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  1. Islam N, Hasan M, Ali SM
    Med J Malaysia, 1977 Jun;31(4):322-5.
    PMID: 927240
  2. Niamul Islam N, Hannan MA, Mohamed A, Shareef H
    PLoS One, 2016;11(1):e0146277.
    PMID: 26745265 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146277
    Power system oscillation is a serious threat to the stability of multimachine power systems. The coordinated control of power system stabilizers (PSS) and thyristor-controlled series compensation (TCSC) damping controllers is a commonly used technique to provide the required damping over different modes of growing oscillations. However, their coordinated design is a complex multimodal optimization problem that is very hard to solve using traditional tuning techniques. In addition, several limitations of traditionally used techniques prevent the optimum design of coordinated controllers. In this paper, an alternate technique for robust damping over oscillation is presented using backtracking search algorithm (BSA). A 5-area 16-machine benchmark power system is considered to evaluate the design efficiency. The complete design process is conducted in a linear time-invariant (LTI) model of a power system. It includes the design formulation into a multi-objective function from the system eigenvalues. Later on, nonlinear time-domain simulations are used to compare the damping performances for different local and inter-area modes of power system oscillations. The performance of the BSA technique is compared against that of the popular particle swarm optimization (PSO) for coordinated design efficiency. Damping performances using different design techniques are compared in term of settling time and overshoot of oscillations. The results obtained verify that the BSA-based design improves the system stability significantly. The stability of the multimachine power system is improved by up to 74.47% and 79.93% for an inter-area mode and a local mode of oscillation, respectively. Thus, the proposed technique for coordinated design has great potential to improve power system stability and to maintain its secure operation.
  3. Islam N, Kazmi F, Chusney GD, Mattock MB, Zaini A, Pickup JC
    Diabetes Care, 1998 Mar;21(3):385-8.
    PMID: 9540020
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether microalbuminuria is associated with markers of the acute-phase response in NIDDM and whether there are ethnic differences in this association among the three main racial groups in Malaysia.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: NIDDM patients of Chinese, Indian, and Malay origin attending a diabetic clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were matched for age, sex, diabetes duration, and glycemic control (n = 34 in each group). Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was measured in an early morning urine sample. Biochemical measurements included markers of the acute-phase response: serum sialic acid, triglyceride, and (lowered) HDL cholesterol.

    RESULTS: The frequency of microalbuminuria did not differ among the Chinese, Indian, and Malay patients (44, 41, and 47%, respectively). In Chinese patients, those with microalbuminuria had evidence of an augmented acute-phase response, with higher serum sialic acid and triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol levels; and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was correlated with serum sialic acid and triglyceride. The acute-phase response markers were not different in Indians, with microalbuminuria being high in even the normoalbuminuric Indians; only the mean arterial blood pressure was correlated with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio in the Indians. Malay NIDDM subjects had an association of microalbuminuria with acute-phase markers, but this was weaker than in the Chinese subjects.

    CONCLUSIONS: Microalbuminuria is associated with an acute-phase response in Chinese NIDDM patients in Malaysia, as previously found in Caucasian NIDDM subjects. Elevated urinary albumin excretion has different correlates in other racial groups, such as those originating from the Indian subcontinent. The acute-phase response may have an etiological role in microalbuminuria.

