The main purpose of the current article is to introduce a framework of the complexity of childhood obesity based on the family environment. A conceptual model that quantifies the relationships and interactions among parental socioeconomic status, family food security level, child's food intake and certain aspects of parental feeding behaviour is presented using the structural equation modeling (SEM) concept. Structural models are analysed in terms of the direct and indirect connections among latent and measurement variables that lead to the child weight indicator. To illustrate the accuracy, fit, reliability and validity of the introduced framework, real data collected from 630 families from Urumqi (Xinjiang, China) were considered. The framework includes two categories of data comprising the normal body mass index (BMI) range and obesity data. The comparison analysis between two models provides some evidence that in obesity modeling, obesity data must be extracted from the dataset and analysis must be done separately from the normal BMI range. This study may be helpful for researchers interested in childhood obesity modeling based on family environment.
The present study aimed to establish a genus-specific PCR-based assay to detect helicobacters using 16S rRNA gene as the target template. We designed the hemi-nested primers based on sequences of 16S rRNA gene of 34 types of Helicobacter species. The inclusivity, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCR assay using these primers were examined in three different models, comprising feces simulated samples, BLAB/c mice infection model and clinic patients samples. The detection sensitivity of Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter hepaticus and Helicobacter bilis strains from feces simulated samples was all 102 CFU/ml. We successfully detected H. hepaticus and H. bilis in the liver, cecum and feces of experimentally infected mice. H. pylori was successfully detected in the feces samples from 3 patients infected with H. pylori while not in the feces samples from 3 healthy human. However, the C97/C05-C97/C98 PCR assay detected H. pylori in the 2 positive samples. Due to the PCR assay's excellent inclusivity, high sensitivity and specificity it may be used to detect the presence of Helicobacters.
To explore in vitro release rules of isoniazid (INH) when Isoniazid Super paramagnetic Iron Oxide Microspheres (ISPIOM) are subject to no external magnetic field, applied mechanical magnetic field and scillating magnetic field. ISPIOM was prepared by using the spray drying method; Isoniazid contented in the microspheres was determined, the drug loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency were calculated. Release of isoniazid in the microspheres was determined respectively under the effect of no external magnetic field, applied mechanical magnetic field and oscillating magnetic field, to explore the release rules. In solution with pH=7.4 PBS, microspheres featured 8-hour sustained release under the effect of magnetic field, the released rate of the microspheres is accelerated,. In solution with pH=3 PBS, microspheres release faster and could realize the fastest completion of release in 2 hours under the effect of oscillating magnetic field. To join the external magnetic field in different point time to can't affect the release, under pH=3 of medium, ISPIOM release faster; under the effect of magnetic field, the released rate of the microspheres is accelerated, and the longer effect of magnetic field, the faster release. Oscillating magnetic field can make ISPIOM within a certain period of time, get ideal release curve, so as to achieve good control release effect.
The evolution of weed-resistant species threatens the sustainable use of glyphosate, which is the most important herbicide widely used in agriculture worldwide. Moreover, the high glyphosate resistance (>180-fold based on LD50) of Eleusine indica found in Malaysia, which carries a double mutation in its 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), made the control of this species more difficult. By contrast, the same species carrying the same double mutation in EPSPS (T102I+P106S) but found in China only shows a resistance level of not more than 14-fold based on GR50. The resistance level of this population is four times higher than that of the population carrying a single mutation (P106L). Although the members of this population survive under a high glyphosate dosage of 10,080gaeha-1, their growth was significantly inhibited by glyphosate under the recommend dose (840gaeha-1), where in the fresh weight was 85.4% of the control. EPSPS expression, relative copy number, and EPSPS activity in this population were similar to those of the susceptible population. In addition, the expression of two glutathione transferase (GST) genes (GST-U8 and GST-23) and the enzyme activity of the GST in this population did not significantly differ from those of the susceptible population. This finding is important in elucidating the resistance of the naturally evolved glyphosate-resistant (GR) weed species carrying a double mutation in EPSPS to glyphosate.
