Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 70 in total

  1. Jumaidin, R., Sapuan, S.M., Jawaid, M., Ishak, M.R., Sahari J.
    Modification of thermoplastic starch with other natural polymer is a promising research since the
    combination of both material will produce a fully green polymer with modified properties. The aim of
    this paper is to investigate the effects of agar on physical properties of thermoplastic sugar palm starch
    (SPS). Various types of thermoplasctic SPS based polymer were prepared by blending SPS and agar
    with the presence of glycerol as a plasticiser. Agar with various contents (10, 20, 30, and 40 wt%) were
    mixed with thermoplastic SPS via melt mixing before compression moulded into 3 mm mould plate.
    The prepared laminates were characterised for the moisture content, density, water absorption, thickness
    swelling and water solubility. Results showed that incorporation of agar has slightly increased the moisture
    content and water absorption capacity of the blends. Slight increment in thickness swelling was observed
    for thermoplastic SPS after incorporation with agar (40 wt%). Water solubility of thermoplastic SPS
    was slightly increased with incorporation of agar (40 wt%). Similar density was recorded for all ratios
    of agar, which indicated that the incorporation of agar did not influence the density of thermoplastic
    SPS. In conclusion, the incorporation of agar has
    slightly increased the hydrophilic behaviour of
    thermoplastic SPS.
  2. Zahra Dashtizadeh, Abdan, K., Jawaid, M., Mohd Asim Khan, Mohammad Behmanesh, Masoud Dashtizadeh, et al.
    Environmental issues have motivated researchers to replace synthetic fibres with natural fibres in the
    fabrication of polymer composites. However, natural fibres demonstrate weak mechanical or thermal
    properties which limit their different applications. Researchers have suggested fabrication of hybrid
    composites in order to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of natural fibre-based composites.
    Hybrid composites are made up by two or more fibres in one matrix or two polymer blends and with
    one natural fibre reinforcement. By hybridising one
    natural fibre with another natural fibre/synthetic
    fibre in one matrix, the resulting composite is a
    unique product (hybrid composites) that displays
    better mechanical and thermal properties in
    comparison with individual fibre-reinforced
    polymer composites. The advantages of developing
    hybrid composites are that they are more reliable
    for different applications and more environmental
    friendly. In this review paper, we present some
    recently published works related to mechanical
    and thermal properties of natural/natural fibres, and
    natural/synthetic fibre-based hybrid composites. Hybrid composites are one of the emerging fields in material science which has attracted attention for
    their different engineering applications.
  3. Rasheed M, Jawaid M, Parveez B
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Mar 29;13(7).
    PMID: 33805433 DOI: 10.3390/polym13071076
    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from bamboo fiber on the properties of poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) composites fabricated by melt mixing at 175 °C and then hot pressing at 180 °C. PBS and CNC (0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5 wt.%) were added to improvise the properties of PLA. The morphological, physiochemical and crystallinity properties of nanocomposites were analysed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), respectively. The thermal and tensile properties were analysed by thermogravimetic analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Universal testing machine (UTM). PLA-PBS blend shows homogeneous morphology while the composite shows rod-like CNC particles, which are embedded in the polymer matrix. The uniform distribution of CNC particles in the nanocomposites improves their thermal stability, tensile strength and tensile modulus up to 1 wt.%; however, their elongation at break decreases. Thus, CNC addition in PLA-PBS matrix improves structural and thermal properties of the composite. The composite, thus developed, using CNC (a natural fiber) and PLA-PBS (biodegradable polymers) could be of immense importance as they could allow complete degradation in soil, making it a potential alternative material to existing packaging materials in the market that could be environment friendly.
  4. Sand Chee S, Jawaid M
    Polymers (Basel), 2019 Dec 04;11(12).
