Displaying all 19 publications

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  1. Zawawi MH, Idris MH, Kamal AH, King WS
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2014 Aug;17(8):1007-14.
    PMID: 26031019
    Species composition of seaweed and distribution were investigated in the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak. The seaweed samples were collected during low tide between May 2011 and May 2012 from the six different stations. In total 54 species of seaweeds were identified from study areas of Bintulu coastal waters. Among them, 23 species were from Rhodophyta with 11 families, 15 species were from Phaeophyta with 2 families and 16 species were from Chlorophyta with 10 families: Seventeen species of seaweeds were recorded from the Tanjung Batu, while 23 species from Pantai Telekom, 14 species from Golden Beach, 26 species from Kuala Similajau, 12 species from Kuala Nyalau and 21 species from Batu Mandi. Seaweeds abundance was high in rocky substrate and Rhodophyta (11 families and 23 species) was the common and highest group of seaweeds in this coastal areas. Present study recorded high diversified seaweed species at the rocky shore area compare to reef area.
  2. Idris MH, Budin SB, Osman M, Mohamed J
    EXCLI J, 2012;11:659-669.
    PMID: 27847454
    Diabetes mellitus contributes to male sexual dysfunction and infertility by modulating oxidative damage. To date, a number of studies have demonstrated antioxidant properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. This study was designed to investigate the effects of H. sabdariffa UKMR-2 variety on sperm functioning of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allotted into four groups, namely control group (C), H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) group, diabetes group (D) and diabetes plus HSE group (D+HSE). HSE (100 mg/ kg/body weight) was administered orally for 28 consecutive days. After 28-days of supplementation, the rats were sacrificed to obtain epididymal sperm. Administration of HSE significantly lowered the level of fasting blood glucose and increased plasma insulin level in D+HSE group as compared to D group (p<0.05). Sperm quality in the D+HSE group was improved with significantly higher sperm concentrations (p<0.05) and sperm motility (p<0.001) as well as lower percentage of sperm abnormality (p<0.05) as compared to the diabetic group. Plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level was significantly elevated (p<0.05) in D+HSE group than in D group while no significant alteration in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) level were seen between groups. In conclusion, this study suggested that H. sabdariffa UKMR-2 variety has a potential protective role against diabetes-induced sperm damage.
  3. Hamli H, Idris MH, Abu Hena MK, Rajaee AH, Arshad A
    J Environ Biol, 2016 07;37(4 Spec No):641-6.
    PMID: 28779722
    The morphology and 12 shell morphometric features proportionate to shell length were analysed between local hard clam; Meretrix lyrata, M. meretrix and M. lusoria from Sarawak, Malaysia. Meretrix spp. was observed to comprise a unique feature of a pallial sinus scar for each species. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among Meretrix spp. using proportion ratios of SL for SW; LL; AL; LCT; AW; PW and PS (p<0.05). Cluster analysis among morphometric features of M. lyrata, M. meretrix and M. lusoria were discriminated at 98.5% similarities and supported by the principal component analysis. The present study suggests that pallial sinus scar shape, together with interior and exterior morphometric features, were suitable as identification keys for Meretrix spp. Hence, the present study emphasizes on the application of interior, rather than exterior morphology and morphometric features in hard clam identification before further investigation can be performed through genetic identification means.
  4. Nasution AK, Murni NS, Sing NB, Idris MH, Hermawan H
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater, 2015 Jan;103(1):31-8.
    PMID: 24757071 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.33174
    This article describes the development of a partially degradable metal bone pin, proposed to minimize the occurrence of bone refracture by avoiding the creation of holes in the bone after pin removal procedure. The pin was made by friction welding and composed of two parts: the degradable part that remains in the bone and the nondegradable part that will be removed as usual. Rods of stainless steel 316L (nondegradable) and pure iron (degradable) were friction welded at the optimum parameters: forging pressure = 33.2 kPa, friction time = 25 s, burn-off length = 15 mm, and heat input = 4.58 J/s. The optimum tensile strength and elongation was registered at 666 MPa and 13%, respectively. A spiral defect formation was identified as the cause for the ductile fracture of the weld joint. A 40-µm wide intermetallic zone was identified along the fusion line having a distinct composition of Cr, Ni, and Mo. The corrosion rate of the pin gradually decreased from the undeformed zone of pure iron to the undeformed zone of stainless steel 316L. All metallurgical zones of the pin showed no toxic effect toward normal human osteoblast cells, confirming the ppb level of released Cr and Ni detected in the cell media were tolerable.
