Displaying all 18 publications

  1. Hu AS, Hu AS, Hu CH
    Med J Malaysia, 2015 Apr;70(2):104-5.
    PMID: 26162388 MyJurnal
    We report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis, initially diagnosed from gut nodule colonoscopically, along with evidence of lung disease. Subsequently he developed Addisonian crisis due to adrenal involvement. Lessons were learnt from the importance of detailed history-personal and social/family, as well as psychosocial aspects of illness. Public health measures to reduce bird dropping (and thus possibility of histoplasmosis) are discussed.
  2. Huang J, Kumar S, Hu C
    Front Psychol, 2021;12:696552.
    PMID: 34497560 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.696552
    The tremendous development of the Internet enables people to present themselves freely. Some people may reconstruct their identity on the Internet to build an online identity that is partly or even completely different from their real identity in the offline world. Given that research on online identity reconstruction is fragmented, it is important to evaluate the current state of the literature. In this paper, a review of literature related to online identity reconstruction was conducted. This study summarized the theoretical and methodological preferences of relevant research. In addition, it elaborated why and how people engage in online identity reconstruction. The predictors and effects of online identity reconstruction were also discussed. The results of this study provided an overview of the thematic patterns of existing research. This review also identified current research gaps and recommended possible directions for future studies.
  3. Hu C, Kumar S, Huang J, Ratnavelu K
    PLoS One, 2017;12(4):e0175623.
    PMID: 28399153 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175623
    In face-to-face communications, to avoid sanctions and disapproval from others, people are more likely to hide negative aspects of their true self (such as socially undesirable personalities, minds, beliefs and consciousness) to avoid conflict with social norms and laws. The anonymity of cyberspace provides people a unique environment to behave more freely and openly with less restraint from the real word. Existing research related to online true self expression has mainly explored true self as an independent aspect of self. Regarding true self as a two-dimensional concept, this study investigates true self from the perspective of individuals' self-guide and identity reconstruction in both online and offline world. Using qualitative research methods, the current study investigates 57 participants through interviews and questionnaires. Content analysis reveals four factors that motivate people to express more true self (especially negative true self) when reconstructing their online identity and involve true self as a part of their self-guide in anonymous environment. By incorporating true self as an important part of individuals' self-guide and identity online, the current study advances self-discrepancy theory, making it more comprehensive for cyberspace. The results are also interpreted based on self-determination theory. The theoretical contributions of this study are discussed and practical implications are also presented.
  4. Wu W, Xuan Y, Ge Y, Mu S, Hu C, Fan R
    Malays J Pathol, 2021 Aug;43(2):311-317.
    PMID: 34448795
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression levels of micro-ribonucleic acid (miR)-146a and miR-365 in the plasma of osteoarthritis (OA) patients, to study their expression with the inflammatory factors and the severity of disease in patients and to analyse their diagnostic significance.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 42 OA patients diagnosed with OA and treated in our hospital from January 2017 to January 2018 were selected as the subjects, and 28 healthy people were enrolled as controls. The expressions of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-6 in the plasma of OA patients were detected via immunohistochemical staining. Moreover, the knee joint function of OA patients was evaluated by Lysholm score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) score and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score. The expression levels of plasma miR-146a and miR-365 in OA patients were measured through RT-PCR. Besides, the significance of the expression levels of miR-146a and miR-365 for the diagnosis of OA was analysed by ROC curves.

    RESULTS: As compared with healthy people, OA patients had elevated expression levels of plasma IL-1β and IL-6, decreased Lysholm score, increased WOMAC and VAS scores as well as significantly up-regulated levels of plasma miR-146a and miR-365, which were of important significance for diagnosis.

    CONCLUSION: The expression levels of plasma miR-146a, miR-365 and inflammatory factors are notably higher, the disease is more severe, and the function of knee joint movement is weaker in OA patients than those in healthy controls. It can be concluded that the levels of both miR-146a and miR-365 can serve as biomarkers of OA diagnosis.