    PMID: 31817284 DOI: 10.3390/polym11122012
    In this work, the optimum filler loading to prepare epoxy/organoclay nanocomposites by the in-situ polymerization method was studied. Bi-functionalized montmorillonite at different filler loading (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 wt %) was dispersed in epoxy resin by using a high shear speed homogenizer. The effect on morphology, thermal, dynamic mechanical, and tensile properties of the epoxy/organoclay nanocomposites were studied in this work. Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) studies revealed that possible intercalated structures were obtained in epoxy/organoclay nanocomposites. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that epoxy/organoclay nanocomposites exhibit higher thermal stability at the maximum and final decomposition temperature, as well as higher char content, compared to pristine epoxy. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicate that storage modulus (E'), loss modulus (E″), cross-link density and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the nanocomposites were improved with organoclay loading up to 1 wt %. Beyond this loading limit, the deterioration of properties was observed. A similar trend was also observed on tensile strength and modulus. We concluded from this study that organoclay loading up to 1 wt % is suitable for further study to fabricate hybrid nanocomposites for various applications.
  5. Saba N, Mohammad F, Pervaiz M, Jawaid M, Alothman OY, Sain M
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 Apr;97:190-200.
    PMID: 28082223 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.01.029
    Present study, deals about isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) from the Northern Bleached Softwood Kraft (NBSK) pulp, fabrication by hand lay-up technique and characterization of fabricated epoxy nanocomposites at different filler loadings (0.5%, 0.75%, 1% by wt.). The effect of CNFs loading on mechanical (tensile, impact and flexural), morphological (scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope) and structural (XRD and FTIR) properties of epoxy composites were investigated. FTIR analysis confirms the introduction of CNFs into the epoxy matrix while no considerable change in the crystallinity and diffraction peaks of epoxy composites were observed by the XRD patterns. Additions of CNFs considerably enhance the mechanical properties of epoxy composites but a remarkable improvement is observed for 0.75% CNFs as compared to the rest epoxy nanocomposites. In addition, the electron micrographs revealed the perfect distribution and dispersion of CNFs in the epoxy matrix for the 0.75% CNFs/epoxy nanocomposites, while the existence of voids and agglomerations were observed beyond 0.75% CNFs filler loadings. Overall results analysis clearly revealed that the 0.75% CNFs filler loading is best and effective with respect to rest to enhance the mechanical and structural properties of the epoxy composites.
  6. Kian LK, Saba N, Jawaid M, Sultan MTH
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Jan;121:1314-1328.
    PMID: 30208300 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.09.040
    The utilization of nanocellulose has increasingly gained attentions from various research fields, especially the field of polymer nanocomposites owing to the growing environmental hazardous of petroleum based fiber products. Meanwhile, the searching of alternative cellulose sources from different plants has become the interests for producing nanocellulose with varying characterizations that expectedly suit in specific field of applications. In this content the long and strong bast fibers from plant species was gradually getting its remarkable position in the field of nanocellulose extraction and nanocomposites fabrications. This review article intended to present an overview of the chemical structure of cellulose, different types of nanocellulose, bast fibers compositions, structure, polylactic acid (PLA) and the most probable processing techniques on the developments of nanocellulose from different bast fibers especially jute, kenaf, hemp, flax, ramie and roselle and its nanocomposites. This article however more focused on the fabrication of PLA based nanocomposites due to its high firmness, biodegradability and sustainability properties in developed products towards the environment. Along with this it also explored a couple of issues to improve the processing techniques of bast fibers nanocellulose and its reinforcement in the PLA biopolymer as final products.
  7. Kian LK, Saba N, Jawaid M, Fouad H
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Aug 01;156:347-353.
    PMID: 32278601 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.04.015
    Olive fiber is a renewable natural fiber which has potential as an alternative biomass for extraction of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). MCC has been widely applied in various industries owing to its small dimensional size for ease of reactive fabrication process. At present study, a serial treatments of bleaching, alkaline and acid hydrolysis was employed to extract OL-BLF, OL-PUF, and OL-MCC respectively from olive stem fiber. In morphology examination, a feature of short micro-crystallite particles was obtained for OL-MCC. The particle size was found gradually reducing from OL-PUF (305.31 μm) to OL-MCC (156.06 μm) due to the disintegration of cellulose fibrils. From physicochemical analysis, most lignin and hemicellulose components had been removed from OL-BLF to form OL-PUF with individually fibril structure. The elemental analysis revealed that highly pure cellulose component was obtained for OL-MCC. Also, the rigidity had been improved from OL-BLF to OL-PUF, while with the highest for OL-MCC with 74.2% crystallinity, endowing it as a reliable load-bearing agent. As for thermal analysis, OL-MCC had the most stable heat resistance in among the chemically-treated fibers. Therefore, olive MCC could act as a promising reinforcing agent to withstand harsh conditions for variety fields of composite applications.
