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  1. Zou X, Azam M, Islam T, Zaman K
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2016 Feb;23(4):3641-57.
    PMID: 26493298 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5591-3
    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries.
  2. Ahmed S, Hussain M, Akhter S, Islam T, Ahmed SU, Kabir ML
    Mymensingh Med J, 2012 Jul;21(3):497-502.
    PMID: 22828550
    Globally, rotaviruses are the single most important etiologic agents of severe childhood dehydrating diarrhea that accounts for more than 125 million of cases, 25-55% of all hospital admissions for diarrhea and ≈600,000 deaths every year. In Bangladesh, while overall diarrhea related deaths are declining, the proportion of diarrhea deaths due to rotavirus is increasing. This study was aimed at estimating the burden of rotavirus diarrhea and isolating the genotypes of rotavirus in a children hospital of Bangladesh; thereby endorsing a logical search for an appropriate rotavirus vaccine. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Institute of Child and Mother Health, Matuail, Dhaka, Bangladesh during 2006-2007. Children aged between one month and five years suffering form diarrhea were enrolled in the study. Stool samples were analyzed by ELISA for rotavirus antigen. The rotavirus-positive samples were further analyzed for genotype determination. Among 656 stool samples, 39.5% samples were positive for rotavirus antigen. The mean age of the children studied was 12±9.9 months; the peak being in the second half of infancy. G2 was identified as the most dominant genotype (45.5%) followed by G1 (24.8%), G12 (9.6%), G9 (8.5%) and G4 (2.1%) genotypes. Since G2 were found to be the predominant circulating rotavirus strain in this study and some other studies in Bangladesh, the recommended vaccine for prevention of rotavirus infection in Bangladesh should cover this strain to have maximum effectiveness.
  3. Khan Su, Khalifah ZB, Munir Y, Islam T, Nazir T, Khan H
    Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot, 2015;22(4):359-67.
    PMID: 24974915 DOI: 10.1080/17457300.2014.925938
    The present study aims to investigate differences in road safety attitude, driver behaviour and traffic risk perception between Malaysia and Singapore. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a sample of Singaporean (n = 187) and Malaysian (n = 313) road users. The data was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling applied to measure comparative fit indices of Malaysian and Singaporean respondents. The results show that the perceived traffic risk of Malaysian respondents is higher than Singaporean counterparts. Moreover, the structural equation modelling has confirmed perceived traffic risk performing the role of full mediation between perceived driving skills and perceived road safety for both the countries, while perceived traffic skills was found to perform the role of partial mediation between aggression and anxiety, on one hand, and road safety, on the other hand, in Malaysia and Singapore. In addition, in both countries, a weak correlation between perceived driving skills, aggression and anxiety with perceived road safety was found, while a strong correlation exists with traffic risk perception. The findings of this study have been discussed in terms of theoretical, practical and conceptual implications for both scholars and policy-makers to better understand the young drivers' attitude and behaviour relationship towards road safety measures with a view to future research.
  4. Majid HA, Keow LP, Islam T, Su TT, Cantwell M, Taib NA, et al.
    J Acad Nutr Diet, 2018 04;118(4):705-713.
    PMID: 28756991 DOI: 10.1016/j.jand.2017.05.024
    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors, such as diet, body weight, and physical activity, are linked to better survival after breast cancer (BC) diagnosis. A high percentage of the Malaysian population is overweight or obese. In addition, studies have shown a disparity in survival among Malaysian women compared with other higher-income countries. The Malaysian Breast Cancer Survivorship Cohort (MyBCC) study aims to study lifestyle factors that affect survival in BC survivors. These are the preliminary findings on the nutritional status of Malaysian BC survivors.

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the nutritional status of BC survivors at 1 year after diagnosis.

    DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 194 participants from the MyBCC study, recruited within 1 year of their diagnosis. Participants completed a 3-day food diary.

    PARTICIPANTS: Malaysian women (aged 18 years and older) who were newly diagnosed with primary BC, managed at the University Malaya Medical Center, and able to converse either in Malay, English, or Mandarin were included.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dietary intake and prevalence of overweight or obesity among participants 1 year after diagnosis were measured.

    STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Student's t test and analysis of variance or its equivalent nonparametric test were used for association in continuous variables.

    RESULTS: About 66% (n=129) of participants were overweight or obese and >45% (n=86) had high body fat percentage 1 year after diagnosis. The participants' diets were low in fiber (median=8.7 g/day; interquartile range=7.2 g/day) and calcium (median=458 mg/day; interquartile range=252 mg/day). Ethnicity and educational attainment contributed to the differences in dietary intake among participants. Higher saturated fat and lower fiber intake were observed among Malay participants compared with other ethnic groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity were highly prevalent among BC survivors and suboptimal dietary intake was observed. Provision of an individualized medical nutrition therapy by a qualified dietitian is crucial as part of comprehensive BC survivorship care.

  5. Cheng ML, See MH, Sinnadurai S, Islam T, Alip A, Ng CG, et al.
    Breast J, 2020 Mar;26(3):568-570.
    PMID: 31495038 DOI: 10.1111/tbj.13617
  6. Haque M, Islam T, Rahman NAA, McKimm J, Abdullah A, Dhingra S
    Risk Manag Healthc Policy, 2020;13:409-426.
    PMID: 32547272 DOI: 10.2147/RMHP.S239074
    The prevalence of long-term (chronic) non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing globally due to an ageing global population, urbanization, changes in lifestyles, and inequitable access to healthcare. Although previously more common in high- and upper-middle-income countries, lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) are more affected, with NCDs in LMICs currently accounting for 85-90% of premature deaths among 30-69 years old. NCDs have both high morbidity and mortality and high treatment costs, not only for the diseases themselves but also for their complications. Primary health care (PHC) services are a vital component in the prevention and control of long-term NCDs, particularly in LMICs, where the health infrastructure and hospital services may be under strain. Drawing from published studies, this review analyses how PHC services can be utilized and strengthened to help prevent and control long-term NCDs in LMICs. The review finds that a PHC service approach, which deals with health in a comprehensive way, including the promotion, prevention, and control of diseases, can be useful in both high and low resource settings. Further, a PHC based approach also provides opportunities for communities to better access appropriate healthcare, which ensures more significant equity, efficiency, effectiveness, safety, and timeliness, empowers service users, and helps healthcare providers to achieve better health outcomes at lower costs.
  7. Dhingra S, Rahman NAA, Peile E, Rahman M, Sartelli M, Hassali MA, et al.
    Front Public Health, 2020;8:535668.
    PMID: 33251170 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.535668
    Antibiotics changed medical practice by significantly decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial infection. However, infectious diseases remain the leading cause of death in the world. There is global concern about the rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which affects both developed and developing countries. AMR is a public health challenge with extensive health, economic, and societal implications. This paper sets AMR in context, starting with the history of antibiotics, including the discovery of penicillin and the golden era of antibiotics, before exploring the problems and challenges we now face due to AMR. Among the factors discussed is the low level of development of new antimicrobials and the irrational prescribing of antibiotics in developed and developing countries. A fundamental problem is the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding antibiotics among medical practitioners, and we explore this aspect in some depth, including a discussion on the KAP among medical students. We conclude with suggestions on how to address this public health threat, including recommendations on training medical students about antibiotics, and strategies to overcome the problems of irrational antibiotic prescribing and AMR.
  8. Islam S, Mannan F, Islam T, Rahman S, Liza SS, Chisti MJ, et al.
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2020 Oct 31;14(10):1098-1105.
    PMID: 33175702 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.13289
    The novel coronavirus has become a global risk because of its massive transmission and high rates of mutation. Efficient clinical management remains a challenge in combatting the severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by this virulent strain. This contagious disease is new to the people of Bangladesh. The country is at high risk of spreading the coronavirus infection particularly because of its high population density. Significant morbidity and mortality have been observed for the quick transmission of this virus since March 8, 2020. The basic objective of this article is to analyze the preparedness of Bangladesh, given its constraints and limitations, to cope with the rapid spread of COVID-19 infection. In doing so, it summarizes the origin of coronavirus, epidemiology, mode of transmission, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of the disease. Although many steps have been taken by the Government and the private sector of Bangladesh to create awareness about measures needed to prevent the deadly infections, many people are unaware of and reluctant to accept the prescribed rules. Inadequacy of diagnostic facilities and limitations of clinical care and health care services were major constraints faced in treating COVID-19 infected people in Bangladesh. Greater compliance by the people in following the suggested measures may help reduce the rapid spread of the disease and overcome the challenges faced by this pandemic.
  9. Zulkipli AF, Islam T, Mohd Taib NA, Dahlui M, Bhoo-Pathy N, Al-Sadat N, et al.
    Integr Cancer Ther, 2018 06;17(2):312-321.
    PMID: 29218996 DOI: 10.1177/1534735417745248
    BACKGROUND: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased and little is known on CAM use during the initial period. Therefore, the aim was to determine prevalence of CAM use among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients prior to seeking conventional treatment.

