Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Mohd Hanafiah AN, Johari MZ, Azam S
    BMC Fam Pract, 2020 08 09;21(1):162.
    PMID: 32772931 DOI: 10.1186/s12875-020-01217-7
    BACKGROUND: Malaysia has committed to the global call to achieve universal health coverage, and with the adoption of Sustainable Development Goals, is further strengthening the health system through the primary health care services, particularly the family doctor concept. The Enhanced Primary Health Care (EnPHC) initiative was implemented to address the worrying upward trend of non-communicable disease prevalence, and incorporates the Family Health Team (FHT) concept. The aim of this paper is to describe the implementation of the FHT as part of the EnPHC intervention.

    METHODS: In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with the intervention design team, healthcare providers and patients in two rounds during the implementation period. A total of 121 individuals in the two rounds, split into different groups, where some of the participants of the FGD were also interviewed individually. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis, with codes being organised into larger themes.

    RESULTS: Themes that emerged from the data were around the process of FHT implementation and the advantages of the FHT, which included continuity of health care and improved quality of care. Patients and health care providers were receptive to the FHT concept, and took the effort to adapt the concept in the local settings.

    CONCLUSIONS: The FHT concept implemented at 20 public primary health clinics has benefits appreciated by health care providers and patients. Addressing the viable shortcomings would better prepare the current primary healthcare system to scale up the FHT concept nationwide and enhance its feasibility and sustainability.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered with the National Medical Research Register, Ministry of Health Malaysia ( NMRR-17-295-34711 ).

  2. Jaafar N, Perialathan K, Zulkepli MZ, Mohd Zin Z, Jonoi PE, Johari MZ
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2020 12 11;11:2150132720980629.
    PMID: 33300405 DOI: 10.1177/2150132720980629
    BACKGROUND: The present Malaysian healthcare system is burdened with increasing cases of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and its risk factors. Health care providers (HCPs) have to provide both treatment and health education to ensure optimal outcome. Health education is a vital component in addressing and managing chronic diseases. This study intends to explore patient's perspective on health education services received from HCPs, focusing at the secondary triage in government primary healthcare facilities.

    METHODS: This qualitative exploratory study focused on the health education component derived from a complex enhanced primary health care intervention. Participants were purposively selected from patients who attended regular NCD treatment at 8 primary healthcare facilities in rural and urban areas of Johor and Selangor. Data collection was conducted between April 2017 and April 2018. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted on 4 to 5 patients at each intervention clinic. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded and analyzed using a thematic analysis approach.

    RESULTS: A total of 35 patients participated. Through thematic analysis, 2 main themes emerged; Perceived Suitability and Preferred HCPs. Under Perceived Suitability theme, increased waiting time and unsuitable location emerged as sub-themes. Under Preferred HCPs, emerging sub-themes were professional credibility, continuity of care, message fatigue, and interpersonal relationship. There are both positive and adverse acceptances toward health education delivered by HCPs. It should be noted that acceptance level for health information received from doctors are much more positively accepted compared to other HCPs.

    CONCLUSION: Patients are willing to engage with health educators when their needs are addressed. Revision of current location, process and policy of health education delivery is needed to capture patients' attention and increase awareness of healthy living with NCDs. HCPs should continuously enhance knowledge and skills, which are essential to improve development and progressively becoming the expert educator in their respective specialized field.

  3. Abdullah Z, Abdul Aziz SH, Sodri NA, Mohd Hanafiah AN, Ibrahim NI, Johari MZ
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2020 10 23;11:2150132720956478.
    PMID: 33089737 DOI: 10.1177/2150132720956478
    BACKGROUND: Primary healthcare is the earliest gateway for patient care, and improvisations are often needed to accommodate the ever-increasing demand in public health. The Enhanced Primary Healthcare (EnPHC) initiative is aimed at improving such needs, and one core intervention is the introduction of a care coordinator (CC). The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators in implementing a new intervention in primary healthcare clinics.

    METHODS: This qualitative exploration study. All healthcare providers who were involved in EnPHC at the intervention clinics were selected as participants. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were carried out among healthcare providers working in the intervention clinic. Thematic analysis was used to categorize data, based on the consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR) theoretical framework domains.

    RESULTS: A total of 61 healthcare providers participated. All 5 domains with 19 CFIR constructs emerged from the analysis. Inner setting played a significant role in facilitating CC intervention, in which culture, networking, and collaboration and leadership engagement played an essential role in supporting CC activities. Although CC tasks are complex, concerns of losing clinical skill and resource constraints were identified as potential barriers in CC implementations. Criteria for appointing new CCs emerged from the characteristics of individual constructs, in which the individual must be familiar and interested in community health, have good communication skills, and at least 3 years' experience in the primary healthcare setting.