  8. Ismail AS, Jawaid M, Naveen J
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Jun 28;12(13).
    PMID: 31261821 DOI: 10.3390/ma12132094
    This study aims to investigate the void content, tensile, vibration and acoustic properties of kenaf/bamboo fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. The composites were made using the hand lay-up method. The weight ratios of kenaf/bamboo were 30:70, 50:50 and 70:30. Further, kenaf and bamboo composites were fabricated for the purpose of comparison. The hybridization of woven kenaf/bamboo reduced the void content. The void contents of hybrid composites were almost similar. An enhancement in elongation at break, tensile strength and modulus of hybrid composites was observed until a kenaf/bamboo ratio of 50:50. Kenaf/bamboo (50:50) hybrid composite displays the highest elongation at break, tensile strength and modulus compared to the other hybrid composites which are 2.42 mm, 55.18 MPa and 5.15 GPa, respectively. On the other hand, the highest natural frequency and damping factors were observed for Bamboo/Kenaf (30:70) hybrid composites. The sound absorption coefficient of composites were measured in two conditions: without air gap and with air gap (10, 20, 30 mm). The sound absorption coefficient for testing without air gap was less than 0.5. Introducing an air gap improved the sound absorption coefficient of all composites. Hence, hybrid kenaf/bamboo composites exhibited less void content, as well as improved tensile, vibration and acoustic properties.
  9. Khan A, Asiri AM, Jawaid M, Saba N, Inamuddin
    Carbohydr Polym, 2020 Jul 01;239:116248.
    PMID: 32414444 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116248
    The aim of the present research work has focused on investigating the effect of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) and nano clays (montmorillonite (MMT) & organoclay (OMMT)) at 0.75Wt % on the performance of kenaf/epoxy composites. Mechanical (tensile and flexural) and thermal properties of composites in terms of morphology, thermal stability, weight loss, and dynamic mechanical properties were analyzed. The obtained results revealed that the integration of stiff CNFs as filler enhanced the mechanical and thermal properties, storage and loss modulus while a considerable decrease in Tan δ was realized compared to kenaf/epoxy composites. Enhancement in the properties was observed for OMMT and CNFs composites compared to MMT/kenaf/epoxy composites, which is attributed to the uniform filler distribution and interfacial adhesion between CNFs, OMMT, kenaf and epoxy matrix. The obtained results revealed that OMMT and CNFs based kenaf/epoxy composites can be an efficient alternative for construction applications.
  10. Hashim UR, Jumahat A, Jawaid M
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2021 Jun 01;11(6).
    PMID: 34206085 DOI: 10.3390/nano11061468
    Basalt fibre (BF) is one of the most promising reinforcing natural materials for polymer composites that could replace the usage of glass fibre due to its comparable properties. The aim of adding nanofiller in polymer composites is to enhance the mechanical properties of the composites. In theory, the incorporation of high strength and stiffness nanofiller, namely graphene nanoplatelet (GNP), could create superior composite properties. However, the main challenges of incorporating this nanofiller are its poor dispersion state and aggregation in epoxy due to its high surface area and strong Van der Waals forces in between graphene sheets. In this study, we used one of the effective methods of functionalization to improve graphene's dispersion and also introducing nanosilica filler to enhance platelets shear mechanism. The high dispersive silica nanospheres were introduced in the tactoids morphology of stacked graphene nanosheets in order to produce high shear forces during milling and exfoliate the GNP. The hybrid nanofiller modified epoxy polymers were impregnated into BF to evaluate the mechanical properties of the basalt fibre reinforced polymeric (BFRP) system under tensile, compression, flexural, and drop-weight impact tests. In response to the synergistic effect of zero-dimensional nanosilica and two-dimensional graphene nanoplatelets enhanced the mechanical properties of BFRP, especially in Basalt fibre + 0.2 wt% GNP/15 wt% NS (BF-H0.2) with the highest increment in modulus and strength to compare with unmodified BF. These findings also revealed that the incorporation of hybrid nanofiller contributed to the improvement in the mechanical properties of the composite. BF has huge potential as an alternative to the synthetic glass fibre for the fabrication of mechanical components and structures.
