METHODS: We measured 20 plasma markers i.e. IFN-γ, IL-10, granzyme-B, CX3CL1, IP-10, RANTES, CXCL8, CXCL6, VCAM, ICAM, VEGF, HGF, sCD25, IL-18, LBP, sCD14, sCD163, MIF, MCP-1 and MIP-1β in 141 dengue patients in over 230 specimens and correlate the levels of these plasma markers with the development of dengue without warning signs (DWS-), dengue with warning signs (DWS+) and severe dengue (SD).
RESULTS: Our results show that the elevation of plasma levels of IL-18 at both febrile and defervescence phase was significantly associated with DWS+ and SD; whilst increase of sCD14 and LBP at febrile phase were associated with severity of dengue disease. By using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the IL-18, LBP and sCD14 were significantly predicted the development of more severe form of dengue disease (DWS+/SD) (AUC = 0.768, P
STUDY DESIGN: This was a qualitative study with focus group discussions.
METHODS: Focus group discussions using a semistructured moderator guide were conducted among participants who had attended the HSME programme. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic analysis approach.
RESULTS: Three focus groups involving 19 participants were conducted. Four major themes emerged from the data collected. Most participants enjoyed the group-based HSME sessions because sharing experiences with those having similar health problems can reduce their sense of isolation. However, the participants highlighted the difficulty in sustaining self-care practices in the presence of friends and family influences.
CONCLUSION: A number of patient-, family- and community-level motivators and barriers to patients' hypertension self-management have been identified. Efforts to tailor behavioural interventions to sustain daily self-care activities during social and cultural events are imperative.