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  1. Lim KH, Lim HL, Teh CH, Kee CC, Heng PP, Cheah YK, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2018;16.
    DOI: 10.18332/tid/95188
    Introduction: Understanding the prevalence of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and the associated factors is beneficial for the formulation of effective measures to reduce exposure to SHS. The purpose of this study was to determine SHS exposure at home and workplace, and its associated factors among non-smoker Malaysian adults. Methods: Data were extracted from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey-Malaysia (GATS-M) that involved a representative sample of 5112 Malaysian adults. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between SHS exposure, sociodemographic factors, knowledge on the danger of SHS, and smoking restrictions at home and at work among non-smokers. Results: Among non-smoker Malaysians, age ≥15 years, 27.9% (equivalent to approximately 4.21 million non-smokers) and 33.9% (equivalent to approximately 1.37 million non-smokers) reported that they were exposed to SHS at home and the workplace, at least once a month, respectively. Women (AOR=2.12, 95% CI: 1.61.2.78), young individuals (AOR=3.06, 95% CI: 1.48.6.33), Malays (AOR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.56.3.64) or other Bumiputra ethnic groups (AOR=2.40, 95% CI: 1.39.4.19) and those who worked as other than government employees were more likely to report SHS exposure at home (non-government employee: AOR=1.88, 95% CI: 1.06.3.36). Respondents with a total smoking restriction at home did not report any SHS exposure at home. Similarly, those whose workplace had smoking restrictions were less likely to report SHS exposure at the work compared to their counterparts whose workplace had partial (AOR=3.08, 95% CI: 1.84.5.15) or no smoking restrictions (AOR=15.33, 95% CI: 6.75.34.86). Conclusions: A substantial proportion of Malaysian adults were exposed to SHS at home and at work. The findings emphasize the need for policies on smoking restrictions at work and the need to promote the adoption of a completely smoke-free home, among the Malaysian population.
    Study name: Global Adults Tobacco Survey (GATS-2011)
  2. Lim KH, Lim HL, Teh CH, Ghazali SM, Kee CC, Heng PP, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2019;17:51.
    PMID: 31516494 DOI: 10.18332/tid/100692
    INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that the implementation of smoke-free policies at workplaces have shifted the social norms towards secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home. This study aimed to investigate whether working in a smoke-free workplace is associated with living in a smoke-free home (SFH).

    METHODS: The data were derived from the Malaysian Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS-M), collected in 2011-2012, involving 4250 respondents. Data analyses involved 1343 respondents reported to be in the working population.

    RESULTS: More than half of the respondents (58.5%) were reportedly working in smoke-free workplaces. Almost a quarter (24.8%) of those who worked in smoke-free workplaces stayed in smoke-free homes, which was more than two times higher than their counterparts who worked at non-smoke-free workplaces (24.8% vs 12.0%, p<0.001). Multivariable analyses further substantiated this finding (AOR=2.01, 95% CI: 1.11-3.61, reference group = worked at non-smoke-free workplaces).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study found an association between living in smoke-free homes and working at smoke-free workplaces, which could suggest a positive impact of implementing smoke-free workplaces.

  3. Lim KH, Ghazali SM, Lim HL, Cheong KC, Teh CH, Lim KK, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2019 Oct 28;9(10):e031164.
    PMID: 31662384 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031164
    OBJECTIVE: The identification of susceptible non-smoking adolescents is an essential step in reducing smoking initiation among adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with smoking susceptibility among non-smoking school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

    SETTING: Primary and secondary schools in Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: 11 246 non-smoking school-going adolescents.

    OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence and factors associated with smoking susceptibility among non-smoking school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Approximately 14% of non-smokers were susceptible to smoking, and the prevalence of susceptibility was significantly higher among males, ever-smokers and e-cigarette users. The odds of susceptibility to smoking were higher among males, e-cigarette users, those aged 12 years and under and those who had ever smoked or tried cigarettes. Students from schools with educational programmes on the health effects of second-hand smoke (SHS) and who perceived smoking to be harmful were less likely to be susceptible to smoking.

    CONCLUSION: Smoking susceptibility is prevalent among school-going adolescents. A comprehensive approach that enhances or reinforces health education programmes on the adverse health effects of smoking and SHS among school children, that considers multiple factors and that involves all stakeholders is urgently needed to reduce the prevalence of smoking susceptibility among vulnerable subgroups, as identified from the present findings.