    CONCLUSION: The implementation of the CC intervention faces varying challenges in different settings. This is partially resolved through teamwork, guidance from mentors, and support from superiors. The complexity of the responsibility of the CC intervention is perceived as both a validation and a burden. Above all, it is seen as paramount in EnPHC intervention.

  4. Yong TSM, Perialathan K, Ahmad M, Juatan N, Abdul Majid L, Johari MZ
    JMIR Pediatr Parent, 2021 Jun 01;4(2):e24156.
    PMID: 34061039 DOI: 10.2196/24156
    BACKGROUND: Home is a vulnerable place for accidental child injuries. Unintentional injuries are a leading cause of death, hospitalization, and disabilities. These injuries are considered preventable and if not tackled, they will continue to be a persisting problem. Smartphones have become increasingly important in our everyday life and is an important tool not only for communication but also for other purposes-they have apps that can be used for various purposes. Therefore, an app-based intervention (ChildSafe) was developed to assess and reduce child injury at home.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the acceptance of the ChildSafe smartphone app intervention by parents/guardians.

    METHODS: This study was conducted using a qualitative exploratory approach on selected participants of the ChildSafe intervention app study. A total of 27 semistructured in-depth interviews were carried out among parents or guardians who have at least one child between the age of 0 and 59 months in the area of Sungai Buloh, Selangor, between November 2017 and March 2018. Interview questions were developed from the consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR). Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and data were thematically analyzed guided by CFIR.

    RESULTS: The study revealed users' perception on usability, feasibility, and acceptability toward the ChildSafe app. Three CFIR domains were identified: intervention characteristics, inner setting, and characteristics of individuals. A total of 5 constructs were revealed under intervention characteristics: evidence strength and quality, relative advantage, adaptability, trialability, and design quality and packaging; 2 under inner setting: implementation climate and readiness for implementation; and 4 under characteristics of individuals: knowledge and beliefs about the intervention, self-efficacy, individual stage of change, and other personal attributes. In general, participants felt the app is extremely useful and effective, easy to use, and purposeful in achieving home safety assessment via reminders. The app replaces the need for participants to search for information on home safety and dangers, as the app itself was designed as a tool to assess for this specific purpose. Even at the nascent stage and despite its limitations, the app has prompted users to consider and make changes around their own home. However, future versions of the app should be expanded to make it more attractive to users as it lacks interactive feedback and additional features.

    CONCLUSIONS: Parents/guardians are accepting the use of the ChildSafe app to prevent child injury at home. However, further expansion and improvements are needed to increase the acceptability of this app by parents/guardians.

  5. Johari MZ, Abdullah Z, Mohd Hanafiah AN, Mohammed Nadzri NI, Razli SA, Kong YL
    BMC Fam Pract, 2020 09 04;21(1):182.
    PMID: 32887562 DOI: 10.1186/s12875-020-01254-2
    BACKGROUND: Implementation of the new Enhanced Primary Health Care (EnPHC) intervention aims to improve service quality and experience at primary healthcare clinics; especially to newly diagnosed patients. This was achieved by restructuring and improving existing services to better manage non-communicable diseases amongst patients. Objectives of this study are to explore patients' experiences of the EnPHC intervention, to document their feedback and to determine effects of EnPHC intervention on patients.

    METHODS: This phenomenological qualitative study focussed on patients' experiences in relation to EnPHC interventions. Participants were purposely selected from a group of patients who attended the eight intervention primary healthcare clinics in Johor and Selangor regularly for treatment. Data collection was conducted between April to July 2018. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at average an hour per interview for four to five patients per clinic. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed using a thematic analysis approach.

    RESULTS: A total of 35 patients participated. Analysis revealed five main themes about patient experiences receiving the EnPHC intervention. These are: (1) health assessment in disease progress monitoring, (2) patient-doctor relationship and continuity of care, (3) professionalism in service delivery, (4) ensuring compliance in achieving health targets and (5) communication skills. Each theme represents an important aspect of the service, how it should be delivered within the patient expectations and how it can improve patient's health through their lens.

    CONCLUSION: Even though patients were not able to exactly identify the EnPHC intervention components implemented, they are able to describe the process changes that occurred; enabling them to improve their healthcare status. Engagement is necessary to better inform patients of the EnPHC intervention, its purpose, mechanisms, changes and importance for healthcare. It would reduce resistance and increase awareness amongst patients at the clinic.

  6. Perialathan K, Johari MZ, Jaafar N, Yuke Lin K, Lee Lan L, Sodri NA, et al.
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2021 5 11;12:21501327211014096.
    PMID: 33966530 DOI: 10.1177/21501327211014096
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess and explore perceived sustainability and challenges of the intervention among Health Care Providers (HCPs) who were involved.

