31.
    PMID: 27570605 MyJurnal
    Management of bipolar disorder (BD) is challenging due to its multiple and complex facets of presentations as well as various levels of interventions. There is also limitation of treatment accessibility especially at the primary care level. Local evidence-based clinical practice guidelines address the importance of integrated care of BD at various levels. Primary care physicians hold pertinent role in maintaining remission and preventing relapse by providing systematic monitoring of people with BD. Pharmacological treatment in particular mood stabilisers remain the most effective management with psychosocial interventions as adjunct. This paper highlights the role of primary care physicians in the management of BD.
  2. Awaluddin A, Jali N, Bahari R, Jamil Z, Haron N
    Malays Fam Physician, 2015;10(3):38-9.
    PMID: 27570608
  3. Bahari EA, Zaaba NE, Haron N, Dasiman R, Amom Z
    Med Sci Monit Basic Res, 2014;20:170-5.
    PMID: 25381551 DOI: 10.12659/MSMBR.892345
    Roots and leaves of the Cermela Hutan (Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook. F) plant were studied to determine antioxidant activity, phytochemical compounds, proportion of carbohydrate, crude protein, moisture, ash, fat, total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC).
  4. Saleh A, Kong YH, Haron N, Aripin SF, Vadiveloo M, Hussaini H, et al.
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2017 04;45(2):112-119.
    PMID: 27805279 DOI: 10.1111/cdoe.12266
    OBJECTIVES: Private dental practitioners constitute approximately 40% of all registered dentists in Malaysia, and this group affords an avenue for prevention and early detection of oral cancer. However, such activities are still limited. This study investigated the feasibility of incorporating opportunistic screening of oral cancer in the private dental setting.

    METHODS: Dentists were recruited through two main dental associations in Malaysia and attended a 1-day training session on recognizing abnormalities within the oral cavity. Following the training, the dentists conducted screening and provided risk habits cessation advice at their respective clinics for 6 months. The impact of the program was evaluated by determining the number of patients who were screened and/or provided with risk habits cessation advice.

    RESULTS: Twenty-six dentists took part in the program and conducted opportunistic screening on a total of 2603 individuals. On average, they screened about 23.0% of their patients and 5.1% were given risk habits cessation advice. Notably, dentists who had lower patient load were more likely to conduct opportunistic screening.

    CONCLUSIONS: While the participating private dentists state that they have a role in performing opportunistic screening and providing risk habits cessation advice, these activities are still not a priority area in the private clinics, strongly suggesting that strategies to motivate dentists in this setting are urgently needed.

  5. Fauzi AA, Khayat MM, Sabirin S, Haron N, Mohamed MNA, Davis GM
    J Pediatr Rehabil Med, 2019;12(2):161-169.
    PMID: 31227664 DOI: 10.3233/PRM-180538
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate outcomes after 8 weeks of a structured home-based exercise program (SHEP) for improving walking ability in ambulant children with cerebral palsy (CP).

    METHOD: Eleven children participated in this study (7 males and 4 females, mean age 10 years 3 months, standard deviation (SD) 3y) with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) I-III. This study used a prospective multiple assessment baseline design to assess the effect of SHEP upon multiple outcomes obtained in three different phases. Exercise intensity was quantified by OMNI-RPE assessed by caregivers and children. Outcome assessments of walking speed, GMFM-66 and physiological cost index (PCI) were measured four times at pre-intervention (Phase 1) and at 3-weekly intervals over eight weeks during intervention (Phase 2). Follow-up assessments were performed at one month and three months after intervention (Phase 3). Statistical analyses were repeated measures ANOVA and Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

    RESULTS: SHEP improved walking ability in children with CP, particularly for their walking speed (p= 0.01, Cohen's d= 1.9). The improvement of GMFM-66 scores during Phase 2 and Phase 3 had a large effect size, with Cohen's d of 1.039 and 1.054, respectively, compared with that during Phase 1 (p< 0.017). No significant change of PCI was observed (Cohen's d= 0.39).

    CONCLUSION: SHEP can be a useful intervention tool, given as a written, structured, and practical exercise program undertaken at home to achieve short term goals for improving walking ability when added to standard care.

  6. Arulappen AL, Danial M, Haron N, Hau LC, Khan AH
    Front Pharmacol, 2020;11:565818.
    PMID: 33664664 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2020.565818
    Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) program promotes the judicious use of antimicrobials. Hence, this study was conducted to analyze the impact of stewardship on the prescribing pattern of cefuroxime injection among the surgeons as perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (PAP). This study was conducted retrospectively in Malaysia. Various outcomes were measured including cefuroxime usage, compliance with the guidelines, surgical site infections, and cost savings. A total of 1,601 patients were recruited in the study. In terms of usage, the total defined daily dose (DDD) prior to the intervention was 202 DDD/100 procedures compared to that after intervention which was 144 DDD/100 procedures (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the excessively long administration of PAP dropped from 94.4 to 30.3% (p < 0.001). Focusing on the compliance with the newly developed local guidelines, it has increased from 53 to 94.3% after the interventions were made (p < 0.001), whereas the rate of surgical site infections was reduced from 17.0 to 9.0%. The cost of antibiotic being used has significantly reduced after the study intervention (p = 0.007). The quality of PAP directly impacts the antimicrobial usage, the surgical site infections, and the total cost involved. Thus, it is crucial to maintain the standard of PAP at all times in healthcare settings.
  7. Shafie AA, Ng CH, Thanimalai S, Haron N, Manocha AB
    J Diabetes Metab Disord, 2018 Dec;17(2):269-275.
    PMID: 30918862 DOI: 10.1007/s40200-018-0369-z
    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to estimate the health utility values for hypoglycaemia events according to their severity and frequency. The secondary objective was to compare the health utilities between those with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the general population.