  5. Yap PS, Krishnan T, Yiap BC, Hu CP, Chan KG, Lim SH
    J Appl Microbiol, 2014 May;116(5):1119-28.
    PMID: 24779580 DOI: 10.1111/jam.12444
    The aim of this study was to investigate the mode of action of the lavender essential oil (LV) on antimicrobial activity against multi-drug-resistant Escherichia coli J53 R1 when used singly and in combination with piperacillin.
  6. Li MH, Da Oh W, Lin KA, Hung C, Hu C, Du Y
    Sci Total Environ, 2020 Jul 01;724:138032.
    PMID: 32408427 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138032
    Since 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SFA) has been increasingly released to the environment, SO4--based oxidation processes using Oxone have been considered as useful methods to eliminate SFA. As Co3O4 has been a promising material for OX activation, the four 3D Co3O4 catalysts with distinct morphologies, including Co3O4-C (with cubes), Co3O4-P (with plates), Co3O4-N (with needles) and Co3O4-F (with floral structures), are fabricated for activating OX to degrade SFA. In particular, Co3O4-F not only exhibits the highest surface area but also possesses the abundant Co2+ and more reactive surface, making Co3O4-F the most advantageous 3D Co3O4 catalyst for OX activation to degrade SFA. The mechanism of SFA by this 3D Co3O4/OX is also investigated and the corresponding SFA degradation pathway has been elucidated. The catalytic activities of Co3O4 catalysts can be correlated to physical and chemical properties which were associated with particular morphologies to provide insights into design of 3D Co3O4-based catalysts for OX-based technology to degrade emerging contaminants, such as SFA.
  7. Yang DQ, Zeng Y, Sun XY, Yue X, Hu CX, Jiang P, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2020 Dec 01;37(4):932-946.
    PMID: 33612747 DOI: 10.47665/tb.37.4.932
    In previous studies, a Trichinella spiralis serine protease (TsSP) was identified in excretion/secretion (ES) products from intestinal infective L1 larvae (IIL1) using immunoproteomics. The complete cDNA sequence of TsSP gene was 1372 bp, which encoded 429 amino acids with 47.55 kDa. The TsSP was transcribed and expressed at all T. spiralis life cycle phases, as well as mainly located at the cuticle and stichosome of the parasitic nematode. Recombinant TsSP bind to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and promoted larva invasion, however, its exact function in invasion, development and reproduction are still unknown. The aim of this study was to confirm the biological function of TsSP during T. spiralis invasion and growth using RNA interference (RNAi) technology. The results showed that on 1 day after electroporation using 2.5 µM siRNA156, TsSP mRNA and protein expression of muscle larvae (ML) was suppressed by 48.35 and 59.98%, respectively. Meanwhile, silencing of TsSP gene by RNAi resulted in a 61.38% decrease of serine protease activity of ML ES proteins, and a significant reduction of the in vitro and in vivo invasive capacity of IIL1 to intrude into the IEC monolayer and intestinal mucosa. When mice were infected with siRNA 156-transfected larvae, adult worm and muscle larva burdens were decreased by 58.85 and 60.48%, respectively. Moreover, intestinal worm growth and female fecundity were evidently inhibited after TsSP gene was knockdown, it was demonstrated that intestinal adults became smaller and the in vitro newborn larval yield of females obviously declined compared with the control siRNA group. The results indicated that knockdown of TsSP gene by RNAi significantly reduced the TsSP expression and enzymatic activity, impaired larvae intrusion and growth, and lowered the female reproductive capacity, further verified that TsSP might participate in diverse processes of T. spiralis life cycle, it will be a new prospective candidate molecular target of anti-Trichinella vaccines.
  8. Lin JY, Lee J, Oh WD, Kwon E, Tsai YC, Lisak G, et al.
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2021 Nov 15;602:95-104.
    PMID: 34118608 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2021.05.098
    Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) represent a promising class of metallic catalysts for reduction of nitrogen-containing contaminants (NCCs), such as 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Nevertheless, most researches involving MOFs for 4-NP reduction employ noble metals in the form of fine powders, making these powdered noble metal-based MOFs impractical and inconvenient for realistic applications. Thus, it would be critical to develop non-noble-metal MOFs which can be incorporated into macroscale and porous supports for convenient applications. Herein, the present study proposes to develop a composite material which combines advantageous features of macroscale/porous supports, and nanoscale functionality of MOFs. In particular, copper foam (CF) is selected as a macroscale porous medium, which is covered by nanoflower-structured CoO to increase surfaces for growing a cobaltic MOF, ZIF-67. The resultant composite comprises of CF covered by CoO nanoflowers decorated with ZIF-67 to form a hierarchical 3D-structured catalyst, enabling this ZIF-67@Cu foam (ZIF@CF) a promising catalyst for reducing 4-NP, and other NCCs. Thus, ZIF@CF can readily reduce 4-NP to 4-AP with a significantly lower Ea of 20 kJ/mol than reported values. ZIF@CF could be reused over 10 cycles and remain highly effective for 4-NP reduction. ZIF@CF also efficiently reduces other NCCs, such as 2-nitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, methylene blue, and methyl orange. ZIF@CF can be adopted as catalytic filters to enable filtration-type reduction of NCCs by passing NCC solutions through ZIF@CF to promptly and conveniently reduce NCCs. The versatile and advantageous catalytic activity of ZIF@CF validates that ZIF@CF is a promising and practical heterogeneous catalyst for reductive treatments of NCCs.