  5. Hamli H, Idris MH, Rajaee AH, Kamal AH
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2015 Dec;26(2):59-72.
    PMID: 26868710 MyJurnal
    A study of the reproductive cycle of the hard clam, Meretrix lyrata, was documented based on histological observation and Gonad Index (GI). Samples were taken from estuarine waters of the Buntal River in Sarawak, Malaysia. The gonad of M. lyrata started to develop in September 2013. Gametogenesis continued to develop until the maturation and spawning stage from February to April 2014. The GI pattern for a one-year cycle showed a significant correlation with chlorophyll a. The corresponding GI with chlorophyll a suggested that the development of the reproductive cycle of M. lyrata required a high amount of food to increase gametogenesis.
  6. Hamli H, Hamed NA, Azmai SHS, Idris MH
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2020 Jul;31(2):145-158.
    PMID: 32922672 DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2020.31.2.7
    Pachychilidae is one of the freshwater gastropod family which was previously known under the Potamididae and Thiaridae families. Studies on freshwater gastropods especially on conchcology examinantions are still inadequate compared to marine gastropods. Morphological and morphometric studies of gastropods are practically used to identify and differentiate between species and necessary to complement molecular studies due to its low cost and tolerable resolving power of discrimination. The aim of the current study is to provide information on morphological and morphometric characteristics of Pachychilidae in Bintulu, Sarawak stream. A total of 20 individuals from each species of Sulcospira testudinaria, Sulcospira schmidti, Brotia siamensis, and Tylomelania sp. from Pachychilidae familiy were collected at three different sites from a small stream within the Bintulu area. Fourteen measurement of shell morphometrics were converted into proportioned ratios and analysed for univariate and multivariate analysis. Three shell morphometric (Aperture width, AW; Whorl width, WW2; and, Interior anterior length, AINL) of Pachychilidae indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) between species. However, multivariate analysis revealed that these shell morphometrics are pre-eminent factors to discriminate genus Sulcospira, Brotia and Tylomelania, as well as between Sulcospira species. This current study also suggests that these three characteristics are unique to Sulcospira species due to strong distinction among species. Findings on these three characteristics are significant for Sulcospira spp. as this study is the first shell morphometric report on the Pachychilidae species in Sarawak.
  7. Mohamed J, Shing SW, Idris MH, Budin SB, Zainalabidin S
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2013 Oct;68(10):1358-63.
    PMID: 24212844 DOI: 10.6061/clinics/2013(10)11
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2) against red blood cell (RBC) membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 230-250 g were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 rats each): control group (N), roselle-treated control group, diabetic group, and roselle-treated diabetic group. Roselle was administered by force-feeding with aqueous extracts of roselle (100 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days.

    RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the malondialdehyde levels of the red blood cell membranes in the diabetic group were significantly higher than the levels in the roselle-treated control and roselle-treated diabetic groups. The protein carbonyl level was significantly higher in the roselle-treated diabetic group than in the roselle-treated control group but lower than that in the diabetic group. A significant increase in the red blood cell membrane superoxide dismutase enzyme was found in roselle-treated diabetic rats compared with roselle-treated control rats and diabetic rats. The total protein level of the red blood cell membrane, osmotic fragility, and red blood cell morphology were maintained.

    CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that aqueous extracts of roselle possess a protective effect against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These data suggest that roselle can be used as a natural antioxidative supplement in the prevention of oxidative damage in diabetic patients.

  8. Abu Hena MK, Kohinoor SM, Siddique MA, Ismail J, Idris MH, Amin SM
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2012 Jul 01;15(13):641-6.
