Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

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  1. Khataee HR, Ibrahim MY
    IET Nanobiotechnol, 2012 Sep;6(3):87-92.
    PMID: 22894532 DOI: 10.1049/iet-nbt.2011.0062
    Kinesin is a protein-based natural nanomotor that transports molecular cargoes within cells by walking along microtubules. Kinesin nanomotor is considered as a bio-nanoagent which is able to sense the cell through its sensors (i.e. its heads and tail), make the decision internally and perform actions on the cell through its actuator (i.e. its motor domain). The study maps the agent-based architectural model of internal decision-making process of kinesin nanomotor to a machine language using an automata algorithm. The applied automata algorithm receives the internal agent-based architectural model of kinesin nanomotor as a deterministic finite automaton (DFA) model and generates a regular machine language. The generated regular machine language was acceptable by the architectural DFA model of the nanomotor and also in good agreement with its natural behaviour. The internal agent-based architectural model of kinesin nanomotor indicates the degree of autonomy and intelligence of the nanomotor interactions with its cell. Thus, our developed regular machine language can model the degree of autonomy and intelligence of kinesin nanomotor interactions with its cell as a language. Modelling of internal architectures of autonomous and intelligent bio-nanosystems as machine languages can lay the foundation towards the concept of bio-nanoswarms and next phases of the bio-nanorobotic systems development.
  2. O'Boyle SJ, Power JJ, Ibrahim MY, Watson JP
    Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis., 2002 Apr;6(4):307-12.
    PMID: 11936739
    SETTING: Kota Kinabalu and surrounding communities in Sabah, Malaysia.
    OBJECTIVES: To establish factors affecting compliance of patients with anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy, their knowledge of the disease, and views on improving the DOTS strategy.
    DESIGN: Interviews with compliant patients attending clinics for DOTS treatment and with non-compliant patients in their homes, in August and September 2000.
    RESULTS: A total of 63 compliant and 23 non-compliant patients were interviewed. For non-compliant patients, reaching the treatment centre entailed greater cost (P < 0.005) and travel time (P < 0.005) compared to compliant patients. Cost of transport was the reason most frequently given for non-attendance. Non-compliant patients were more likely to have completed secondary education (P < 0.05), and to be working (P < 0.01). More non-compliant patients had family members who had had the disease (P < 0.01). There was no difference between the groups for overall tuberculosis knowledge scores; however, non-compliant patients were more likely to think that treatment could be stopped once they were symptom free (P < 0.01). Most patients (73%) felt that the DOTS system could be improved by provision of more information about tuberculosis.
    CONCLUSION: Compliance with DOTS in the Kota Kinabalu area is affected by travel expenses, time spent travelling to treatment centres, and having family members who have had the disease. Patients would like more information on tuberculosis.
    Study site: Tuberculosis clinics, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia
  3. Salim LZ, Mohan S, Othman R, Abdelwahab SI, Kamalidehghan B, Sheikh BY, et al.
    Molecules, 2013 Sep 12;18(9):11219-40.
    PMID: 24036512 DOI: 10.3390/molecules180911219
    There has been a growing interest in naturally occurring compounds from traditional medicine with anti-cancer potential. Nigella sativa (black seed) is one of the most widely studied plants. This annual herb grows in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and India. Thymoquinone (TQ) is an active ingredient isolated from Nigella sativa. The anti-cancer effect of TQ, via the induction of apoptosis resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction, was assessed in an acute lymphocyte leukemic cell line (CEMss) with an IC50 of 1.5 µg/mL. A significant increase in chromatin condensation in the cell nucleus was observed using fluorescence analysis. The apoptosis was then confirmed by Annexin V and an increased number of cellular DNA breaks in treated cells were observed as a DNA ladder. Treatment of CEMss cells with TQ encouraged apoptosis with cell death-transducing signals by a down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax. Moreover, the significant generation of cellular ROS, HSP70 and activation of caspases 3 and 8 were also observed in the treated cells. The mitochondrial apoptosis was clearly associated with the S phase cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, the results from the current study indicated that TQ could be a promising agent for the treatment of leukemia.
  4. Jeffree SM, Mihat O, Lukman KA, Ibrahim MY, Kamaludin F, Hassan MR, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(7):3123-9.
    PMID: 27509940
    BACKGROUND: Cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in Sabah Malaysia with a reported agestandardized incidence rate was 104.9 per 100,000 in 2007. The incidence rate depends on nonmandatory notification in the registry. Underreporting will provide the false picture of cancer control program effectiveness. The present study was to evaluate the performance of the cancer registry system in terms of representativeness, data quality, simplicity, acceptability and timeliness and provision of recommendations for improvement.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The evaluation was conducted among key informants in the National Cancer Registry (NCR) and reporting facilities from FebMay 2012 and was based on US CDC guidelines. Representativeness was assessed by matching cancer case in the Health Information System (HIS) and state pathology records with those in NCR. Data quality was measured through case finding and reabstracting of medical records by independent auditors. The reabstracting portion comprised 15 data items. Selfadministered questionnaires were used to assess simplicity and acceptability. Timeliness was measured from date of diagnosis to date of notification received and data dissemination.