  4. Islam A, Islam N, Bharati P, Aik S, Hossain G
    BMC Womens Health, 2016;16:58.
    PMID: 27561311 DOI: 10.1186/s12905-016-0338-y
    Early childbearing influences women's health. This study aims to examine the effects of socio-demographic factors on nutritional status of early childbearing mothers in Bangladesh based on Body Mass Index (BMI) as the indicator.
  5. Islam A, Khalil I, Islam N, Moniruzzaman M, Mottalib A, Sulaiman SA, et al.
    PMID: 23043497 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-177
    There is no available information on physicochemical and antioxidant properties on Bangladeshi honey. We investigated five different monofloral and three different multifloral honey samples collected from different parts of Bangladesh.
  6. Khalil I, Moniruzzaman M, Boukraâ L, Benhanifia M, Islam A, Islam N, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Sep 20;17(9):11199-215.
    PMID: 22996344
    The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4). Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content were measured. Several biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. The mean pH was 3.84 ± 0.01, and moisture the content was 13.21 ± 0.16%. The mean EC was 0.636 ± 0.001, and the mean TDS was 316.92 ± 0.92. The mean color was 120.58 ± 0.64 mm Pfund, and the mean 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 21.49 mg/kg. The mean total sugar and reducing sugar contents were 67.03 ± 0.68 g/mL and 64.72 ± 0.52 g/g, respectively. The mean sucrose content was 2.29 ± 0.65%. High mean values of phenolic (459.83 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid/kg), flavonoid (54.23 ± 0.62 mg catechin/kg), ascorbic acid (159.70 ± 0.78 mg/kg), AEAC (278.15 ± 4.34 mg/kg), protein (3381.83 ± 6.19 mg/kg) and proline (2131.47 ± 0.90) contents, as well as DPPH (39.57% ± 4.18) and FRAP activities [337.77 ± 1.01 µM Fe (II)/100 g], were also detected, indicating that Algerian honey has a high antioxidant potential. Strong positive correlations were found between flavonoid, proline and ascorbic acid contents and color intensity with DPPH and FRAP values. Thus, the present study revealed that Algerian honey is a good source of antioxidants.
  7. Rana M, Sayem A, Karim R, Islam N, Islam R, Zaman TK, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:716.
    PMID: 26215721 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2071-0
    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the second leading cause of human death and TB is one of the major public health problems in Bangladesh. The aim of the present study was to assess the Knowledge about TB among non-medical university students in Bangladesh.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed on 839 non-medical university students. Data were collected from University of Rajshahi from March to August 2013 using a standard semi-structured questionnaire. Chi-square test was utilized to find the factors which are associated with students' knowledge about TB.
    RESULTS: Among 839 students, male and female were 68.2 % and 31.8 % respectively. Most of the students (94.4 %) were informed about the term TB, among them 50 % got information from electronic media. More than 50 % students believed that TB is a communicable disease, 42.8 % students agreed that bacteria is an agent for TB, most of the subjects (93 %) had the knowledge about the vaccination against TB and 97.6 % students believed that TB is curable. However, students had poor knowledge about latent TB (13.7 %) and DOTs program (28.5 %). χ (2)-test demonstrated that gender, residence, type of family and parents education were associated with students' knowledge of TB.
    CONCLUSION: In the present study demonstrated that the level of general knowledge about TB was insufficient among non-medical university students. Consequently, health education program is needed to improve the knowledge among university students regarding TB.
  8. Oguntade AS, Jin D, Islam N, Malouf R, Taylor H, Caleyachetty R, et al.
    Open Heart, 2021 06;8(1).
    PMID: 34168082 DOI: 10.1136/openhrt-2021-001632
    INTRODUCTION: Although there is strong evidence of an association between general adiposity and incidence of heart failure, previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have not reliably assessed the association of heart failure risk with other aspects of body composition (such as body fat distribution or lean mass), or between body composition and risk of heart failure subtypes. We aim to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to address these uncertainties, and inform efforts to prevent and treat heart failure.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols statement was used as a template for this protocol. A systematic search of Medline, Embase and Global Health from database inception to present will be conducted to identify prospective studies reporting on the associations between major measures of body composition (body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, total body fat, visceral adiposity tissue and lean mass) and risk of heart failure. Article screening and selection will be performed by two reviewers independently, and disagreements will be adjudicated by consensus or by a third reviewer. Data from eligible articles will be extracted, and article quality will be assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Relative risks (and 95% CIs) will be pooled in a fixed effect meta-analysis, if there is no prohibitive heterogeneity of studies as assessed using the Cochrane Q statistic and I2 statistic. Subgroup analyses will be by age, sex, ethnicity and heart failure subtypes. Publication bias in the meta-analysis will be assessed using Egger's test and funnel plots.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This work is secondary analyses on published data and ethical approval is not required. We plan to publish results in an open-access peer-reviewed journal, present it at international and national conferences, and share the findings on social media.

    PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020224584.

  9. Armas Rojas NB, Lacey B, Simadibrata DM, Ross S, Varona-Pérez P, Burrett JA, et al.
    EClinicalMedicine, 2021 Mar;33:100692.
    PMID: 33768200 DOI: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100692
    Background: The associations of cause-specific mortality with alcohol consumption have been studied mainly in higher-income countries. We relate alcohol consumption to mortality in Cuba.

    Methods: In 1996-2002, 146 556 adults were recruited into a prospective study from the general population in five areas of Cuba. Participants were interviewed, measured and followed up by electronic linkage to national death registries until January 1, 2017. After excluding all with missing data or chronic disease at recruitment, Cox regression (adjusted for age, sex, province, education, and smoking) was used to relate mortality rate ratios (RRs) at ages 35-79 years to alcohol consumption. RRs were corrected for long-term variability in alcohol consumption using repeat measures among 20 593 participants resurveyed in 2006-08.

    Findings: After exclusions, there were 120 623 participants aged 35-79 years (mean age 52 [SD 12]; 67 694 [56%] women). At recruitment, 22 670 (43%) men and 9490 (14%) women were current alcohol drinkers, with 15 433 (29%) men and 3054 (5%) women drinking at least weekly; most alcohol consumption was from rum. All-cause mortality was positively and continuously associated with weekly alcohol consumption: each additional 35cl bottle of rum per week (110g of pure alcohol) was associated with ∼10% higher risk of all-cause mortality (RR 1.08 [95%CI 1.05-1.11]). The major causes of excess mortality in weekly drinkers were cancer, vascular disease, and external causes. Non-drinkers had ∼10% higher risk (RR 1.11 [1.09-1.14]) of all-cause mortality than those in the lowest category of weekly alcohol consumption (<1 bottle/week), but this association was almost completely attenuated on exclusion of early follow-up.

    Interpretation: In this large prospective study in Cuba, weekly alcohol consumption was continuously related to premature mortality. Reverse causality is likely to account for much of the apparent excess risk among non-drinkers. The findings support limits to alcohol consumption that are lower than present recommendations in Cuba.

    Funding: Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, CDC Foundation (with support from Amgen).

  10. Armas Rojas NB, Lacey B, Soni M, Charles S, Carter J, Varona-Pérez P, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2021 05 27;21(1):963.
    PMID: 34039286 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-021-10911-9
    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease accounts for about one-third of all premature deaths (ie, age =120 mmHg), diabetes, and BMI (>=22.5 kg/m2): 20 mmHg higher usual SBP about doubled cardiovascular mortality (RR 2.02, 95%CI 1.88-2.18]), as did diabetes (2.15, 1.95-2.37), and 10 kg/m2 higher usual BMI (1.92, 1.64-2.25). RR were similar in men and in women. The association with BMI and cardiovascular mortality was almost completely attenuated following adjustment for the mediating effect of SBP. Elevated SBP (>=120 mmHg), diabetes and raised BMI (>=22.5 kg/m2) accounted for 27%, 14%, and 16% of cardiovascular deaths, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: This large prospective study provides direct evidence for the effects of these major risk factors on cardiovascular mortality in Cuba. Despite comparatively low levels of these risk factors by international standards, the strength of their association with cardiovascular death means they nevertheless exert a substantial impact on premature mortality in Cuba.

  11. Burstein R, Henry NJ, Collison ML, Marczak LB, Sligar A, Watson S, et al.
    Nature, 2019 10;574(7778):353-358.
    PMID: 31619795 DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0
    Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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