  11. Mohamad Haafiz MK, Eichhorn SJ, Hassan A, Jawaid M
    Carbohydr Polym, 2013 Apr 2;93(2):628-34.
    PMID: 23499105 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.01.035
    In this work, we successfully isolated microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber-total chlorine free (TCF) pulp using acid hydrolysis method. TCF pulp bleaching carried out using an oxygen-ozone-hydrogen peroxide bleaching sequence. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates that acid hydrolysis does not affect the chemical structure of the cellulosic fragments. The morphology of the hydrolyzed MCC was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showing a compact structure and a rough surface. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of the surface indicates the presence of spherical features. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the MCC produced is a cellulose-I polymorph, with 87% crystallinity. The MCC obtained from OPEFB-pulp is shown to have a good thermal stability. The potential for a range of applications such as green nano biocomposites reinforced with this form of MCC and pharmaceutical tableting material is discussed.
  12. Sanyang ML, Sapuan SM, Jawaid M, Ishak MR, Sahari J
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 08 01;146:36-45.
    PMID: 27112848 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.03.051
    The development and characterization of environmentally friendly bilayer films from sugar palm starch (SPS) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were conducted in this study. The SPS-PLA bilayer films and their individual components were characterized for their physical, mechanical, thermal and water barrier properties. Addition of 50% PLA layer onto 50% SPS layer (SPS50-PLA50) increased the tensile strength of neat SPS film from 7.74 to 13.65MPa but reduced their elongation at break from 46.66 to 15.53%. The incorporation of PLA layer significantly reduced the water vapor permeability as well as the water uptake and solubility of bilayer films which was attributed to the hydrophobic characteristic of the PLA layer. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of SPS50-PLA50 revealed lack of strong interfacial adhesion between the SPS and PLA. Overall, the incorporation of PLA layer onto SPS films enhances the suitability of SPS based films for food packaging.
  13. Jumaidin R, Sapuan SM, Jawaid M, Ishak MR, Sahari J
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2016 Aug;89:575-81.
    PMID: 27177458 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.05.028
    The aim of this work is to study the behavior of biodegradable sugar palm starch (SPS) based thermoplastic containing agar in the range of 10-40wt%. The thermoplastics were melt-mixed and then hot pressed at 140°C for 10min. SEM investigation showed good miscibility between SPS and agar. FT-IR analysis confirmed that SPS and agar were compatible and inter-molecular hydrogen bonds existed between them. Incorporation of agar increased the thermoplastic starch tensile properties (Young's modulus and tensile strength). The thermal stability and moisture uptake increased with increasing agar content. The present work shows that starch-based thermoplastics with 30wt% agar content have the highest tensile strength. Higher content of agar (40wt%) resulted to more rough cleavage fracture and slight decrease in the tensile strength. In conclusion, the addition of agar improved the thermal and tensile properties of thermoplastic SPS which widened the potential application of this eco-friendly material. The most promising applications for this eco-friendly material are short-life products such as packaging, container, tray, etc.
  14. Sanyang ML, Sapuan SM, Jawaid M, Ishak MR, Sahari J
    J Food Sci Technol, 2016 Jan;53(1):326-36.
    PMID: 26787952 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-015-2009-7
    In this study, sugar palm starch (SPS) films were developed using glycerol (G), sorbitol (S) or their combination (GS) as plasticizers at the ratio of 15, 30 and 45 (wt)% using casting technique. The addition of plasticizers to SPS film-forming solutions helped to overcome the brittle and fragile nature of unplasticized SPS films. Increased plasticizer concentration resulted to an increase in film thickness, moisture content and solubility. On the contrary, density and water absorption of plasticized films decreased with increasing plasticizer concentration. Raising the plasticizer content from 15 to 45 % showed less effect on the moisture content and water absorption of S-plasticized films. Films containing glycerol and glycerol-sorbitol plasticizer (G, and GS) demonstrated higher moisture content, solubility and water absorption capacity compared to S-plasticized films. The results obtained in this study showed that plasticizer type and concentration significantly improves film properties and enhances their suitability for food packaging applications.