    RESULTS: Of 4613 cancer cases reported in HIS, 83.3% were matched with cancer registry. In the state pathology centre, 99.8% was notified to registry. Duplication of notification was 3%. Data completeness calculated for 104 samples was 63.4%. Registrars perceived simplicity in coding diagnosis as moderate. Notification process was moderately acceptable. Median duration of interval 1 was 5.7 months.

    CONCLUSIONS: The performances of registry's attributes are fairly positive in terms of simplicity, case reporting sensitivity, and predictive value positive. It is moderately acceptable, data completeness and inflexible. The usefulness of registry is the area of concern to achieve registry objectives. Timeliness of reporting is within international standard, whereas timeliness to data dissemination was longer up to 4 years. Integration between existing HIS and national registration department will improve data quality.

  5. Abdelwahab SI, Abdul AB, Mohan S, Taha MM, Syam S, Ibrahim MY, et al.
    Leuk. Res., 2011 Feb;35(2):268-71.
    PMID: 20708800 DOI: 10.1016/j.leukres.2010.07.025
    Zerumbone (ZER) is a potential anticancer natural compound, isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith. In this investigation, the anticancer properties of ZER were evaluated on cancer cells of T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, CEM-ss. The results showed that ZER has cytotoxic effect against CEM-ss cells with an IC(50) of 8.4 ± 1.9 μg/ml (coefficient of variation < 30%). Comparatively, 5-fluorouracil (positive control), imposed an inhibitory effect on CEM-ss cells with an IC(50) of 1.94 ± 0.06 μg/ml. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results revealed abnormalities such as membrane blebbing, holes and cytoplasmic extrusions, all of which are characteristics of apoptosis. In addition, ZER has increased the number of TUNEL-positive stain and the cellular level of caspase-3, the hallmarks of apoptosis, on treated CEM-ss cells. It could be concluded that, ZER was able to produce apoptosis on T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, CEM-ss. The current findings suggest that ZER might be helpful for improving the usefulness of anticancer agents in the therapy of leukemia.
  6. Ranjbari A, Azarbayjani MA, Yusof A, Halim Mokhtar A, Akbarzadeh S, Ibrahim MY, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2016 Mar 15;16:101.
    PMID: 26980377 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-1064-6
    BACKGROUND: Urtica dioica (UD) has been identified as a traditional herbal medicine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of UD extract and swimming activity on diabetic parameters through in vivo and in vitro experiments.

    METHODS: Adult WKY male rats were randomly distributed in nine groups: intact control, diabetic control, diabetic + 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, diabetic + 100 mg/kg Metformin, diabetic + swimming, diabetic + swimming 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, and diabetic +100 mg/kg Metformin + swimming. The hearts of the animals were punctured, and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The entire pancreas was exposed for histologic examination. The effect of UD on insulin secretion by RIN-5F cells in 6.25 or 12.5 mM glucose dose was examined. Glucose uptake by cultured L6 myotubes was determined.

    RESULTS: The serum glucose concentration decreased, the insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity significantly increased in treated groups. These changes were more pronounced in the group that received UD extract and swimming training. Regeneration and less beta cell damage of Langerhans islets were observed in the treated groups. UD treatment increased insulin secretion in the RIN-5F cells and glucose uptake in the L6 myotubes cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: Swimming exercises accompanied by consuming UD aqueous extracts effectively improved diabetic parameters, repaired pancreatic tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetics in vivo, and increased glucose uptake or insulin in UD-treated cells in vitro.