    PMID: 24218934
    Macrobenthos in coastal environment that play a significant role in the food web. It could also use as a good indicator of aquatic ecosystem health. The abundance and composition of macrobenthos in Bakkhali channel system, Cox's Bazar were conducted in relation to the soil parameters. Samples were collected using Ekman Berge bottom grab from five different stations of Bakkhali channel. Macrobenthos were comprised of five major groups namely Polychaeta (9.96-30.31%), Oligochaeta (3.68-59.707%), Crustacea (0.02-58.40%), Bivalvia (1.40-82.09%) and Gastropoda (0.08-4.25%). Total number of macrobenthos was higher at station I (9000 individuals m(-2)) and station II (8517 individuals m(-2)) compared to other stations. Shannon diversity index among the stations ranged from 0.65-1.04. Soil pH and soil moisture ranged from 6.1-6.4 and 23.44-31.29%, respectively. The highest organic carbon concentration was observed at station I (2.11%) and lowest at station III (1.40%). Maximum fraction of sand by weight was found at stations II (81.88%) and III (87.88) while the highest fraction of clay (21.52%) and silt (8.0%) were recorded in station I. It was observed that benthic bivalves were positively correlated (r = 0.891, p > 0.05) with silt fraction of the sediments.
  9. Abdul Rahim A, Idris MH, Kamal AH, Wong SK, Arshad A
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2012 Jul 01;15(13):629-34.
    PMID: 24218932
    The Condition Index (CI) is a method to measure overall health of fish and that has been applied to estimate the effect that different environmental factors have on clam meat quality. The CI of local mangrove clam Polymesoda expansa in Kelulit, Miri Sarawak was determined from October 2010 to November 2011. Condition index that is generally used to characterize the physiological activity of organisms, varied from 1.8% in December 2010 to 3.4% in October 2011, with low values observed during the spawning period. The clam attained their best condition in quality of flesh weight during July-October. In present study, the CI showed a clear relationship with the reproductive cycle of P. expansa. However, no significant correlation (p > 0.05) was found between CI and the different physicochemical parameter of seawater. The data presented is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and broodstock selection for the species which is crucial in aquaculture development.
  10. Assadian M, Jafari H, Ghaffari Shahri SM, Idris MH, Almasi D
    Biomed Mater Eng, 2016 Aug 12;27(2-3):287-303.
    PMID: 27567782 DOI: 10.3233/BME-161585
    In this study, different types of calcium-phosphate phases were coated on NaOH pre-treated pure magnesium. The coating was applied by electrodeposition method in order to provide higher corrosion resistance and improve biocompatibility for magnesium. Thickness, surface morphology and topography of the coatings were analyzed using optical, scanning electron and atomic-force microscopies, respectively. Composition and chemical bonding, crystalline structures and wettability of the coatings were characterized using energy-dispersive and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and contact angle measurement, respectively. Degradation behavior of the coated specimens was also investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and immersion tests. The experiments proved the presence of a porous coating dominated by dicalcium-phosphate dehydrate on the specimens. It was also verified that the developed hydroxyapatite was crystallized by alkali post-treatment. Addition of supplemental fluoride to the coating electrolyte resulted in stable and highly crystallized structures of fluoridated hydroxyapatite. The coatings were found effective to improve biocompatibility combined with corrosion resistance of the specimens. Noticeably, the fluoride supplemented layer was efficient in lowering corrosion rate and increasing surface roughness of the specimens compared to hydroxyapatite and dicalcium-phosphate dehydrates layers.
  11. Nettely T, Rajaee AH, Denil NA, Idris MH, Nesarul MH, Amin SMN, et al.
    J Environ Biol, 2016 07;37(4 Spec No):715-24.
