Displaying all 10 publications

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  1. Jiang L, Bin Abd Razak HR, Chong HC, Tan A
    J Arthroplasty, 2014 Feb;29(2):304-7.
    PMID: 23891052 DOI: 10.1016/j.arth.2013.06.002
    We aim to compare the patient profile and outcomes after TKA between the different racial groups in Singapore. Prospective data were collected from 364 patients who underwent TKA in Singapore General Hospital from January 2006 to May 2010. Patients were stratified according to ethnicity and we compared their preoperative demographic data, Short-Form 36 (SF-36), Oxford Knee (OKS) as well as Knee Society Scores (KSS). Malays were younger (62.0 ± 5.3) at time of surgery (p=0.05) and the body mass index of Chinese (27.9 ± 4.7) was lower than Malay (30.4 ± 5.0) and Indian (31.5 ± 4.5) patients (P<0.005). Malay (40.3 ± 11.0) and Indian (39.2 ± 9.3) patients had less favourable preoperative OKS than Chinese (35.9 ± 7.8) patients (P<0.05). All 3 ethnic groups achieved statistically significant improvements in outcome measures but did not differ significantly between the ethnicities.
  2. Jiang L, Hindmarch CC, Rogers M, Campbell C, Waterfall C, Coghill J, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 10 24;6:35671.
    PMID: 27774996 DOI: 10.1038/srep35671
    Glucocorticoids are steroids that reduce inflammation and are used as immunosuppressive drugs for many diseases. They are also the mainstay for the treatment of minimal change nephropathy (MCN), which is characterised by an absence of inflammation. Their mechanisms of action remain elusive. Evidence suggests that immunomodulatory drugs can directly act on glomerular epithelial cells or 'podocytes', the cell type which is the main target of injury in MCN. To understand the nature of glucocorticoid effects on non-immune cell functions, we generated RNA sequencing data from human podocyte cell lines and identified the genes that are significantly regulated in dexamethasone-treated podocytes compared to vehicle-treated cells. The upregulated genes are of functional relevance to cytoskeleton-related processes, whereas the downregulated genes mostly encode pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. We observed a tendency for dexamethasone-upregulated genes to be downregulated in MCN patients. Integrative analysis revealed gene networks composed of critical signaling pathways that are likely targeted by dexamethasone in podocytes.
  3. Chen YJ, Liu WJ, Chen DN, Chieng SH, Jiang L
    Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 2017 Dec;42(23):4593-4597.
    PMID: 29376257 DOI: 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20171030.018
    To provide theoretical basis for the traceability and quality evaluation of edible bird's nests (EBNs), the Cytb sequence was applied to identify the origin of EBNs. A total of 39 experiment samples were collected from Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand. Genomic DNA was extracted for the PCR reaction. The amplified products were sequenced. 36 sequences were downloaded from Gen Bank including edible nest swiftlet, black nest swiftlet, mascarene swiftlet, pacific swiftlet and germain's swiftlet. MEGA 7.0 was used to analyze the distinction of sequences by the method of calculating the distances in intraspecific and interspecific divergences and constructing NJ and UPMGA phylogenetic tree based on Kimera-2-parameter model. The results showed that 39 samples were from three kinds of EBNs. Interspecific divergences were significantly greater than the intraspecific one. Samples could be successfully distinguished by NJ and UPMGA phylogenetic tree. In conclusion, Cytb sequence could be used to distinguish the origin of EBNs and it is efficient for tracing the origin species of EBNs.
  4. Han H, Hu S, Syed-Hassan SSA, Xiao Y, Wang Y, Xu J, et al.
    Bioresour. Technol., 2017 Jul;236:138-145.
    PMID: 28399417 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.03.112
    Sewage sludge is an important class of bioresources whose energy content could be exploited using pyrolysis technology. However, some harmful trace elements in sewage sludge can escape easily to the gas phase during pyrolysis, increasing the potential of carcinogenic material emissions to the atmosphere. This study investigates emission characteristics of arsenic, cadmium and lead under different pyrolysis conditions for three different sewage sludge samples. The increased temperature (within 723-1123K) significantly promoted the cadmium and lead emissions, but its influence on arsenic emission was not pronounced. The releasing rate order of the three trace elements is volatile arsenic compounds>cadmium>lead in the beginning of pyrolysis. Fast heating rates promoted the emission of trace elements for the sludge containing the highest amount of ash, but exhibited an opposite effect for other studied samples. Overall, the high ash sludge released the least trace elements almost under all reaction conditions.
  5. Brown AAM, Hooper TJN, Veldhuis SA, Chin XY, Bruno A, Vashishtha P, et al.
    Nanoscale, 2019 Jul 07;11(25):12370-12380.
    PMID: 31215940 DOI: 10.1039/c9nr02566a
    We report the self-assembly of an extensive inter-ligand hydrogen-bonding network of octylphosphonates on the surface of cesium lead bromide nanocrystals (CsPbBr3 NCs). The post-synthetic addition of octylphosphonic acid to oleic acid/oleylamine-capped CsPbBr3 NCs promoted the attachment of octylphosphonate to the NC surface, while the remaining oleylammonium ligands maintained the high dispersability of the NCs in non-polar solvent. Through powerful 2D solid-state 31P-1H NMR, we demonstrated that an ethyl acetate/acetonitrile purification regime was crucial for initiating the self-assembly of extensive octylphosphonate chains. Octylphosphonate ligands were found to preferentially bind in a monodentate mode through P-O-, leaving polar P[double bond, length as m-dash]O and P-OH groups free to form inter-ligand hydrogen bonds. The octylphosphonate ligand network strongly passivated the nanocrystal surface, yielding a fully-purified CsPbBr3 NC ink with PLQY of 62%, over 3 times higher than untreated NCs. We translated this to LED devices, achieving maximum external quantum efficiency and luminance of 7.74% and 1022 cd m-2 with OPA treatment, as opposed to 3.59% and 229 cd m-2 for untreated CsPbBr3 NCs. This represents one of the highest efficiency LEDs obtained for all-inorganic CsPbBr3 NCs, accomplished through simple, effective passivation and purification processes. The robust binding of octylphosphonates to the perovskite lattice, and specifically their ability to interlink through hydrogen bonding, offers a promising passivation approach which could potentially be beneficial across a breadth of halide perovskite optoelectronic applications.
  6. Pan DS, Huang JH, Lee MH, Yu Y, Chen MI, Goh EH, et al.
    BMC Fam Pract, 2016 11 03;17(1):148.
    PMID: 27809770 DOI: 10.1186/s12875-016-0547-3
    BACKGROUND: Patients' expectations can influence antibiotic prescription by primary healthcare physicians. We assessed knowledge, attitude and practices towards antibiotic use for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), and whether knowledge is associated with increased expectations for antibiotics among patients visiting primary healthcare services in Singapore.