  7. William T, Rahman HA, Jelip J, Ibrahim MY, Menon J, Grigg MJ, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2013;7(1):e2026.
    PMID: 23359830 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002026
    BACKGROUND: The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a common cause of human malaria in Malaysian Borneo and threatens the prospect of malaria elimination. However, little is known about the emergence of P. knowlesi, particularly in Sabah. We reviewed Sabah Department of Health records to investigate the trend of each malaria species over time.

    METHODS: Reporting of microscopy-diagnosed malaria cases in Sabah is mandatory. We reviewed all available Department of Health malaria notification records from 1992-2011. Notifications of P. malariae and P. knowlesi were considered as a single group due to microscopic near-identity.

    RESULTS: From 1992-2011 total malaria notifications decreased dramatically, with P. falciparum peaking at 33,153 in 1994 and decreasing 55-fold to 605 in 2011, and P. vivax peaking at 15,857 in 1995 and decreasing 25-fold to 628 in 2011. Notifications of P. malariae/P. knowlesi also demonstrated a peak in the mid-1990s (614 in 1994) before decreasing to ≈ 100/year in the late 1990s/early 2000s. However, P. malariae/P. knowlesi notifications increased >10-fold between 2004 (n = 59) and 2011 (n = 703). In 1992 P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae/P. knowlesi monoinfections accounted for 70%, 24% and 1% respectively of malaria notifications, compared to 30%, 31% and 35% in 2011. The increase in P. malariae/P. knowlesi notifications occurred state-wide, appearing to have begun in the southwest and progressed north-easterly.

    CONCLUSIONS: A significant recent increase has occurred in P. knowlesi notifications following reduced transmission of the human Plasmodium species, and this trend threatens malaria elimination. Determination of transmission dynamics and risk factors for knowlesi malaria is required to guide measures to control this rising incidence.

  8. Omer FAA, Hashim NBM, Ibrahim MY, Dehghan F, Yahayu M, Karimian H, et al.
    Tumour Biol., 2017 Nov;39(11):1010428317731451.
    PMID: 29110583 DOI: 10.1177/1010428317731451
    Xanthones are phytochemical compounds found in a number of fruits and vegetables. Characteristically, they are noted to be made of diverse properties based on their biological, biochemical, and pharmacological actions. Accordingly, the apoptosis mechanisms induced by beta-mangostin, a xanthone compound isolated from Cratoxylum arborescens in the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line (HL60) in vitro, were examined in this study. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was done to estimate the cytotoxicity effect of β-mangostin on the HL60 cell line. Acridine orange/propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 dyes and Annexin V tests were conducted to detect the apoptosis features. Caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities; reactive oxygen species; real-time polymerase chain reaction for Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 Hsp70 genes; and western blot for p53, cytochrome c, and pro- and cleavage-caspase-3 and caspase-9 were assessed to examine the apoptosis mechanism. Cell-cycle analysis conducted revealed that β-mangostin inhibited the growth of HL60 at 58 µM in 24 h. The administration of β-mangostin with HL60 caused cell morphological changes related to apoptosis which increased the number of early and late apoptotic cells. The β-mangostin-catalyzed apoptosis action through caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-9 activation overproduced reactive oxygen species which downregulated the expression of antiapoptotic genes Bcl-2 and HSP70. Conversely, the expression of the apoptotic genes Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 were upregulated. Meanwhile, at the protein level, β-mangostin activated the formation of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9 and also upregulated the p53. β-mangostin arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. Overall, the results for β-mangostin showed an antiproliferative effect in HL60 via stopping the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase and prompted the intrinsic apoptosis pathway.
  9. Mohan S, Abdul AB, Abdelwahab SI, Al-Zubairi AS, Sukari MA, Abdullah R, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2010 Oct 5;131(3):592-600.
    PMID: 20673794 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.07.043
    The plant Typhonium flagelliforme (TF), commonly known as 'rodent tuber' in Malaysia, is often used as traditional remedy for cancer, including leukemia.
  10. Low LL, Sondi S, Azman AB, Goh PP, Maimunah AH, Ibrahim MY, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2011 Sep;23(5):690-702.
    PMID: 21878464 DOI: 10.1177/1010539511418354
    Patients with issues or health problems usually plan to discuss their concerns with their health care providers. If these concerns were not presented or voiced during the health care provider-patient encounter, the patients are considered to have unvoiced needs. This article examines the extent and possible determinants of patients' unvoiced needs in an outpatient setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Ministry of Health Malaysia primary health facilities throughout the country. Of 1829 who participated, 5 did not respond to the question on planned issues. Of the 1824 respondents, 57.9% (95% confidence interval = 47.1-68.7) claimed to have issues/problems they planned to share, of whom 15.1% to 26.7% had unvoiced needs. Extent of unvoiced needs differed by employment status, perceived category of health care provider, and study center. Perceived category of health care provider, method of questionnaire administration, and study center were the only significant determinants of unvoiced needs. Unvoiced needs do exist in Malaysia and there is a need for health care providers to be aware and take steps to counter this.

