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  1. Alwi N, Harun D, Omar B, Ahmad M, Zagan M, Leonard JH
    Clin Ter, 2015 Nov-Dec;166(6):e361-4.
    PMID: 26794817 DOI: 10.7417/T.2015.1901
    Caregivers face challenges to adapt while handling individual with learning disabilities (LD). The Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scale (F-COPES) is a widely used instrument to measure coping strategies among caregivers. The current study performed cross cultural translation of F-COPES in Malay language. This study aims to examine the reliability by testing internal consistency of Malay version of F-COPES which is developed through back to back translation method from original English version.
  2. Baharudin NS, Harun D, Kadar M
    Malays J Med Sci, 2020 Mar;27(2):21-36.
    PMID: 32788838 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2020.27.2.3
    Various standardised assessment tools have been used to evaluate children with disabilities. However, assessment tools that provide information on the movement and function of children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) are still limited. This article provides a narrative review of the characteristics of five movement and/or function assessment tools. The strengths and limitations of the tools will be highlighted. Empirical studies on the assessment tools used are reviewed based on three criteria: (i) standardised tools; (ii) assessment of movement and/or function; (iii) applicability to children with SLD ranging from 4-17 years of age and widely used in practice. The following instruments have been included as they have been found to fulfil the criteria: (i) the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency-2 (BOT-2); (ii) the movement assessment battery for children-2 (MABC-2); (iii) the pediatric balance scale (PBS); (iv) the Vineland adaptive behaviour scale-II (VABS-II) and (v) the pediatric evaluation of disability inventory-computerised adaptive test (PEDI-CAT). The article presents the characteristics, strengths and limitations of five standardised assessment tools that are currently in use, which measure the movement and/or function of children with SLD. This article concludes with a discussion of recommendations for the best approaches to evaluating the movement and functional abilities of children with SLD.
  3. Kadar M, Ibrahim S, Razaob NA, Chai SC, Harun D
    Aust Occup Ther J, 2018 02;65(1):63-68.
    PMID: 29315609 DOI: 10.1111/1440-1630.12441
    BACKGROUND/AIM: The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale is a tool often used to assess independence among elderly at home. Its suitability to be used with the elderly population in Malaysia has not been validated. This current study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version to Malay speaking elderly in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This study was divided into three phases: (1) translation and linguistic validity involving both forward and backward translations; (2) establishment of face validity and content validity; and (3) establishment of reliability involving inter-rater, test-retest and internal consistency analyses. Data used for these analyses were obtained by interviewing 65 elderly respondents.

    RESULTS: Percentages of Content Validity Index for 4 criteria were from 88.89 to 100.0. The Cronbach α coefficient for internal consistency was 0.838. Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability was 0.957 and 0.950 respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The result shows that the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version has excellent reliability and validity for use with the Malay speaking elderly people in Malaysia. This scale could be used by professionals to assess functional ability of elderly who live independently in community.

  4. Harun D, Che' Din N, Mohd Rasdi HF, Shamsuddin K
    PMID: 31877917 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17010115
    The aim of this study was to describe the employment experiences of persons with learning disabilities (LDs) in developing countries, such as Malaysia. Factors associated with respondents' employment were also determined. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among young adults with LD who left the special education programs in secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. Ninety young adults with LD, aged 18 to 25 years were interviewed face-to-face at an agreed upon convenient place on their working experiences after leaving secondary schools. A total of 13 respondents were excluded from the analysis because their intellectual quotient (IQ) score demonstrated a high possibility of intellectual disability with IQ estimation <70. Of the 77 young adults analyzed, 74.0% reported having work experience and 64.9% were working at the time of interview. Statistical analysis showed significant associations between individual, family, and community factors with respondents' employment. Two factors made a unique statistically significant contribution to the model (gender, p = 0.043 and adult service: Financial support p = 0.012). This study suggests the current school-to-work transition program at secondary and post-secondary schools should be improved to better prepare young adults with LD with necessary skills relevant for the current job market so that they could improve their employability.
  5. Abd Aziz N, Kadar M, Harun D, Mohd Rasdi HF
    PMID: 33511894 DOI: 10.1080/07380577.2021.1876967
    This scoping review explores the implementation of video modeling (VM) by occupational therapists during the intervention process for children and adolescents with special needs. Four primary electronic databases were used to conduct the scoping review: PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and Proquest (Nursing and Allied Health). Research methodologies by Arksey and O'Malley were used as a framework to perform the review process. From the review, two themes emerged: (1) implementing VM by occupational therapists during the intervention process can successfully improve a client's desired skills; (2) VM can be applied through several types of technologies. The findings support occupational therapists' use of VM during interventions to positively enhance and promote desired skills among children and adolescents with special needs. Also, it can be incorporated into technological devices to suit a client's specific needs.
  6. Suhaili I, Harun D, Kadar M, Hanif Farhan MR, Nur Sakinah B, Evelyn Jong TH
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 02;74(1):34-39.
    PMID: 30846660
    INTRODUCTION: Limitations in motor performances among children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) can lead to impaired functional skills. Thus, this study aimed to determine the level of motor performances and functional mobility, and the influence of motor performances on the functional mobility in children with SLD.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 148 children with SLD and their caregivers. The evaluation consisted of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) and the Functional Mobility domain from Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test (PEDI-CAT). The level of motor performances and functional mobility were determined. A linear regression was then conducted to assess the influence of motor performances that could be accounted for functional mobility scores.

    RESULTS: More than half of the children with SLD showed motor performance difficulty in manual dexterity subscale (54.7%). For functional mobility, the mean standard T-score indicated an average level of capability (49.49±15.96). A regression analysis revealed that both manual dexterity and balance were significant predictors for functional mobility. According to the regression coefficients, manual dexterity (B=1.37, β=0.303, sr2=0.077) was found to be a stronger predictor compared to balance (B=0.85, β=0.178, sr2=0.028).

    CONCLUSION: Manual dexterity was found to influence functional mobility among children with SLD. Therefore, fine motor skills intervention for children with SLD should emphasize on manual dexterity training. Future studies that involve dual tasks and inclusion of typical children would give useful additional information on motor performances issues in children with SLD.

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