    PMID: 28779731
    Samples of threadfin breams Nemipterus japonicus were collected from a village in Kuala Nyalau and a fish landing centre at Bintulu from April 2013 to March 2014. A total of 360 individuals of N. japonicus (214 male and 146 female) were used in this reproductive study.? The total length (TL) of individuals were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and body weight (BW) was recorded to the nearest 0.1 g. Month-wise distribution of the sexes was significantly higher for males in September and March, while in the month of May the number of females was significantly higher (X(2) = 6.53; P < 0.05). Males showed a preponderance in the size-class of 19.0-20.9 cm (X(2) = 80.24; P < 0.001), 21.0 -22.9 cm (X(2) = 56.39; P < 0.001) and 23.0 -24.9 cm (X(2) = 17; P < 0.001). The gonadosomatic index (GSI) values of N. japonicus ranged from 0.07 to 0.19 for males and 0.34 to 4.99 for females. Females had higher GSI than males throughout the study period. For males, a higher GSI (0.11-0.19) was observed during January to February, while it was found to be higher (2.73-4.99) for females during January to March, indicating the spawning season. The present study revealed that ovarian maturity based on histological analysis of N. japonicus was classified into seven stages namely, immature (I), immature (II), maturing (III), mature (IV), ripe (V), spawning (VI) and spent (VII). The fecundity of N. japonicus was estimated to be within a range of 19221 to 85923 with higher GSI (3.08-6.78) from the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak.
  12. Ara R, Arshad A, Amin SMN, Idris MH, Gaffar MA, Romano N
    J Environ Biol, 2016 07;37(4 Spec No):745-54.
    PMID: 28779734
    Our previous study demonstrated that among different habitat sites (mangrove, estuary, river, seagrass and Open Sea) in Johor Strait, Malaysia, seagrass showed highest family diversity and abundance of larval fish. However, it is unclear whether this was due to difference in habitat complexity or water quality parameters.? To test this, larval fish were collected by using a bongo net equipped with a flow meter by subsurface horizontal towing from different habitats in Johor Strait between October 2007 and September 2008.? Various physico-chemical parameters were measured and then examined for any relationship to fish larvae diversity and abundance. Among the 24 families identified from the sites, seven families (Blenniidae, Clupeidae, Mullidae, Nemipteridae, Syngnathidae, Terapontidae and Uranoscopeidae) were significantly correlated with the tested waters quality parameters.? Salinity showed a positive and negative significant correlation with Clupeidae (p < 0.01) and Uranoscopeidae (p < 0.05), respectively. Terapontidae was significantly correlated with dissolved oxygen (p < 0.01), while both Mullidae and Syngnathidae were significantly correlated with pH (p < 0.05). However, a canonical correspondence analysis test indicated weak overall correlation (36.4%) between larval assemblage and in the seagrass-mangrove ecosystem of Johor Strait, Malaysia. This likely indicates that habitat structure was more important in determining larval abundance (highest in the seagrass habitat) as compared to water quality at the tested sites. This study emphasizes the need to conserve seagrass beds as important nursery grounds for various fish larvae to ensure adequate recruitment and ultimately sustainable fisheries management. ?
  13. Isa HM, Kamal AH, Idris MH, Rosli Z, Ismail J
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2017 Jan;28(1):1-21.
    PMID: 28228913 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2017.28.1.1
    Mangroves support diverse macroalgal assemblages as epibionts on their roots and tree trunks. These algae provide nutrients to the primary consumers in the aquatic food web and have been reported to be substantial contributors to marine ecosystems. The species diversity, biomass, and habitat characteristics of mangrove macroalgae were investigated at three stations in the Sibuti mangrove estuary, Sarawak, Malaysia, from November 2012 to October 2013. Three groups of macroalgae were recorded and were found to be growing on mangrove prop roots, namely Rhodophyta (Caloglossa ogasawaraensis, Caloglossa adhaerens, Caloglossa stipitata, Bostrychia anomala, and Hypnea sp.), Chlorophyta (Chaetomorpha minima and Chaetomorpha sp.), and Phaeophyta (Dictyota sp.). The biomass of macroalgae was not influenced (p>0.05) by the season in this mangrove forest habitat. The macroalgal species Hypnea sp. contributed the highest biomass at both Station 1 (210.56 mg/cm(2)) and Station 2 (141.72 mg/cm(2)), while the highest biomass was contributed by B. anomala (185.89 mg/cm(2)) at Station 3. This study shows that the species distribution and assemblages of mangrove macroalgae were influenced by environmental parameters such as water nutrients, dissolved solids, and salinity in the estuarine mangrove habitats of Sibuti, Sarawak.