    Study site: 5 Ministry of Health Malaysia primary health facilities throughout the country
  11. El Habbash AI, Mohd Hashim N, Ibrahim MY, Yahayu M, Omer FAE, Abd Rahman M, et al.
    PeerJ, 2017;5:e3460.
    PMID: 28740747 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3460
    Natural medicinal products possess diverse chemical structures and have been an essential source for drug discovery. Therefore, in this study, α-mangostin (AM) is a plant-derived compound was investigated for the apoptotic effect on human cervical cancer cells (HeLa). The cytotoxic effects of AM on the viability of HeLa and human normal ovarian cell line (SV40) were evaluated by using MTT assay. Results showed that AM inhibited HeLa cells viability at concentration- and time-dependent manner with IC50 value of 24.53 ± 1.48 µM at 24 h. The apoptogenic effects of AM on HeLa were assessed using fluorescence microscopy analysis. The effect of AM on cell proliferation was also studied through clonogenic assay. ROS production evaluation, flow cytometry (cell cycle) analysis, caspases 3/7, 8, and 9 assessment and multiple cytotoxicity assays were conducted to determine the mechanism of cell apoptosis. This was associated with G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and elevation in ROS production. AM induced mitochondrial apoptosis which was confirmed based on the significant increase in the levels of caspases 3/7 and 9 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the MMP disruption and increased cell permeability, concurrent with cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol provided evidence that AM can induce apoptosis via mitochondrial-dependent pathway. AM exerted a remarkable antitumor effect and induced characteristic apoptogenic morphological changes on HeLa cells, which indicates the occurrence of cell death. This study reveals that AM could be a potential antitumor compound on cervical cancer in vitro and can be considered for further cervical cancer preclinical and in vivo testing.
  12. Qaiser S, Daud MNM, Ibrahim MY, Gan SH, Rahman MS, Sani MHM, et al.
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2020 May 22;99(21):e20287.
    PMID: 32481309 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000020287
    Unhealthy lifestyle contributes mainly to an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases including hypertension and cardiovascular diseases tend to increase in Malaysia. These diseases lead to an increased risk of end organ damage and cardiovascular complications. In this study, the prevalence of prehypertension and its associated risk factors among a cohort of university students in Sabah was determined.This is a prospective, cross-sectional study conducted among 365 undergraduate students irrespective of faculties at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS). Standardized and validated World Health Organization (WHO) STEPS questionnaires were used to collect sociodemographic data. Additionally, clinical and anthropometric data were measured and recorded by a trained staff, followed by descriptive and logistic regression analyses.A total of 365 UMS undergraduate students aged 18 years and above participated in the study. The prevalence of prehypertension among university students was high (31%) (95% CI [29.1%, 34.3%]). Well-known risk factors for hypertension including family history of hypertension, reduced sleep duration, reduced physical activity, smoking, being overweight or obese were significantly associated with the risk of developing prehypertension (P 
  13. Montini Maluda MC, Jelip J, Ibrahim MY, Suleiman M, Jeffree MS, Binti Aziz AF, et al.
    PMID: 32524958 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0928
