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  1. Zahid NA, Jaafar HZE, Hakiman M
    Plants (Basel), 2021 Mar 26;10(4).
    PMID: 33810290 DOI: 10.3390/plants10040630
    'Bentong' ginger is the most popular variety of Zingiber officinale in Malaysia. It is vegetatively propagated and requires a high proportion of rhizomes as starting planting materials. Besides, ginger vegetative propagation using its rhizomes is accompanied by several types of soil-borne diseases. Plant tissue culture techniques have been applied in many plant species to produce their disease-free planting materials. As 'Bentong' ginger is less known for its micropropagation, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of Clorox (5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)) on explant surface sterilization, effects of plant growth regulators, and basal media on shoots' multiplication and rooting. The secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities of the micropropagated plants were evaluated in comparison with conventionally propagated plants. Rhizome sprouted buds were effectively sterilized in 70% Clorox for 30 min by obtaining 75% contamination-free explants. Murashige and Skoog (MS) supplemented with 10 µM of zeatin was the suitable medium for shoot multiplication, which resulted in the highest number of shoots per explant (4.28). MS medium supplemented with 7.5 µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) resulted in the highest number of roots per plantlet. The in vitro-rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized with a 95% survival rate in the ex vitro conditions. The phytochemical analysis showed that total phenolic acid and total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of the micropropagated plants were not significantly different from the conventionally propagated plants of 'Bentong' ginger. In conclusion, the present study's outcome can be adopted for large-scale propagation of disease-free planting materials of 'Bentong' ginger.
  2. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZE, Baghdadi A, Tayebi-Meigooni A
    Molecules, 2018 Jul 25;23(8).
    PMID: 30044450 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23081852
    Since α-mangostin in mangosteen fruits was reported to be the main compound able to provide natural antioxidants, the microwave-assisted extraction process to obtain high-quality α-mangostin from mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia mangostana L.) was optimized using a central composite design and response surface methodology. The parameters examined included extraction time, microwave power, and solvent percentage. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of optimized and non-optimized extracts was evaluated. Ethyl acetate as a green solvent exhibited the highest concentration of α-mangostin, followed by dichloromethane, ethanol, and water. The highest α-mangostin concentration in mangosteen pericarp of 121.01 mg/g dry matter (DM) was predicted at 3.16 min, 189.20 W, and 72.40% (v/v). The verification of experimental results under these optimized conditions showed that the α-mangostin value for the mangosteen pericarp was 120.68 mg/g DM. The predicted models were successfully developed to extract α-mangostin from the mangosteen pericarp. No significant differences were observed between the predicted and the experimental α-mangostin values, indicating that the developed models are accurate. The analysis of the extracts for secondary metabolites showed that the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) increased significantly in the optimized extracts (OE) compared to the non-optimized extracts (NOE). Additionally, trans-ferulic acid and catechin were abundant among the compounds identified. In addition, the optimized extract of mangosteen pericarp with its higher α-mangostin and secondary metabolite concentrations exhibited higher antioxidant activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 20.64 µg/mL compared to those of the NOE (28.50 µg/mL). The OE exhibited the highest antibacterial activity, particularly against Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, the microwave-assisted extraction process of α-mangostin from mangosteen pericarp was successfully optimized, indicating the accuracy of the models developed, which will be usable in a larger-scale extraction process.
  3. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZE, Baghdadi A, Tayebi-Meigooni A
    Molecules, 2018 07 05;23(7).
    PMID: 29976903 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23071646
    Gingerols and shogaols are compounds found in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe); shogaols are found in lower concentration than gingerols but exhibit higher biological activities. This work studied the effects of different drying methods including open sun drying (OSD) solar tunnel drying (STD) and hot air drying (HAD) with various temperature on the formation of six main active compounds in ginger rhizomes, namely 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols and 6-, 8-, and 10-shogaols, as well as essential oil content. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of dried ginger was also evaluated. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that after HAD with variable temperature (120, 150 and 180 °C), contents of 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols decreased, while contents of 6-, 8-, and 10-shogaol increased. High formation of 6-, 8-, and 10-shogaol contents were observed in HAD (at 150 °C for 6 h) followed by STD and OSD, respectively. OSD exhibited high content of essential oil followed by STD and HAD method. Ginger-treated with HAD exhibited the highest DPPH (IC50 of 57.8 mg/g DW) and FRAP (493.8 µM of Fe(II)/g DM) activity, compared to STD and OSD method. HAD ginger exhibited potent antimicrobial activity with lower minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value against bacteria strains followed by STD and OSD, respectively. Ginger extracts showed more potent antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria strains. Result of this study confirmed that conversion of gingerols to shogaols was significantly affected by different drying temperature and time. HAD at 150 °C for 6 h, provides a method for enhancing shogaols content in ginger rhizomes with improving antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.
  4. Ghasemzadeh A, Karbalaii MT, Jaafar HZE, Rahmat A
    Chem Cent J, 2018 Feb 17;12(1):17.
    PMID: 29455357 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-018-0382-9
    BACKGROUND: In the recent years, the health benefits of the pigmented rice varieties have reported due to the presence of bioactive compounds. In this study, the phytochemical constituents (total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin content) and individual phenolics and flavonoids of the extracts of sixteen genotypes of pigmented rice bran were evaluated using spectrophotometric and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method. Antioxidative properties of the free and bound fractions were evaluated using nitric oxide and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assays. Extracts were evaluated for antiproliferative activity against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using the MTT assay.