  9. Xu JY, Tong X, Besteiro LV, Li X, Hu C, Liu R, et al.
    Nanoscale, 2021 Sep 23;13(36):15301-15310.
    PMID: 34490860 DOI: 10.1039/d1nr04199a
    "Giant" core/shell quantum dots (g-QDs) are promising candidates for emerging optoelectronic technologies thanks to their facile structure/composition-tunable optoelectronic properties and outstanding photo-physical/chemical stability. Here, we synthesized a new type of CuInTeSe (CITS)/CdS g-QDs and regulated their optoelectronic properties by controlling the shell thickness. Through increasing the shell thickness, as-prepared g-QDs exhibited tunable red-shifted emission (from 900 to 1200 nm) and prolonged photoluminescence (PL) lifetimes (up to ∼14.0 μs), indicating a formed band structure showing efficient charge separation and transfer, which is further testified by theoretical calculations and ultrafast time-resolved transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. These CITS/CdS g-QDs with various shell thicknesses can be employed to fabricate photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells, exhibiting improved photoresponse and stability as compared to the bare CITS QD-based devices. The results indicate that the rational design and engineering of g-QDs is very promising for future QD-based optoelectronic technologies.
  10. Shahrizaila N, Sobue G, Kuwabara S, Kim SH, Birks C, Fan DS, et al.
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2016 08;87(8):821-30.
    PMID: 27093948 DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2015-312751
    While the past 2 decades have witnessed an increasing understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) arising from East Asia, particularly Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and China, knowledge of ALS throughout the whole of Asia remains limited. Asia represents >50% of the world population, making it host to the largest patient cohort of ALS. Furthermore, Asia represents a diverse population in terms of ethnic, social and cultural backgrounds. In this review, an overview is presented that covers what is currently known of ALS in Asia from basic epidemiology and genetic influences, through to disease characteristics including atypical phenotypes which manifest a predilection for Asians. With the recent establishment of the Pan-Asian Consortium for Treatment and Research in ALS to facilitate collaborations between clinicians and researchers across the region, it is anticipated that Asia and the Pacific will contribute to unravelling the uncertainties in ALS.
  11. D'cruz A, Lin T, Anand AK, Atmakusuma D, Calaguas MJ, Chitapanarux I, et al.
    Oral Oncol, 2013 Sep;49(9):872-877.
    PMID: 23830839 DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2013.05.010
    Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a disease of the upper aerodigestive tract and is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide. A high rate of cancers involving the head and neck are reported across the Asian region, with notable variations between countries. Disease prognosis is largely dependent on tumor stage and site. Patients with early stage disease have a 60-95% chance of cure with local therapy. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important to increase the likelihood of cure and survival. However, the majority of patients present with locally advanced disease and require multimodality treatment. This necessitates, a multidisciplinary approach which is essential to make appropriate treatment decisions, particularly with regards to tolerability, costs, available infrastructure and quality of life issues. Unfortunately, majority of the studies that dictate current practice have been developed in the west where diseases biology, patient population and available infrastructure are very different from those in the Asian continent. With this in mind an expert panel of Head and Neck Oncologists was convened in May 2012 to review the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) clinical practice guidelines and develop practical recommendations on the applicability of these guidelines on the management of head and neck cancer for Asian patients. The objective of this review and consensus meeting was to suggest revisions, to account for potential differences in demographics and resources, to the NCCN and ESMO guidelines, to better reflect current clinical management of head and neck cancer within the Asian region for health care providers. These recommendations, which reflect best clinical practice within Asia, are expected to benefit practitioners when making decisions regarding optimal treatment strategies for their patients.
  12. Ma RC, Hu C, Tam CH, Zhang R, Kwan P, Leung TF, et al.
    Diabetologia, 2013 Jun;56(6):1291-305.
    PMID: 23532257 DOI: 10.1007/s00125-013-2874-4
    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Most genetic variants identified for type 2 diabetes have been discovered in European populations. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in a Chinese population with the aim of identifying novel variants for type 2 diabetes in Asians.

    METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of three GWAS comprising 684 patients with type 2 diabetes and 955 controls of Southern Han Chinese descent. We followed up the top signals in two independent Southern Han Chinese cohorts (totalling 10,383 cases and 6,974 controls), and performed in silico replication in multiple populations.

    RESULTS: We identified CDKN2A/B and four novel type 2 diabetes association signals with p 

  13. Shimelis H, Mesman RLS, Von Nicolai C, Ehlen A, Guidugli L, Martin C, et al.
    Cancer Res, 2017 06 01;77(11):2789-2799.
    PMID: 28283652 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-2568
    Breast cancer risks conferred by many germline missense variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, often referred to as variants of uncertain significance (VUS), have not been established. In this study, associations between 19 BRCA1 and 33 BRCA2 missense substitution variants and breast cancer risk were investigated through a breast cancer case-control study using genotyping data from 38 studies of predominantly European ancestry (41,890 cases and 41,607 controls) and nine studies of Asian ancestry (6,269 cases and 6,624 controls). The BRCA2 c.9104A>C, p.Tyr3035Ser (OR = 2.52; P = 0.04), and BRCA1 c.5096G>A, p.Arg1699Gln (OR = 4.29; P = 0.009) variant were associated with moderately increased risks of breast cancer among Europeans, whereas BRCA2 c.7522G>A, p.Gly2508Ser (OR = 2.68; P = 0.004), and c.8187G>T, p.Lys2729Asn (OR = 1.4; P = 0.004) were associated with moderate and low risks of breast cancer among Asians. Functional characterization of the BRCA2 variants using four quantitative assays showed reduced BRCA2 activity for p.Tyr3035Ser compared with wild-type. Overall, our results show how BRCA2 missense variants that influence protein function can confer clinically relevant, moderately increased risks of breast cancer, with potential implications for risk management guidelines in women with these specific variants. Cancer Res; 77(11); 2789-99. ©2017 AACR.
  14. Maaroufi A, Vince A, Himatt SM, Mohamed R, Fung J, Opare-Sem O, et al.
    J Viral Hepat, 2017 10;24 Suppl 2:8-24.
    PMID: 29105285 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12762
    Due to the introduction of newer, more efficacious treatment options, there is a pressing need for policy makers and public health officials to develop or adapt national hepatitis C virus (HCV) control strategies to the changing epidemiological landscape. To do so, detailed, country-specific data are needed to characterize the burden of chronic HCV infection. In this study of 17 countries, a literature review of published and unpublished data on HCV prevalence, viraemia, genotype, age and gender distribution, liver transplants and diagnosis and treatment rates was conducted, and inputs were validated by expert consensus in each country. Viraemic prevalence in this study ranged from 0.2% in Hong Kong to 2.4% in Taiwan, while the largest viraemic populations were in Nigeria (2 597 000 cases) and Taiwan (569 000 cases). Diagnosis, treatment and liver transplant rates varied widely across the countries included in this analysis, as did the availability of reliable data. Addressing data gaps will be critical for the development of future strategies to manage and minimize the disease burden of hepatitis C.
  15. Chan HLY, Chen CJ, Omede O, Al Qamish J, Al Naamani K, Bane A, et al.
    J Viral Hepat, 2017 10;24 Suppl 2:25-43.
    PMID: 29105283 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12760