  4. Lim KH, Lim HL, Ghazali SM, Kee CC, Teh CH, Gill BS, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2020;18:53.
    PMID: 32565765 DOI: 10.18332/tid/122586
    INTRODUCTION: We investigated the prevalence of children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in the car of their parents/guardians and the associated factors.

    METHODS: A self-administered validated questionnaire was used to obtain data from the nationally representative samples of school-going adolescents aged 11-19 years in Malaysia. Prevalence rates were computed and chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression were conducted.

    RESULTS: Of the participants, 23.3% reported exposure to SHS at least once in the car of their parents/guardians during the last 7 days before the survey. The prevalence and likelihood of SHS exposure were significantly higher in Malays, descendants of natives of Sabah and Sarawak, schools in rural areas, females, and current smokers. However, age group and knowledge on the harmful effects of SHS were not significant after adjusting for confounding effects.

    CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of school-going adolescents were exposed to secondhand smoke in the car of their parents/guardians. This highlights the need for effective tobacco control measures to include health promotion and smoke-free car regulations to be introduced to prevent severe health hazards and to reduce smoking initiation among non-smoking adolescents.

  5. Lim KH, Ghazali SM, Lim HL, Cheong YL, Kee CC, Heng PP, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2021;19:50.
    PMID: 34177412 DOI: 10.18332/tid/136029
    INTRODUCTION: Secondhand (SHS) smoke exposure has caused various health problems. Therefore, continuous monitoring of SHS exposure is important to determine the efficacy of various anti-tobacco measure implemented. The study aims to compare the prevalence and factor(s) associated with SHS exposure among secondary school-going adolescents in Malaysia during 2012 and 2017.

    METHODS: We derived data from the Global School Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 and GSHS 2017, which was carried out in Malaysia using multistage sampling to select representative samples of secondary school-going adolescents. Both surveys used similar questionnaires to measure SHS exposure. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the prevalence and factors associated with SHS exposure.

    RESULTS: Approximately four in ten respondents were exposed to SHS in the past week in both surveys (41.5% in GSHS 2012 and 42.0% in GSHS 2017, respectively). Both surveys revealed a significantly higher SHS exposure among respondents who smoked than among non-smokers and higher among males compared to females. The likelihood of SHS exposure in both surveys was also similar, with a higher likelihood of SHS exposure among smoking adolescents and non-smoking adolescents who had at least one smoking parent/guardian, regardless of their own smoking status. Male adolescents had a higher risk of SHS exposure compared to their female counterparts. Meanwhile, SHS risk also increased with age, regardless of smoking status.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that there were no changes in the prevalence of SHS exposure and recorded only a slight change in the factors associated with exposure to SHS among school-going adolescents in Malaysia between the years 2012 and 2017. A more pro-active, extensive and comprehensive programme should be implemented to address the problem of SHS exposure. Parents should be advised to stop smoking or abstain from smoking in the presence of their children, and smoking cessation interventions are necessary for smoking adolescents and their parents.

  6. Lim KH, Ghazali SM, Lim HL, Kee CC, Cheah YK, Singh BSGP, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2020;18:80.
    PMID: 33013276 DOI: 10.18332/tid/127231
    INTRODUCTION: Periodic surveys on tobacco use patterns and other aspects of tobacco use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia provide information on the effectiveness of anti-smoking measures implemented. However, such information is limited in Malaysia. We investigated the prevalence of smoking and other related aspects among middle-secondary school students in Malaysia from the years 2003-2016 to fill this gap.

    METHODS: We analyzed data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2003, GYTS 2009, and the Tobacco and Electronic Cigarette Survey among Malaysia Adolescents (TECMA) 2016. The surveys employed multistage sampling to select representative samples of adolescents attending secondary school in Malaysia. Data were collected using a pre-validated self-administered anonymous questionnaire adopted from the GYTS.

    RESULTS: Between 2003 and 2016, major changes occurred in which there were reductions in the prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, and susceptibility to smoking. Reductions were also observed in exposure to SHS in public places and in the home. The proportion of school-going adolescents who support a ban on smoking in public places increased between 2013 to 2016, and there was a significant reduction in the proportion of respondents that were offered 'free' cigarettes by tobacco company representatives. However, there was no difference in the proportion of adolescents who initiated smoking before the age of 10 years and current smokers seeking advice to quit smoking across the time period.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the smoking policies and measures have been effective in reducing smoking prevalence, secondhand smoke exposure, and access to cigarettes, among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. However, measures to reduce smoking initiation and increase smoking cessation need to be strengthened to reduce the burden of smoking-related diseases in Malaysia in the long-term.