    RESULTS: Signifficant diferences were observed in the concentrations of phytochemicals and biological activities among different pigmented rice brans. The highest phytochemical content was observed in black rice bran followed by red and brown rice bran. The concentration of free individual flavonoids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher than those of bound compounds except those of ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Highest antioxidant activities were observed in black rice bran, followed by red and brown rice bran extracts. Extracts of black rice bran exhibited potent antiproliferative activity, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 148.6 and 119.2 mg/mL against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, respectively, compared to the activity of the extracts of red rice bran (175.0 and 151.0 mg/mL, respectively) and brown rice bran (382.3 and 346.1 mg/mL, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: Black rice bran contains high levels of phytochemicals, and thus has potent pharmaceutical activity. This highlights opportunities for researcher to breed new genotypes of rice with higher nutritional values, which the food industry can use to develop new products that will compete in expanding functional food markets.

  5. Najhah MY, Jaafar HZE, Nakasha JJ, Hakiman M
    Molecules, 2021 May 27;26(11).
    PMID: 34072168 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26113229
    This study aims to investigate whether the in vitro-cultured L. pumila var. alata has higher antioxidant activity than its wild plant. An 8-week-old L. pumila var. alata nodal segment and leaf explants were cultured onto Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various cytokinins (zeatin, kinetin, and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP)) for shoot multiplication and auxins (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and picloram) for callus induction, respectively. The results showed that 2 mg/L zeatin produced the optimal results for shoot and leaf development, and 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D produced the highest callus induction results (60%). After this, 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D was combined with 0.25 mg/L cytokinins and supplemented to the MS medium. The optimal results for callus induction (100%) with yellowish to greenish and compact texture were obtained using 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D combined with 0.25 mg/L zeatin. Leaves obtained from in vitro plantlets and wild plants as well as callus were extracted and analyzed for their antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP methods) and polyphenolic properties (total flavonoid and total phenolic content). When compared with leaf extracts of in vitro plantlets and wild plants of L. pumila var. alata, the callus extract displayed significantly higher antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid content. Hence, callus culture potentially can be adapted for antioxidant and polyphenolic production to satisfy pharmaceutical and nutraceutical needs while conserving wild L. pumila var. alata.
  6. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZE, Bukhori MFM, Rahmat MH, Rahmat A
    Chem Cent J, 2018 Feb 07;12(1):12.
    PMID: 29417254 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-018-0377-6
    BACKGROUND: Parkia speciosa seeds are a common ingredient in Malay cuisine with traditional interest because of its medicinal importance and content of health-promoting phytochemicals. This study evaluated the phytochemical constituents and biological activities (antioxidant and antibacterial activities) of Parkia speciosa Hassk seeds collected from three different regions of Malaysia (Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Johor). Phytochemical constituents (total flavonoid and total phenolic) were measured using the spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay we used in order to evaluation of antioxidant activities. Disc diffusion method was employed for the evaluation of antibacterial activity of extracts against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.

    RESULTS: The primary screening of phytochemicals showed that P. speciosa seeds contain alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and phenolics. Samples collected from Perak contained the highest levels of the phytochemical constituents, with highest DPPH and FRAP activity followed by Negeri sembilan and Johor. From the identified compounds, quercetin and gallic acid were identified as the most abundant compounds. Seeds collected from the Perak location exhibited potent antibacterial activity, against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were recorded as the bacterial strains most sensitive to P. speciosa seed extracts. Correlation analysis showed that flavonoid compounds are responsible for the antioxidant activities of the P. speciosa seeds studied, while antibacterial activity showed a high correlation with the levels of gallic acid.

    CONCLUSIONS: Parkia speciosa seed grown in Perak exhibit the highest concentrations of phytochemicals, as well as the highest biological activity. It may also be recommended for the food industry to use seeds from this area for their products, which are going to compete in the expanding functional food markets.

  7. Khalid MF, Hussain S, Anjum MA, Morillon R, Ahmad S, Ejaz S, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(4):e0247558.
    PMID: 33831006 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0247558
    Water shortage is among the major abiotic stresses that restrict growth and productivity of citrus. The existing literature indicates that tetraploid rootstocks had better water-deficit tolerance than corresponding diploids. However, the associated tolerance mechanisms such as antioxidant defence and nutrient uptake are less explored. Therefore, we evaluated physiological and biochemical responses (antioxidant defence, osmotic adjustments and nutrient uptake) of diploid (2x) and tetraploid (4x) volkamer lemon (VM) rootstocks grafted with kinnow mandarin (KM) under two water-deficit regimes. The KM/4xVM (VM4) and KM/2xVM (VM2) observed decrease in photosynthetic variables, i.e., photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), leaf greenness (SPAD), dark adopted chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), dark adopted chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv´/Fm´), relative water contents (RWC) and leaf surface area (LSA), and increase in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under both water-deficit regimes. Moreover, oxidative stress indicators, i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide, and activities of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APx), glutathione reductase (GR) were increased under both water-deficit regimes. Nonetheless, increase was noted in osmoprotectants such as proline (PRO) and glycine betaine (GB) and other biochemical compounds, including antioxidant capacity (AC), total phenolic content (TPC) and total soluble protein (TSP) in VM2 and VM4 under both water-deficit regimes. Dry biomass (DB) of both rootstocks was decreased under each water-deficit condition. Interestingly, VM4 showed higher and significant increase in antioxidant enzymes, osmoprotectants and other biochemical compounds, while VM2 exhibited higher values for oxidative stress indicators. Overall, results indicated that VM4 better tolerated water-deficit stress by maintaining photosynthetic variables associated with strong antioxidant defence machinery as compared to VM2. However, nutrient uptake was not differed among tested water-deficit conditions and rootstocks. The results conclude that VM4 can better tolerate water-deficit than VM2. Therefore, VM4 can be used as rootstock in areas of high-water deficiency for better citrus productivity.
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