    Factors influencing the morbidity and mortality associated with viremic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection change over time and place, making it difficult to compare reported estimates. Models were developed for 17 countries (Bahrain, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Colombia, Croatia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ghana, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Morocco, Nigeria, Qatar and Taiwan) to quantify and characterize the viremic population as well as forecast the changes in the infected population and the corresponding disease burden from 2015 to 2030. Model inputs were agreed upon through expert consensus, and a standardized methodology was followed to allow for comparison across countries. The viremic prevalence is expected to remain constant or decline in all but four countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Jordan and Oman); however, HCV-related morbidity and mortality will increase in all countries except Qatar and Taiwan. In Qatar, the high-treatment rate will contribute to a reduction in total cases and HCV-related morbidity by 2030. In the remaining countries, however, the current treatment paradigm will be insufficient to achieve large reductions in HCV-related morbidity and mortality.
  16. Chen DS, Hamoudi W, Mustapha B, Layden J, Nersesov A, Reic T, et al.
    J Viral Hepat, 2017 10;24 Suppl 2:44-63.
    PMID: 29105286 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.12759
    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic was forecasted through 2030 for 17 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Middle East, and interventions for achieving the Global Health Sector Strategy on viral hepatitis targets-"WHO Targets" (65% reduction in HCV-related deaths, 90% reduction in new infections and 90% of infections diagnosed by 2030) were considered. Scaling up treatment and diagnosis rates over time would be required to achieve these targets in all but one country, even with the introduction of high SVR therapies. The scenarios developed to achieve the WHO Targets in all countries studied assumed the implementation of national policies to prevent new infections and to diagnose current infections through screening.
  17. Barnes DR, Rookus MA, McGuffog L, Leslie G, Mooij TM, Dennis J, et al.
    Genet Med, 2020 10;22(10):1653-1666.
    PMID: 32665703 DOI: 10.1038/s41436-020-0862-x
    PURPOSE: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers.

    METHODS: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort.

    RESULTS: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10-72). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10-50). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10-22) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10-12) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar.

    CONCLUSION: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.

  18. Milne RL, Kuchenbaecker KB, Michailidou K, Beesley J, Kar S, Lindström S, et al.
    Nat Genet, 2017 Dec;49(12):1767-1778.
    PMID: 29058716 DOI: 10.1038/ng.3785
    Most common breast cancer susceptibility variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of predominantly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We conducted a GWAS using 21,468 ER-negative cases and 100,594 controls combined with 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer), all of European origin. We identified independent associations at P < 5 × 10-8 with ten variants at nine new loci. At P < 0.05, we replicated associations with 10 of 11 variants previously reported in ER-negative disease or BRCA1 mutation carrier GWAS and observed consistent associations with ER-negative disease for 105 susceptibility variants identified by other studies. These 125 variants explain approximately 16% of the familial risk of this breast cancer subtype. There was high genetic correlation (0.72) between risk of ER-negative breast cancer and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. These findings may lead to improved risk prediction and inform further fine-mapping and functional work to better understand the biological basis of ER-negative breast cancer.
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