    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involved interviewing newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) using a structured questionnaire. Eligible respondents were interviewedduring a routine clinical visit.

    RESULTS: A total of 400 patients were interviewed, of whom 139 (34.8%) were CAM users. Dietary supplementation (n = 107, 77.0%) was the most frequently used type of CAM, followed by spiritual healing (n = 40, 28.8%) and traditional Chinese medicine (n = 32, 23.0%). Malay ethnic group (n = 61, 43.9%) was the largest group of CAM users, followed by Chinese (n = 57, 41.0%) and Indian (n = 20, 14.4%). Majority of these CAM users (n = 87, 73.1%) did not disclose the use of CAM to their doctors. Most of them used remedies based on the recommendation of family and friends. Malay ethnicity and patients with 3 or more comorbidities were more likely to use CAM.

    CONCLUSION: There is substantial use of CAM among breast cancer patients in UMMC prior to seeking hospital treatment, and the most popular CAM modality is dietary supplements. Since, the majority of CAM users do not disclose the use of CAM to their physicians, therefore health care providers should ensure that those patients who are likely to use CAM are appropriately counseled and advised.

  10. Batool R, Sharif A, Islam T, Zaman K, Shoukry AM, Sharkawy MA, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Aug;26(24):25341-25358.
    PMID: 31256396 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05748-0
    It is well documented that carbon emissions can be reduced by replacing conventional energy resources with renewable energy resources; thereby, the role of green technology is essential as it protect natural environment. Given that, the United Nations' agenda of "green is clean" may be achievable by adoption of green technologies. The objective of the study is to examine the link between information and communication technology (ICT), economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the context of South Korean economy, by using a novel Morlet wavelet approach. The study applies continuous wavelet power spectrum, the wavelet coherency, and the partial and the multiple wavelet coherency to the year during 1973-2016. The outcomes reveal that the connections among the stated variables progress over frequency and time domain. From the frequency domain point of view, the current study discovers noteworthy wavelet coherence and robust lead and lag linkages. From the time-domain sight, the results display robust but not consistent associations among the considered variables. From an economic point sight, the wavelet method displays that ICT helps to reduce environmental degradation in a medium and long run in the South Korean economy. This emphasizes the significance of having organized strategies by the policymakers to cope up with 2 to 3 years of the occurrence of the huge environmental degradation in South Korea.
  11. Islam T, Bhoo-Pathy N, Su TT, Majid HA, Nahar AM, Ng CG, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2015 Oct 26;5(10):e008643.
    PMID: 26503386 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008643
    INTRODUCTION: Over recent decades, the burden of breast cancer has been increasing at an alarming rate in Asia. Prognostic research findings from Western countries may not readily be adapted to Asia, as the outcome of breast cancer depends on a multitude of factors ranging from genetic, clinical and histological predictors, to lifestyle and social predictors. The primary aim of this study is to determine the impact of lifestyle (eg, nutrition, physical activity), mental and sociocultural condition, on the overall survival and quality of life (QoL) among multiethnic Malaysian women following diagnosis of breast cancer. This study aims to advance the evidence on prognostic factors of breast cancer within the Asian setting. The findings may guide management of patients with breast cancer not only during active treatment but also during the survivorship period.

