METHODS: This study was divided into three phases: (1) translation and linguistic validity involving both forward and backward translations; (2) establishment of face validity and content validity; and (3) establishment of reliability involving inter-rater, test-retest and internal consistency analyses. Data used for these analyses were obtained by interviewing 65 elderly respondents.
RESULTS: Percentages of Content Validity Index for 4 criteria were from 88.89 to 100.0. The Cronbach α coefficient for internal consistency was 0.838. Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability was 0.957 and 0.950 respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The result shows that the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version has excellent reliability and validity for use with the Malay speaking elderly people in Malaysia. This scale could be used by professionals to assess functional ability of elderly who live independently in community.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 148 children with SLD and their caregivers. The evaluation consisted of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) and the Functional Mobility domain from Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test (PEDI-CAT). The level of motor performances and functional mobility were determined. A linear regression was then conducted to assess the influence of motor performances that could be accounted for functional mobility scores.
RESULTS: More than half of the children with SLD showed motor performance difficulty in manual dexterity subscale (54.7%). For functional mobility, the mean standard T-score indicated an average level of capability (49.49±15.96). A regression analysis revealed that both manual dexterity and balance were significant predictors for functional mobility. According to the regression coefficients, manual dexterity (B=1.37, β=0.303, sr2=0.077) was found to be a stronger predictor compared to balance (B=0.85, β=0.178, sr2=0.028).
CONCLUSION: Manual dexterity was found to influence functional mobility among children with SLD. Therefore, fine motor skills intervention for children with SLD should emphasize on manual dexterity training. Future studies that involve dual tasks and inclusion of typical children would give useful additional information on motor performances issues in children with SLD.