    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is endemic in Malaysia. Although JE vaccination is practiced in the neighboring state of Sarawak for a long time, little is known about JE in Sabah state in Borneo. As a result, informed policy formulation for JE in Sabah has not been accomplished. In the present study, we have analyzed JE cases that have been reported to the Sabah State Health Department from 2000 to 2018. A total of 92 JE cases were reported during 19 years, and three-fourths of the cases were attributed to children. The estimated mean incidence for JE cases is 0.161/100,000 population. Japanese encephalitis was predominant in Sabah during June, July, and August, peaking in July. In most cases, pigs were absent within a 400-m radius of the place of residence. We could not establish any relationship between the mapping of JE cases and the number of piggeries in each district. We could not establish a relationship between average rainfall and JE cases, either. We propose the cases reported are possibly showing the tip of an iceberg and continuous surveillance is needed, as JE is a public health challenge in Sabah.
  14. Ibrahim MY, Hashim NM, Dhiyaaldeen SM, Al-Obaidi MM, El-Ferjani RM, Adam H, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 05 27;6:26819.
    PMID: 27229938 DOI: 10.1038/srep26819
    Manganese is a crucial element for health. In this study, the gastroprotective efficacy of Mn (II) complex (MDLA) against acidified ethanol (HCl/Ethanol)-induced gastric ulceration in rats was evaluated. The animals were distributed into 5 groups. Groups 1 and 2 received carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), group 3 was pretreated with omeprazole, and groups 4 and 5 were given 10 and 20 mg/kg of MDLA, respectively. After one hour, CMC and HCl/Ethanol were given to groups 2-5 whilst the animals in group 1 were ingested with CMC. After sacrifice, gastric lesions were evaluated by wall mucus, gross appearance, histology, antioxidant enzymes and immunohistochemistry. Group 2 displayed severe gastric damage with a significant reduction in wall mucus. Conversely, gastric lesions were reduced in groups 3-5 by 85.72%, 56.51% and 65.93%, respectively. The rats in groups 3-5 showed up-regulation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) with down-regulation of Bcl-2-associated protein x (Bax). Pretreatment with omeprazole or MDLA led to an increase in the uptake of Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain in the glandular part of the gastric tissue, raised levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and a reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. These results suggested the gastroprotective action of Mn (II) complex.
  15. Salim LZ, Othman R, Abdulla MA, Al-Jashamy K, Ali HM, Hassandarvish P, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(12):e115340.
    PMID: 25531768 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115340
    BACKGROUND: Thymoquinone is an active ingredient isolated from Nigella sativa (Black Seed). This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-leukemic effects of thymoquinone on WEHI-3 cells.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cytotoxic effect of thymoquinone was assessed using an MTT assay, while the inhibitory effect of thymoquinone on murine WEHI-3 cell growth was due to the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by chromatin condensation dye, Hoechst 33342 and acridine orange/propidium iodide fluorescent staining. In addition, Annexin V staining for early apoptosis was performed using flowcytometric analysis. Apoptosis was found to be associated with the cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Expression of Bax, Bcl2 and HSP 70 proteins were observed by western blotting. The effects of thymoquinone on BALB/c mice injected with WEHI-3 cells were indicated by the decrease in the body, spleen and liver weights of the animal, as compared to the control.