    Method: The health utilities of hypoglycaemia event were measured using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Time Trade-Off (TTO) methods among conveniently sampled consenting adults (>18 years and literate in either English or Malay language), which were then divided into two groups: those in the general population (GP) and those with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Each respondent was required to value 13 different health states, including frequencies of daytime hypoglycaemia and nocturnal hypoglycaemia, each depending on its severity (non-severe or severe).

    Results: 256 respondents from the GP and 99 respondents with T2DM completed the survey. The T2DM group gave higher VAS-values compared to the GP group. The highest mean VAS-utility value for non-severe nocturnal hypoglycaemia occurring once monthly was 0.543 (SD 0.161), and for severe daytime hypoglycaemia occurring once quarterly was 0.293 (SD 0.162) which was the lowest utility value compared to other health states. However, non-severe nocturnal hypoglycaemia occurring once quarterly was 0.537 (SD 0.284) and has the highest TTO-utility value. Severe nocturnal hypoglycaemia occurring once quarterly has the lowest utility value which was -0.104 (SD 0.380). Daytime hypoglycaemia has lower utility value compared to nocturnal hypoglycaemia. Severe hypoglycaemia has a greater disutility compared with the non-severe hypoglycaemia in both studied groups.

    Conclusion: The findings show that as a health utility, hypoglycaemia has a substantial impact on utility with severe hypoglycaemia having a greater negative impact compared to non-severe events across the board. This highlights the importance of preventing development of severe hypoglycaemia in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at any time of the day.

  8. Lee XY, Selvadurai S, Cheah KY, Noh NB, Gan CB, Teng J, et al.
    MyJurnal
    Pharmacist-managed DMTAC has been set up in Malaysia government healthcare facilities to assist diabetic patients in improving their medication adherence level and glycaemic control. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of pharmacist involvement in a DMTAC programme on patient glycaemic control in 14 government health clinics in Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. This multi-centre retrospective study collected DMTAC patient demographics, medication regimens, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, Modified Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMMAS) data, and percentages of understanding towards their medications (based on information retrieved and reviewed from their DMTAC booklets). The data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics Version 21.0. Fifty six patients were involved in this study. The mean HbA1c reduction (SD) of the pre- and post-intervention groups showed a statistically significant
    improvement of 1.0% (1.70) (p<0.001); decreasing from 10.7% (1.51) pre-intervention to 9.7% (1.75) post-intervention. The mean medication understanding score for the postintervention group was 97.6% (7.32), which was significantly higher than the preintervention group score of 92.2% (13.61) (p = 0.005). The mean MMMAS of the postintervention group was 7.4 (1.19), which was significantly higher than the pre-intervention group mean MMMAS of 6.5 (2.33) (p = 0.001). This study demonstrated an improvement in glycaemic control, medication understanding, and adherence level among T2DM patients who were enrolled in a pharmacist-managed DMTAC programme.
    Keywords: Diabetes, Diabetes Medication Adherence Therapy Clinic (DMTAC), Endocrine, Pharmacist, HbA1c, Medication adherence, Medication understanding
  9. Haron N, Zain RB, Nabillah WM, Saleh A, Kallarakkal TG, Ramanathan A, et al.
    Telemed J E Health, 2017 03;23(3):192-199.
    PMID: 27541205 DOI: 10.1089/tmj.2016.0128
    INTRODUCTION: This study examined the concordance in clinical diagnosis of high-risk lesions in the oral cavity and referral decisions between clinical oral examination (COE) and teledentistry.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen individuals with a range of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and normal oral mucosa were included. Five areas of the oral cavity were photographed by three dentists using mobile phone cameras with 5 MP-13 MP resolutions. On the same day, the patients were given COE by two oral medicine specialists (OMS) and 3 weeks later, they reviewed the images taken using the phone, and concordance was examined between the two by Kappa statistics. The sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnosis using the phone images were also measured. Pre- and post-program questionnaires were answered by both the dentists and the OMS to determine the feasibility of integrating teledentistry in their clinical practice.