  14. Hossain MB, Habib SB, Hossain MS, Jolly YN, Kamal AHM, Idris MH, et al.
    Data Brief, 2020 Aug;31:105911.
    PMID: 32637507 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2020.105911
    Meghna River Estuary, the largest estuarine system (GBM, Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna) in Bangladesh, is a major spawning ground of national fish, Hilsha shad. In this study, we collected 24 surface sediment and 24 water samples from the entire lower estuary (4 sites, 3 sampling points from each site, 2 replicas from each sampling point) to detect trace/heavy metals. Sediment samples were collected from the top surface soil (0-5 cm) using Ekman grab sampler and water samples from 5 cm below the surface layer using plastic water bottles. After collection, sediment and water samples were preserved as necessary using HNO3 (for water). Immediately after reaching the laboratory, sediment samples were dried in an oven at 70°C until the constant weight gained. The metals were then analyzed using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence method (EDXRF) and calculated the metal concentrations. In total, 12 metals were detected and the average value (mg/Kg) of all metals for sediment samples followed the descending order of Fe > Ca > K >Ti >Sr >Zr >Rb> Cu > Zn >Pb >As > Ni, and for water the order (µg/mL) of Fe >Ti > Ca > Co >Mn > Ni > Zn >Sr > Cu > As > Se . Besides, several physicochemical parameters i.e. water pH, soil pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and alkalinity of the 12 sampling points were also measured in-situ using handheld instruments.
  15. Ismail J, Mustafa Kamal AH, Idris MH, Amin SMN, Hamli H, Sien LS, et al.
    Biodivers Data J, 2021;9:e67449.
    PMID: 34177311 DOI: 10.3897/BDJ.9.e67449
    Seagrass habitats are considered to be some of the most biodiverse ecosystems on the planet and safeguard some ecologically and economically important fauna, amongst which are some globally threatened species, including dugong. Malaysian seagrass ecosystems are not widespread, but their existence supports some significant marine fauna. A rigorous zooplankton study was conducted from May 2016 to February 2017, in the seagrass habitat of Lawas, Sarawak, Malaysia, to examine their temporal composition and diversity, together with their ecological influences. A total of 45 zooplankton species from 13 significant groups were recorded in the seagrass habitat. The population density of zooplankton ranged between 2,482 ind/m³ and 22,670 ind/m³ over three different seasons. A single zooplankton copepod was found to be dominant (47.40%), while bivalves were the second largest (31.8%) group in terms of total abundance. It was also noticed that the average relative abundance (0.62) and important species index (62.08) of copepods were higher than for other groups that exist in the seagrass meadow, whereas copepod Parvocalanus crassirostris showed both the highest average relative abundance (0.41) and the highest important species index (41.15). The diversity (H') and richness index of the intermediate season were found to be highest due to favourable physico-chemical conditions. Within the referred seasonal cluster, the wet and dry seasons were almost similar in terms of species abundance, while the intermediate season was distinct, with high species diversity backed by ANOSIM analysis results. Copepod and bivalves formed one group with a common similarity level of 0.80. The CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis) model established that abiotic factors, especially turbidity, NO2, rainfall, dissolved oxygen and pH were significantly correlated with abundance of individual groups of zooplankton. Zooplankton assemblage and abundance in Lawas were found to be very rich in multiple seasons, indicating that the productivity of uninterrupted seagrass habitat might be high and the system rich in biodiversity.
  16. Mishra M, Acharyya T, Kar D, Debanath M, Santos CAG, Silva RMD, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2021 Nov;172:112881.
    PMID: 34454383 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112881
    In this study, we have analyzed how geo-ecological cues for endangered Olive Ridley turtles' mass nesting behavior got modified by impact of four severe cyclones during 2010-2019 that made landfall in the vicinity of Rushikulya estuary, which is one of the largest mass nesting congregation (arribada) sites in the world. Analyzing last 10 years of shoreline dynamics, we show that even the slightest modification in beach morphology influenced their nesting behavior in Rushikulya rookery. Shoreline change analysis showed periodic phases of high/low erosion and the northward longshore sediment movement, which becomes impeded by the southern spit, the length of which increased by about 1800 m. During the analyzed period, the nesting behavior of Olive Ridley turtle was greatly influenced by changes in land use and land cover pattern around the Rushikulya rookery. Such reductions in tree cover and marshy land areas were majorly driven by anthropogenic activities and extreme weather events, such as cyclones. We also report increased mortality of turtles, no or false mass nesting events due to significant loss and/or erosion of the nesting sites due to cyclones. The results indicate that conservation of Olive Ridley turtles should be more holistic, or ecosystem centric, rather than species centric. It is important to maintain the ecological integrity of their habitat for highly synchronized mass nesting event and eventually their survival.