    CONCLUSION: Thymoquinone promoted natural killer cell activities. This compound showed high toxicity against WEHI-3 cell line which was confirmed by an increase of the early apoptosis, followed by up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl2, and down-regulation of the apoptotic protein, Bax. On the other hand, high reduction of the spleen and liver weight, and significant histopathology study of spleen and liver confirmed that thymoquinone inhibited WEHI-3 growth in the BALB/c mice. Results from this study highlight the potential of thymoquinone to be developed as an anti-leukemic agent.

  16. Ibrahim MY, Hashim NM, Mohan S, Abdulla MA, Kamalidehghan B, Ghaderian M, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014;8:1629-47.
    PMID: 25302018 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S66105
    Cratoxylum arborescens is an equatorial plant belonging to the family Guttiferae. In the current study, α-Mangostin (AM) was isolated and its cell death mechanism was studied. HCS was undertaken to detect the nuclear condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and the release of cytochrome c. An investigation for reactive oxygen species formation was conducted using fluorescent analysis. To determine the mechanism of cell death, human apoptosis proteome profiler assay was conducted. In addition, using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting, the levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 proteins were also tested. Caspaces such as 3/7, 8, and 9 were assessed during treatment. Using HCS and Western blot, the contribution of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) was investigated. AM had showed a selective cytotoxicity toward the cancer cells with no toxicity toward the normal cells even at 30 μg/mL, thereby indicating that AM has the attributes to induce cell death in tumor cells. The treatment of MCF-7 cells with AM prompted apoptosis with cell death-transducing signals. This regulated the mitochondrial membrane potential by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax, thereby causing the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. The liberation of cytochrome c activated caspace-9, which, in turn, activated the downstream executioner caspace-3/7 with the cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein, thereby leading to apoptotic alterations. Increase of caspace 8 had showed the involvement of an extrinsic pathway. This type of apoptosis was suggested to occur through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways and prevention of translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Our results revealed AM prompt apoptosis of MCF-7 cells through NF-κB, Bax/Bcl-2 and heat shock protein 70 modulation with the contribution of caspaces. Moreover, ingestion of AM at (30 and 60 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor size in an animal model of breast cancer. Our results suggest that AM is a potentially useful agent for the treatment of breast cancer.
  17. Khoo EM, Lee WK, Sararaks S, Abdul Samad A, Liew SM, Cheong AT, et al.
    BMC Fam Pract, 2012;13:127.
    PMID: 23267547 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-13-127
    Patient safety is vital in patient care. There is a lack of studies on medical errors in primary care settings. The aim of the study is to determine the extent of diagnostic inaccuracies and management errors in public funded primary care clinics.
  18. Arbab IA, Abdul AB, Sukari MA, Abdullah R, Syam S, Kamalidehghan B, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2013 Jan 9;145(1):343-54.
    PMID: 23178663 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.11.020
    Clausena excavata Burm. f. has been used in folk medicines in eastern Thailand for the treatment of cancer.
  19. Omer FAA, Hashim NM, Ibrahim MY, Aldoubi AF, Hassandarvish P, Dehghan F, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Jul 17;17(1):366.
    PMID: 28716025 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1867-0
    BACKGROUND: Beta-mangostin (BM) is a xanthone-type of natural compound isolated from Cratoxylum arborescens. This study aimed to examine the apoptosis mechanisms induced by BM in a murine monomyelocytic cell line (WEHI-3) in vitro and in vivo.

    METHODS: A WEHI-3 cell line was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of BM by MTT. AO/PI and Hoechst 33342 dyes, Annexin V, multiparametric cytotoxicity 3 by high content screening (HCS); cell cycle tests were used to estimate the features of apoptosis and BM effects. Caspase 3 and 9 activities, ROS, western blot for Bcl2, and Bax were detected to study the mechanism of apoptosis. BALB/c mice injected with WEHI-3 cells were used to assess the apoptotic effect of BM in vivo.

    RESULTS: BM suppressed the growth of WEHI-3 cells at an IC50value of 14 ± 3 μg/mL in 24 h. The ROS production was increased inside the cells in the treated doses. Both caspases (9 and 3) were activated in treating WEHI-3 cells at 24, 48 and 72 h. Different signs of apoptosis were detected, such as cell membrane blebbing, DNA segmentation and changes in the asymmetry of the cell membrane. Another action by which BM could inhibit WEHI-3 cells is to restrain the cell cycle at the G1/G0 phase. In the in vivo study, BM reduced the destructive effects of leukaemia on the spleen and liver by inducing apoptosis in leukaemic cells.

    CONCLUSION: BM exerts anti-leukaemic properties in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Zaw MT, Emran NA, Ibrahim MY, Suleiman M, Awang Mohd TA, Yusuff AS, et al.
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2019 Aug;52(4):563-570.
    PMID: 29428381 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmii.2018.01.003
    BACKGROUND: Cholera is an important health problem in Sabah, a Malaysian state in northern Borneo; however, Vibrio cholerae in Sabah have never been characterized. Since 2002, serogroup O1 strains having the traits of both classical and El Tor biotype, designated as atypical El Tor biotype, have been increasingly reported as the cause of cholera worldwide. These variants are believed to produce clinically more severe disease like classical strains.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the genetic diversity of V.cholerae in Sabah and whether V.cholerae in Sabah belong to atypical El Tor biotype.

    METHODS: ERIC-PCR, a DNA fingerprinting method for bacterial pathogens based on the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence, was used to study the genetic diversity of 65 clinical V.cholerae O1 isolates from 3 districts (Kudat, Beluran, Sandakan) in Sabah and one environmental isolate from coastal sea water in Kudat district. In addition, we studied the biotype-specific genetic traits in these isolates to establish their biotype.

    RESULTS: Different fingerprint patterns were seen in isolates from these three districts but one of the patterns was seen in more than one district. Clinical isolates and environmental isolate have different patterns. In addition, Sabah isolates harbor genetic traits specific to both classical biotype (ctxB-1, rstRCla) and El Tor biotype (rstRET, rstC, tcpAET, rtxC, VC2346).

    CONCLUSION: This study revealed that V.cholerae in Sabah were genetically diverse and were atypical El Tor strains. Fingerprint patterns of these isolates will be useful in tracing the origin of this pathogen in the future.

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