  15. Jumaidin R, Sapuan SM, Jawaid M, Ishak MR, Sahari J
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 Jun;99:265-273.
    PMID: 28249765 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.02.092
    The aim of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of thermoplastic sugar palm starch/agar (TPSA) blend containing Eucheuma cottonii seaweed waste as biofiller. The composites were prepared by melt-mixing and hot pressing at 140°C for 10min. The TPSA/seaweed composites were characterized for their mechanical, thermal and biodegradation properties. Incorporation of seaweed from 0 to 40wt.% has significantly improved the tensile, flexural, and impact properties of the TPSA/seaweed composites. Scanning electron micrograph of the tensile fracture showed homogeneous surface with formation of cleavage plane. It is also evident from TGA results that thermal stability of the composites were enhanced with addition of seaweed. After soil burial for 2 and 4 weeks, the biodegradation of the composites was enhanced with addition of seaweed. Overall, the incorporation of seaweed into TPSA enhances the properties of TPSA for short-life product application such as tray, plate, etc.
  16. Muthulakshmi L, Rajini N, Nellaiah H, Kathiresan T, Jawaid M, Rajulu AV
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 Feb;95:1064-1071.
    PMID: 27984140 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.09.114
    In the present work, copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were in situ generated inside cellulose matrix using Terminalia catappa leaf extract as a reducing agent. During this process, some CuNPs were also formed outside the matrix. The CuNPs formed outside the matrix were observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Majority of the CuNPs formed outside the matrix were in the size range of 21-30nm. The cellulose/CuNP composite films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic, X-Ray diffraction and thermogravimetric techniques. The crystallinity of the cellulose/CuNP composite films was found to be lower than that of the matrix indicating rearrangement of cellulose molecules by in situ generated CuNPs. Further, the expanded diffractogram of the composite films indicated the presence of a mixture of Cu, CuO and Cu2O nanoparticles. The thermal stability of the composites was found to be lower than that of the composites upto 350°C beyond which a reverse trend was observed. This was attributed to the catalytic behaviour of CuNPs for early degradation of the composites. The composite films possessed sufficient tensile strength which can replace polymer packaging films like polyethylene. Further, the cellulose/CuNP composite films exhibited good antibacterial activity against E.coli bacteria.
  17. Mohd Hawari N, Jawaid M, Md Tahir P, Azmeer RA
    Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol, 2017 Nov;12(8):868-874.
    PMID: 28068847 DOI: 10.1080/17483107.2016.1269209
    The aim of this case study was to explore patient satisfaction with the quality of prosthetic leg sockets intended for persons with lower limb amputations. A qualitative study based on in-depth interviews, preceded by a questionnaire session, was carried out with patients from the Rehabilitation Center and Hospital in Malaysia. Twelve out-patient and in-patient amputees with lower limb amputations, specifically below-knee amputations, were chosen randomly. The analysis of patients' narratives aimed to identify the functional and esthetic characteristics of currently used prosthetic leg sockets and any problems related to them. The obtained results indicated that out of the 12 participants, 41.7% and 25% were satisfied and somewhat satisfied with their current prosthetic sockets. Durability and comfort were rated by the participants as the most important characteristics of prosthetic sockets, with 83.3%. As regards the esthetic appearance of the socket, 66.7% of the respondents considered that the most important feature was the material from which the socket was fabricated. Thus, we conclude that current satisfaction levels with the quality of prosthetic sockets among amputees in Malaysia are suitable, prosthesis being preferred by many amputees. The results can be used to direct future research on cosmesis and functionality of prosthetic socket design. Implications for Rehabilitation Case study will help participants to get cost effective prosthetic leg socket. Develop prosthetic leg socket comfortable as comparative to existing one. Help Malaysian government to make policy to develop local prosthetic leg socket at affordable price.
    Study site: Cheras Rehabilitation Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Perkeso Rehab Center in Melaka, Pusat Latihan dan Perindustrian Bangi and Rumah Insaniah Tun Dr Siti Hasmah Ptaling Jaya in Selangor, Malaysia
  18. Kian LK, Jawaid M, Ariffin H, Alothman OY
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 Oct;103:931-940.