    METHODS: This hospital-based prospective cohort study will comprise patients with breast cancer (18 years and above), managed in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). We aim to recruit 1000 cancer survivors over a 6-year period. Data collection will occur at baseline (within 3 months of diagnosis), 6 months, and 1, 3 and 5 years following diagnosis. The primary outcomes are disease-free survival and overall survival, and secondary outcome is QoL. Factors measured are demographic and socioeconomic factors, lifestyle factors (eg, dietary intake, physical activity), anthropometry measurements (eg, height, weight, waist, hip circumference, body fat analysis), psychosocial aspects, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) usage.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol was approved by the UMMC Ethical Committee in January 2012. All participants are required to provide written informed consent. The findings from our cohort study will be disseminated via scientific publication as well as presentation to stakeholders including the patients, clinicians, the public and policymakers, via appropriate avenues.

  12. Islam T, Musthaffa S, Hoong SM, Filza J, Jamaris S, Cheng ML, et al.
    Support Care Cancer, 2020 Sep 23.
    PMID: 32968861 DOI: 10.1007/s00520-020-05776-4
    PURPOSE: Wider breast cancer (BC) treatment options, short consultation time with physicians, lack of knowledge, and poor coping skills at the time of diagnosis may affect patients' decisions causing treatment delays and non-adherence. To address this gap, a breast care nurse video orientation program was started. Our aim was to evaluate the video on patients' knowledge, satisfaction, and treatment adherence.

    METHODS: The video was developed using the BC delay explanatory model. A self-administered pre- and post-survey on 241 newly diagnosed BC patients in University Malaya Medical Center was performed. The Wilcoxon matched paired signed rank test was used to evaluate patients' pre and post perceived knowledge using a Likert scale 0 to 4 (0 = "no knowledge," 4 = "a great degree of knowledge"). Treatment adherence among participants were measured after 1-year follow-up.

    RESULTS: Eighty percent of the patients reported that the video met or exceeded their expectations. In total 80.5% reported that the video was very effective and effective in improving their perspective on BC treatments. There was improvement in perceived knowledge for treatment options (mean scores; M = 0.93 versus M = 2.97) (p < 0.001) and also for perceived knowledge on types of operation, information on chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, healthy diet, physical activity after treatments, and care of the arm after operation(p < 0.001). In total 89.4%, 79.3%, and 85.9% adhered to surgical, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy recommended treatment, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The video improved patients' perceived knowledge and satisfaction. The program improved access not only to new BC patients but also the public and found sustainable using the YouTube platform.

  13. Tan MM, Ho WK, Yoon SY, Mariapun S, Hasan SN, Lee DS, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(9):e0203469.
    PMID: 30216346 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203469
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer risk factors have been examined extensively in Western setting and more developed Asian cities/countries. However, there are limited data on developing Asian countries. The purpose of this study was to examine breast cancer risk factors and the change of selected risk factors across birth cohorts in Malaysian women.

    METHODS: An unmatched hospital based case-control study was conducted from October 2002 to December 2016 in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 3,683 cases and 3,980 controls were included in this study. Unconditional logistic regressions, adjusted for potential confounding factors, were conducted. The breast cancer risk factors were compared across four birth cohorts by ethnicity.

    RESULTS: Ever breastfed, longer breastfeeding duration, a higher soymilk and soy product intake, and a higher level of physical activity were associated with lower risk of breast cancer. Chinese had the lowest breastfeeding rate, shortest breastfeeding duration, lowest parity and highest age of first full term pregnancy.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that breastfeeding, soy intake and physical activity are modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. With the increasing incidence of breast cancer there is an urgent need to educate the women about lifestyle intervention they can take to reduce their breast cancer risk.

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