Hematological and clinical data are presented for a young Malay patient with a homozygous (delta beta)zero-thalassemic condition. His red blood cells contained 100% fetal hemoglobin with alpha and G gamma chains only. Detailed gene mapping defined a large deletion with a 5' end between the Aha III and Apa I sites, some 200-400 bp 5' to the A gamma globin gene and a 3' end beyond sequences 17-18 kb 3' to the beta globin gene. This G gamma (A gamma delta beta)zero-type of thalassemia is different from all the other six types described before. Comparison of the hematological data of this patient with those of homozygotes for either the Sicilian or Spanish types of G gamma A gamma (delta beta)zero-thalassemia showed no differences; all homozygotes have a moderate anemia which is accentuated by the relatively high oxygen affinity of the Hb F containing erythrocytes.
Cutinase catalyzes the hydrolysis of water-soluble esters and long-chain triglycerides and belongs to the family of serine hydrolases. The enzyme is thought to represent an evolutionary link between the esterase and lipase families and has potential applications in a wide range of industrial hydrolytic processes, for which an understanding of the molecular basis of its substrate specificity is critical. Glomerella cingulata cutinase has been cloned and the protein has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and subsequently crystallized in a wide range of different crystal forms in the presence and absence of inhibitors. The best crystals are those of the apo cutinase, which diffract to beyond 1.6 A resolution and belong to space group P4(1)2(1)2 or P4(3)2(1)2. Crystals of cutinase with the inhibitors PETFP or E600 belong to space groups P2(1)2(1)2(1) and P2(1), respectively, and diffract to approximately 2.5 A resolution. All of the crystals are suitable for structural studies, which are currently ongoing.
Cutinase belongs to a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of esters and triglycerides. Structural studies on the enzyme from Fusarium solani have revealed the presence of a classic catalytic triad that has been implicated in the enzyme's mechanism. We have solved the crystal structure of Glomerella cingulata cutinase in the absence and in the presence of the inhibitors E600 (diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate) and PETFP (3-phenethylthio-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-one) to resolutions between 2.6 and 1.9 A. Analysis of these structures reveals that the catalytic triad (Ser136, Asp191, and His204) adopts an unusual configuration with the putative essential histidine His204 swung out of the active site into a position where it is unable to participate in catalysis, with the imidazole ring 11 A away from its expected position. Solution-state NMR experiments are consistent with the disrupted configuration of the triad observed crystallographically. H204N, a site-directed mutant, was shown to be catalytically inactive, confirming the importance of this residue in the enzyme mechanism. These findings suggest that, during its catalytic cycle, cutinase undergoes a significant conformational rearrangement converting the loop bearing the histidine from an inactive conformation, in which the histidine of the triad is solvent exposed, to an active conformation, in which the triad assumes a classic configuration.
The dengue virus (DENV) is a vital global public health issue. The 2014 dengue epidemic in Guangzhou, China, caused approximately 40,000 cases of infection and five deaths. We carried out a comprehensive investigation aimed at identifying the transmission sources in this dengue epidemic. To analyze the phylogenetics of the 2014 dengue strains, the envelope (E) gene sequences from 17 viral strains isolated from 168 dengue patient serum samples were sequenced and a phylogenetic tree was reconstructed. All 17 strains were serotype I strains, including 8 genotype I and 9 genotype V strains. Additionally, 6 genotype I strains that were probably introduced to China from Thailand before 2009 were widely transmitted in the 2013 and 2014 epidemics, and they continued to circulate until 2015, with one affinis strain being found in Singapore. The other 2 genotype I strains were introduced from the Malaya Peninsula in 2014. The transmission source of the 9 genotype V strains was from Malaysia in 2014. DENVs of different serotypes and genotypes co-circulated in the 2014 dengue outbreak in Guangzhou. Moreover, not only had DENV been imported to Guangzhou, but it had also been gradually exported, as the viruses exhibited an enzootic transmission cycle in Guangzhou.
The Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is an economically important tropical tree species that produces natural rubber, an essential industrial raw material. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly of this species (1.37 Gb, scaffold N50 = 1.28 Mb) that covers 93.8% of the genome (1.47 Gb) and harbours 43,792 predicted protein-coding genes. A striking expansion of the REF/SRPP (rubber elongation factor/small rubber particle protein) gene family and its divergence into several laticifer-specific isoforms seem crucial for rubber biosynthesis. The REF/SRPP family has isoforms with sizes similar to or larger than SRPP1 (204 amino acids) in 17 other plants examined, but no isoforms with similar sizes to REF1 (138 amino acids), the predominant molecular variant. A pivotal point in Hevea evolution was the emergence of REF1, which is located on the surface of large rubber particles that account for 93% of rubber in the latex (despite constituting only 6% of total rubber particles, large and small). The stringent control of ethylene synthesis under active ethylene signalling and response in laticifers resolves a longstanding mystery of ethylene stimulation in rubber production. Our study, which includes the re-sequencing of five other Hevea cultivars and extensive RNA-seq data, provides a valuable resource for functional genomics and tools for breeding elite Hevea cultivars.
Hemoglobinopathies are among the most common autosomal-recessive disorders worldwide. A comprehensive next-generation sequencing (NGS) test would greatly facilitate screening and diagnosis of these disorders. An NGS panel targeting the coding regions of hemoglobin genes and four modifier genes was designed. We validated the assay by using 2522 subjects affected with hemoglobinopathies and applied it to carrier testing in a cohort of 10,111 couples who were also screened through traditional methods. In the clinical genotyping analysis of 1182 β-thalassemia subjects, we identified a group of additional variants that can be used for accurate diagnosis. In the molecular screening analysis of the 10,111 couples, we detected 4180 individuals in total who carried 4840 mutant alleles, and identified 186 couples at risk of having affected offspring. 12.1% of the pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants identified by our NGS assay, which were undetectable by traditional methods. Compared with the traditional methods, our assay identified an additional at-risk 35 couples. We describe a comprehensive NGS-based test that offers advantages over the traditional screening/molecular testing methods. To our knowledge, this is among the first large-scale population study to systematically evaluate the application of an NGS technique in carrier screening and molecular diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies.
The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is witnessing an increase in chronic disorders, including mental illness. With ongoing unrest, this is expected to rise. This is the first study to quantify the burden of mental disorders in the EMR. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD) 2013. DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) allow assessment of both premature mortality (years of life lost-YLLs) and nonfatal outcomes (years lived with disability-YLDs). DALYs are computed by adding YLLs and YLDs for each age-sex-country group. In 2013, mental disorders contributed to 5.6% of the total disease burden in the EMR (1894 DALYS/100,000 population): 2519 DALYS/100,000 (2590/100,000 males, 2426/100,000 females) in high-income countries, 1884 DALYS/100,000 (1618/100,000 males, 2157/100,000 females) in middle-income countries, 1607 DALYS/100,000 (1500/100,000 males, 1717/100,000 females) in low-income countries. Females had a greater proportion of burden due to mental disorders than did males of equivalent ages, except for those under 15 years of age. The highest proportion of DALYs occurred in the 25-49 age group, with a peak in the 35-39 years age group (5344 DALYs/100,000). The burden of mental disorders in EMR increased from 1726 DALYs/100,000 in 1990 to 1912 DALYs/100,000 in 2013 (10.8% increase). Within the mental disorders group in EMR, depressive disorders accounted for most DALYs, followed by anxiety disorders. Among EMR countries, Palestine had the largest burden of mental disorders. Nearly all EMR countries had a higher mental disorder burden compared to the global level. Our findings call for EMR ministries of health to increase provision of mental health services and to address the stigma of mental illness. Moreover, our results showing the accelerating burden of mental health are alarming as the region is seeing an increased level of instability. Indeed, mental health problems, if not properly addressed, will lead to an increased burden of diseases in the region.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable and heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental phenotypes diagnosed in more than 1% of children. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ASD susceptibility, but to date no individual variants have been robustly associated with ASD. With a marked sample-size increase from a unique Danish population resource, we report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 18,381 individuals with ASD and 27,969 controls that identified five genome-wide-significant loci. Leveraging GWAS results from three phenotypes with significantly overlapping genetic architectures (schizophrenia, major depression, and educational attainment), we identified seven additional loci shared with other traits at equally strict significance levels. Dissecting the polygenic architecture, we found both quantitative and qualitative polygenic heterogeneity across ASD subtypes. These results highlight biological insights, particularly relating to neuronal function and corticogenesis, and establish that GWAS performed at scale will be much more productive in the near term in ASD.