    PMID: 28549863 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.05.135
    In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was extracted from roselle fiber through acid hydrolysis treatment and its properties were compared with those of commercially available MCC. The physicochemical and morphological characteristics, elemental composition, size distribution, crystallinity and thermal properties of the obtained MCC were analyzed in this work. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis provided clear evidence that the characteristic peak of lignin was absent in the spectrum of the MCC prepared from roselle fiber. Rough surface and slight aggregation of MCC were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed that pure MCC with small quantities of residues and impurities was obtained, with a similar elemental composition to that of commercial MCC. A mean diameter of approximately 44.28μm was measured for MCC by using a particle size analyzer (PSA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the crystallinity increased from 63% in roselle pulp to 78% in roselle MCC, the latter having a slightly higher crystallinity than that of commercial MCC (74%). TGA and DSC results indicated that the roselle MCC had better thermal stability than the roselle pulp, whereas it had poorer thermal stability in comparison with commercial MCC. Thus, the isolated MCC from roselle fibers will be going to use as reinforcing element in green composites and may be a precursor for future roselle derived nanocellulose, and thus a promising subject in nanocomposite research.
  19. Nurhanisah MH, Jawaid M, Ahmad Azmeer R, Paridah MT
    Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol, 2019 07;14(5):513-520.
    PMID: 29933703 DOI: 10.1080/17483107.2018.1479782
    This study describes a newly developed prosthetic leg socket design for a below-knee amputation. Excessive heat and the resulted perspiration within a prosthetic socket were the most common causes for reporting a reduced quality of life for prosthetic users. The product namely AirCirc means air circulation and it has been designed by approach of medical device design process in providing the amputees to maintain the skin temperature inside the socket. This device has been designed to provide the amputees with comfort and ultimate breathable. In order to design the device, the small hole was made in prosthetic socket surface since it has a function as air circulation. Four types of proposed sockets namely P1, P2, P3 and P4 and one control socket were compared on a single patient to determine the best design of prosthetic socket. The result successfully reveals that by using holes can be maintain the temperature inside prosthetic socket. In addition to the eco-friendly material, the woven kenaf was used as material that provides good strength as compared to glass fibre and offer sustainable and biodegradable product yet provides unique and aesthetic surface as came from woven kenaf itself. The objective of this paper is to provide the airflow prosthetic socket design and optimize the use of natural fibre in prostheses field. Thus, with the use of the environmental friendly material, functionality device and heat removal capability make the device suitable for maintaining a comfortable and healthy environment for prosthesis. Implications of Rehabilitation Newly developed prosthetic leg socket design for a below-knee amputation Device has been designed to provide the amputees with comfort and ultimate breathable Woven kenaf was used as material that provides good strength as compared to glass fibre for sustainable and biodegradable product Results show that by using holes can be maintain the temperature inside prosthetic socket.
  20. Sivaranjana P, Nagarajan ER, Rajini N, Jawaid M, Rajulu AV
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 Jun;99:223-232.
    PMID: 28237574 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.02.070
    Cotton linters were dissolved in aq. (8% LiOH+15% urea) that was pre-cooled to -12.5°C. Using this solution cellulose gel films were prepared by regeneration method with ethyl alcohol as a coagulant. These wet films were diffused with 10wt% Cassia alata leaf extract that acted as a reducing agent. The leaf extract diffused cellulose wet films were used as the matrix. The wet matrix films were dipped individually in lower concentrated 1-5mM aq.AgNO3 source solutions in the presence of sunlight and allowed the solutions to react with the diffused leaf extract reducing agent which in situ generated the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) inside the films as well as in the source solution. The AgNPs formed in the source solution were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) while those formed in situ the films were observed by SEM and the particle size distribution was determined. The cellulose/AgNP composite films showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli bacteria. These nanocomposite films were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile tests. At temperatures below 300°C, the thermal stability of the nanocomposite films was lower than that of the matrix due to the catalytic effect of AgNPs. The nanocomposite films also possessed good tensile properties. The ecofriendly cellulose/AgNP composite films with good antibacterial activity and tensile properties can be considered for medical applications like dressing materials.
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