    RESULTS: The Kappa values in determining the presence of lesion, category of lesion (OPMD or not), and making referral decision were moderate to strong (0.64-1.00). The overall sensitivity was more than 70% and specificity was 100%. The false negative rate decreased as the camera resolution increased. All dentists agreed that the process could facilitate early detection of oral mucosal lesion, and was easy to use in the clinic.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that teledentistry can be used for communication between primary care and OMS and could be readily integrated into clinical setting for patient management.

  10. Sood S, Winn T, Ibrahim S, Gobindram A, Arumugam AA, Razali NC, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2015 Dec;70(6):341-5.
    PMID: 26988206 MyJurnal
    OBJECTIVE: The natural history of asymptomatic (silent) gallstones has been inadequately studied. Existing information derives from studies based on oral cholecystography or relatively small sample sizes. We planned a retrospective cohort study in subjects with gallstones to determine conversion rates from asymptomatic to symptomatic.
    METHODS: We extracted data from computerised databases of one government hospital and two private clinics in Malaysia. Files were scrutinised to ensure that criteria for asymptomatic gallstones were fulfilled. Patients were called on telephone, further questioned to confirm that the gallstones at detection were truly asymptomatic, and asked about symptoms that were consistent with previously defined criteria for biliary colic. Appropriate ethical clearances were taken.
    RESULTS: 213 (112 males) patients fulfilled the criteria for asymptomatic gallstones and could be contacted. 23 (10.8%) developed pain after an average follow up interval of 4.02 years (range 0.1-11 years). Conversion rates from asymptomatic to symptomatic gallstones were high in the first two years of follow up, averaging 4.03±0.965 per year. Over time the conversion rates slowed, and by year 10 the annual conversion rate averaged only 1.38±0.29. Conversion rates were much higher for females compared to males (F:M hazard ratio 3.23, SE 1.54, p>z 0.014). The lifetime risks for conversion approached 6.15% for males, and 22.1% for females.
    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, asymptomatic gallstones are much more likely to convert to symptomatic in females than in males. Males in whom asymptomatic stones are discovered should be advised conservative treatment. Surgery may be preferable to conservative management if the subject is a young female.
    m radiology records of Hospital
    Study site: Computerised database, Hospital Selayang, Selangor; private clinics, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  11. Haron N, Zain RB, Ramanathan A, Abraham MT, Liew CS, Ng KG, et al.
    Telemed J E Health, 2020 03;26(3):278-285.
    PMID: 31081720 DOI: 10.1089/tmj.2018.0285
    Background:
    Up to 86% of oral cancer (OC) patients present at the late stage where survival is dismal. Limited access to specialist diagnosis is a significant factor for late presentation. The increasing use of smartphones presents an opportunity to use digital technology to facilitate early detection of OC.
    Aim:
    To evaluate the feasibility of using Mobile Mouth Screening Anywhere (MeMoSA®) to facilitate early detection of OC.
    Methods:
    A mobile phone app named MeMoSA was developed and the feasibility of integrating this for documentation of oral lesions, and communication between dentists and specialists for management decisions were evaluated. The experience of dentists and specialists in using MeMoSA was determined using qualitative questionnaires.
    Results:
    Communication between specialist and dentists using MeMoSA stratified cases and streamlined referral of patients. Twelve of 48 patients were found to have oral lesions or signs suspicious of cancer and 3 required referrals. The patient's compliance for referral was tracked with MeMoSA. All dentists agreed that MeMoSA could facilitate early detection of OC and believed that MeMoSA could assist in the identification of oral mucosal lesions through direct communication with specialists and continuous learning in the recognition of high-risk lesions.
    Conclusions:
    MeMoSA has the potential to be used to promote equitable health care and streamline patient management that could result in early detection of OC.
  12. Haron N, Rajendran S, Kallarakkal TG, Zain RB, Ramanathan A, Abraham MT, et al.
    Oral Dis, 2021 Apr 29.
    PMID: 33914993 DOI: 10.1111/odi.13892
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of MeMoSA®, a mobile phone application to review images of oral lesions in identifying oral cancers and oral potentially malignant disorders requiring referral.

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A prospective study of 355 participants, including 280 with oral lesions/variants was conducted. Adults aged ≥18 treated at tertiary referral centres were included. Images of the oral cavity were taken using MeMoSA®. The identification of the presence of lesion/variant and referral decision made using MeMoSA® were compared to clinical oral examination, using kappa statistics for intra-rater agreement. Sensitivity, specificity, concordance and F1 score were computed. Images were reviewed by an off-site specialist and inter-rater agreement was evaluated. Images from sequential clinical visits were compared to evaluate observable changes in the lesions.

    RESULTS: Kappa values comparing MeMoSA® with clinical oral examination in detecting a lesion and referral decision was 0.604 and 0.892, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for referral decision were 94.0% and 95.5%. Concordance and F1 score were 94.9% and 93.3%, respectively. Inter-rater agreement for a referral decision was 0.825. Progression or regression of lesions were systematically documented using MeMoSA®.

    CONCLUSION: Referral decisions made through MeMoSA® is highly comparable to clinical examination demonstrating it is a reliable telemedicine tool to facilitate the identification of high-risk lesions for early management.

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