  17. Abdul Hisam EE, Rofiee MS, Khalid AM, Jalaluddin AF, Mohamad Yusof MI, Idris MH, et al.
    Turk J Biol, 2018;42(1):33-44.
    PMID: 30814868 DOI: 10.3906/biy-1708-23
    Moringa oleifera Lam. and Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. leaves have been previously reported to exhibit antioxidant activity. The objective of the present study is to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of the combined extracts of M. oleifera and C. asiatica (TGT-PRIMAAGE) and its effect on hydrogen peroxide (H 2O2)-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts. TGTPRIMAAGE acted on the mechanism of hydrogen transfer as it showed scavenging activity in the DPPH assay. This is due to the presence of phenolics and flavonoids in TGT-PRIMAAGE. TGT-PRIMAAGE effectively reduced cellular generation of reactive oxygen species induced by H O2. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were also increased in cells treated with TGT-PRIMAAGE. 2 Treatment with TGT-PRIMAAGE showed significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the number of senescent cells. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) of malondialdehyde was also seen in cells treated with TGT-PRIMAAGE. The p53 protein level was reduced in TGT-PRIMAAGEtreated cells, which indicates its potential in protecting the cells from oxidative stress induced by H2O2.
  18. Md Idris MH, Mohd Amin SN, Mohd Amin SN, Wibowo A, Zakaria ZA, Shaameri Z, et al.
    PMID: 34323638 DOI: 10.1080/10799893.2021.1951756
    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely prescribed to treat inflammatory-related diseases, pain and fever. However, the prolong use of traditional NSAIDs leads to undesirable side effects such as gastric, ulceration, and renal toxicity due to lack of selectivity toward respective targets for COX-2, 5-LOX, and PDE4B. Thus, targeting multiple sites can reduce these adverse effects of the drugs and increase its potency. A series of methoxyflavones (F1-F5) were synthesized and investigated for their anti-inflammatory properties through molecular docking and inhibition assays. Among these flavones, only F2 exhibited selectivity toward COX-2 (Selectivity Index, SI: 3.90, COX-2 inhibition: 98.96 ± 1.47%) in comparison with celecoxib (SI: 7.54, COX-2 inhibition: 98.20 ± 2.55%). For PDEs, F3 possessed better selectivity to PDE4B (SI: 4.67) than rolipram (SI: 0.78). F5 had the best 5-LOX inhibitory activity among the flavones (33.65 ± 4.74%) but less than zileuton (90.81 ± 0.19%). Docking analysis indicated that the position of methoxy group and the substitution of halogen play role in determining the bioactivities of flavones. Interestingly, F1-F5 displayed favorable pharmacokinetic profiles and acceptable range of toxicity (IC50>70 µM) in cell lines with the exception for F1 (IC50: 16.02 ± 1.165 µM). This study generated valuable insight in designing new anti-inflammatory drug based on flavone scaffold. The newly synthesized flavones can be further developed as future therapeutic agents against inflammation.
  19. Tuan Abdul Aziz TA, Teh LK, Md Idris MH, Bannur Z, Ashari LS, Ismail AI, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2016;16(1):284.
    PMID: 27009064 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-2848-9
    Despite the strategic development plan by the authorities for the Orang Asli, there are six subtribes of which their population numbers are small (less than 700). These minorities were not included in most of the health related studies published thus far. A comprehensive physiological and biomedical updates on these small subtribes in comparison to the larger subtribes and the urban Malay population is timely and important to help provide appropriate measures to prevent further reduction in the numbers of the Orang Asli.
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