    METHODS: Data was collected through a cross-sectional interviewer-assisted survey of patients aged ≥21 years waiting to see primary healthcare practitioners for one or more symptoms suggestive of URTI (cough, sore throat, runny nose or blocked nose) for 7 days or less, covering the demographics, presenting symptoms, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of URTI and associated antibiotic use. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to assess independent factors associated with patients' expectations for antibiotics.

    RESULTS: Nine hundred fourteen out of 987 eligible patients consulting 35 doctors were recruited from 24 private sector primary care clinics in Singapore. A third (307/907) expected antibiotics, of which a substantial proportion would ask the doctor for antibiotics (121/304, 40 %) and/or see another doctor (31/304, 10 %) if antibiotics were not prescribed. The majority agreed "antibiotics are effective against viruses" (715/914, 78 %) and that "antibiotics cure URTI faster" (594/912, 65 %). Inappropriate antibiotic practices include "keeping antibiotics stock at home" (125/913, 12 %), "taking leftover antibiotics" (114/913, 14 %) and giving antibiotics to family members (62/913, 7 %). On multivariate regression, the following factors were independently associated with wanting antibiotics (odds ratio; 95 % confidence interval): Malay ethnicity (1.67; 1.00-2.79), living in private housing (1.69; 1.13-2.51), presence of sore throat (1.50; 1.07-2.10) or fever (1.46; 1.01-2.12), perception that illness is serious (1.70; 1.27-2.27), belief that antibiotics cure URTI faster (5.35; 3.76-7.62) and not knowing URTI resolves on its own (2.18; 1.08-2.06), while post-secondary education (0.67; 0.48-0.94) was inversely associated. Those with lower educational levels were significantly more likely to have multiple misconceptions about antibiotics.

    CONCLUSION: Majority of patients seeking primary health care in Singapore are misinformed about the role of antibiotics in URTI. Agreeing with the statement that antibiotics cure URTI faster was most strongly associated with wanting antibiotics. Those with higher educational levels were less likely to want antibiotics, while those with lower educational levels more likely to have incorrect knowledge.
  7. Liu L, Mo Z, Liang Z, Zhang Y, Li R, Ong KC, et al.
    BMC Med, 2015;13:226.
    PMID: 26381232 DOI: 10.1186/s12916-015-0448-7
    To investigate the long-term effects on immunity of an inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine and its protective efficacy.
  8. EAS Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Studies Collaboration, Vallejo-Vaz AJ, Akram A, Kondapally Seshasai SR, Cole D, Watts GF, et al.
    Atheroscler Suppl, 2016 Dec;22:1-32.
    PMID: 27939304 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosissup.2016.10.001
    The potential for global collaborations to better inform public health policy regarding major non-communicable diseases has been successfully demonstrated by several large-scale international consortia. However, the true public health impact of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), a common genetic disorder associated with premature cardiovascular disease, is yet to be reliably ascertained using similar approaches. The European Atherosclerosis Society FH Studies Collaboration (EAS FHSC) is a new initiative of international stakeholders which will help establish a global FH registry to generate large-scale, robust data on the burden of FH worldwide.
  9. EAS Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Studies Collaboration, Vallejo-Vaz AJ, De Marco M, Stevens CAT, Akram A, Freiberger T, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2018 10;277:234-255.
    PMID: 30270054 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.08.051
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Management of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) may vary across different settings due to factors related to population characteristics, practice, resources and/or policies. We conducted a survey among the worldwide network of EAS FHSC Lead Investigators to provide an overview of FH status in different countries.

    METHODS: Lead Investigators from countries formally involved in the EAS FHSC by mid-May 2018 were invited to provide a brief report on FH status in their countries, including available information, programmes, initiatives, and management.

    RESULTS: 63 countries provided reports. Data on FH prevalence are lacking in most countries. Where available, data tend to align with recent estimates, suggesting a higher frequency than that traditionally considered. Low rates of FH detection are reported across all regions. National registries and education programmes to improve FH awareness/knowledge are a recognised priority, but funding is often lacking. In most countries, diagnosis primarily relies on the Dutch Lipid Clinics Network criteria. Although available in many countries, genetic testing is not widely implemented (frequent cost issues). There are only a few national official government programmes for FH. Under-treatment is an issue. FH therapy is not universally reimbursed. PCSK9-inhibitors are available in ∼2/3 countries. Lipoprotein-apheresis is offered in ∼60% countries, although access is limited.

    CONCLUSIONS: FH is a recognised public health concern. Management varies widely across countries, with overall suboptimal identification and under-treatment. Efforts and initiatives to improve FH knowledge and management are underway, including development of national registries, but support, particularly from health authorities, and better funding are greatly needed.

  10. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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