  7. Lim KH, Teh CH, Heng PP, Pan S, Ling MY, Yusoff MFM, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2018;16:51.
    PMID: 31516448 DOI: 10.18332/tid/96297
    INTRODUCTION: Understanding how and where youth obtain tobacco products are major factors in the development of suitable intervention programs to reduce youth smoking. This study aimed to determine the source of cigarettes and the associated factors among Malaysian school adolescent smokers.

    METHODS: Our sample consisted of 1348 youth aged 10-17 years who were current smokers (having smoked at least once in the last 30 days). The source of cigarettes (commercial, over-the-counter purchases; or social, borrowing or obtaining from someone else) was the dependent variable, and multivariable logistic regression was employed to determine its association with independent variables (i.e. sociodemographics, smoking behavior, and knowledge of laws prohibiting sales of cigarettes to youth).

    RESULTS: Over half (54.3%) of current smokers obtained cigarettes from commercial sources, with a proportion nearly two times higher (84.2% vs 43.7%) among frequent smokers (i.e. those smoking more than 20 days per month) compared to less-frequent smokers, and among young males (56.5% vs 32.0%) compared young females. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that in urban areas, young females (AOR=12.5, 95% CI: 1.38-99.8) frequent smokers (AOR=4.41, 95% CI: 2.05-9.46), and those studying in lower (AOR=3.76, 95% CI: 1.41-10.02) and upper secondary (AOR=4.74, 95% CI: 1.72-13.06) school students were more likely to obtain cigarettes from a commercial source. On the other hand, in rural areas, only frequent smokers were more likely to get their cigarettes from commercial sources, whilst other variables were not significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of youth smokers who obtained cigarettes from commercial sources appeared to be high, suggesting that law enforcement and health promotion activities should be enhanced to reduce the rate of smoking among Malaysian youth.
  8. Teh CH, Teh MW, Lim KH, Kee CC, Sumarni MG, Heng PP, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2019 Aug 27;19(1):1177.
    PMID: 31455283 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7516-4
    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle risk behaviours such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and low fruit/vegetable intake have been identified as the major causes of chronic diseases. Such behaviours are usually instigated in adolescence and tend to persist into adulthood. Studies on the clustering of lifestyle risk behaviours among adolescents are scarce, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, the present paper aimed to determine the clustering of lifestyle risk behaviours and its determinants among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Data were extracted from a cross-sectional study, the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyAHRB) study, which was conducted from May to September 2013 across 11 states in Peninsular Malaysia. A two-stage proportionate-to-size sampling method was employed to select a total of 3578 school-going adolescents aged 16-17 years from 20 selected schools in urban and rural settlements, respectively. The MyAHRB study adopted a set of self-administered questionnaires adapted from the Global School-based Student's Health Survey (GSHS) and the Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance.

    RESULTS: The results from the analysis of 2991 school-going adolescents aged 16-17 years showed that 16 (in boys) and 15 (in girls) out of 32 combinations of lifestyle risk behaviours clustered. Girls (aOR 2.82, 95% CI: 2.32-3.43) were significantly more likely to have clustered risk behaviours than boys; however, no significant associated factors were observed among girls. In contrast, boys of Malay descent (aOR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.46-0.89) or boys who had at least three friends (aOR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.99) were less likely to engage in multiple risk behaviours.

    CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated the clustering of multiple risk behaviours that occurred in both genders; these results suggest that multiple behaviour intervention programmes, instead of programmes based on siloed approaches, should be advocated and targeted to the high-risk sub-populations identified in the present study.

  9. Lim KH, Heng PP, Nik Mohamed MH, Teh CH, Mohd Yusoff MF, Ling JMY, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 10;31(7_suppl):22S-31S.
    PMID: 31802718 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519874944
    Smoking cessation significantly reduces risk of smoking-related diseases and mortality. This study aims to determine the prevalence and factors associated with attempts to quit and smoking cessation among adult current smokers in Malaysia. Data from the National E-Cigarette Survey 2016 were analyzed. Forty nine percent of current smokers had attempted to quit at least once in the past 12 months and 31.4% of the respondents were former smokers. Multivariable analysis revealed that current smokers with low nicotine addiction and aged below 45 years were more likely to attempt to quit smoking. Being married, older age group, and having tertiary education were significantly associated with smoking cessation. Only half of the current smokers ever attempted to quit smoking and only a third of smokers quit. Stronger tobacco control policies are needed in Malaysia to encourage more smokers to quit smoking. Improved access to cessation support for underprivileged smokers is also needed.
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