    METHODS: The study applied mixed-method embedded design to analyze both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative approach was used to evaluate sustainability perception from 20 intervention clinics via self-reported assessment form whereas qualitative data were obtained through in-depth interview (IDI) and focus group discussions (FGDs) 14 health care professionals participated in IDI session and were either care coordinators, liaison officers (LOs)/clinic managers, or medical officers-in-charge for the clinic's intervention. Nine FGDs conducted comprised 58 HCPs from various categories.

    RESULTS: HCPs from all the 20 clinics involved responded to each listed Enhanced Primary Healthcare (EnPHC) intervention components as being implemented but the perceived sustainability of these implementation varies between them. Quantitative feedback showed sustainable interventions included risk stratification, non-communicable disease (NCD) screening form, referral within clinics and hospitals, family health team (FHT), MTAC services and mechanisms and medical adherence status. Qualitative feedback highlighted implementation of each intervention components comes with its challenges, and most of it are related to inadequate resources and facilities in clinic. HCPs made initiatives to adapt based on clinical setting to implement the interventions at best level possible, whereby this seems to be one of the core values for sustainability.

    CONCLUSION: Overall perceptions among HCPs on sustainability of EnPHC interventions are highly influenced by current experiences with existing resources. Components perceived to have inadequate resources are seen as a challenge to sustain. It's crucial for stakeholders to understand implications affecting implementation process if concerns raised are not addressed and allocation of needed resources to ensure overall successfulness and long term sustainability.

  7. Yong TSM, Panting AJ, Juatan N, Perialathan K, Ahmad M, Ahmad Sanusi NH, et al.
    Vet Med Sci, 2021 Sep;7(5):1558-1563.
    PMID: 34137200 DOI: 10.1002/vms3.547
    BACKGROUND: Zoonoses among household pets are recognized as disease and infections transmitted between animals and humans. World Health Organization-estimated zoonotic diseases have contributed about one billion cases of illness and millions of mortalities every year. Despite the emerging and re-emerging zoonotic disease, most pet owners are unaware of the risks posed by their pets. As there are a lack of studies assessing infections at home, this study aimed to develop and validate a cognitive, affective and behaviour questionnaire (CAB-ZDQ) to assess household pets' zoonotic diseases.

    METHODS: This paper covers detailed explanation on the various developmental and validation process stages of the CAB zoonotic disease questionnaire development. The development phase comprised thorough literature search, focus group discussion, expert panel assessment and review. The validation process included pre-test and pilot testing, data analysis of results, analysis of internal consistency and the development of the final version of the questionnaire. Participants selected represented main ethnicities, gender, levels of education and population type (urban/rural) in the Klang Valley area.

    RESULTS: The items in the questionnaire has undergone various changes in structurally and linguistically. The final refined CAB questionnaire consists of 14 items cognitive (no items removed at pilot phase), nine items affective (one item removed at pilot phase) and five items behaviour (no items removed from pre-test phase), respectively. Reliability analysis revealed Cronbach's alpha values were 0.700 (cognitive) and 0.606 (affective) which indicated good internal consistency after item reduction.

    CONCLUSIONS: The developed questionnaire has proved its feasibility in assessing the Malaysian general population cognitive, affective and behavior regarding the household pets' zoonotic diseases.

  8. Jaafar N, Perialathan K, Krishnan M, Juatan N, Ahmad M, Mien TYS, et al.
    PMID: 34071455 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18115813
    Health literacy is an indicator of a society's ability to make better health judgements for themselves and the people around them. This study investigated the prevalence of health literacy among Malaysian adults and provided an overall picture of the society's current health literacy status, which has not been previously assessed. The study also highlighted socio-demographic markers of communities with limited health literacy that may warrant future intervention. A population-based self-administered survey using the Health Literacy Survey Malaysian Questionnaire18 (HLS-M-Q18) instrument was conducted as part of the National Health Morbidity Survey 2019 in Malaysia. The nationwide survey utilized a two-staged stratified random sampling method. A sample of 9478 individuals aged 18 and above, drawn from the living quarter list, participated in the study. The health literacy score was divided into three levels; limited, sufficient, and excellent. Findings showed a majority of the Malaysian population had a sufficient health literacy level in all three domains-healthcare, diseases prevention and health promotion (49.1%, 44.2%, and 47.5%, respectively)-albeit leaning towards the lower end of the category with an average score of 35.5. The limited health literacy groups were prevalent among respondents with older age (68%), lower education level (64.8%), and lower household income (49.5%). The overall health literacy status for Malaysia was categorized at a lower sufficiency level. Future health literacy improvements should focus on communities with a limited health literacy level to improve the overall score.
  9. Low LL, Ab Rahim FI, Johari MZ, Abdullah Z, Abdul Aziz SH, Suhaimi NA, et al.
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2019 Jul 16;19(1):497.
    PMID: 31311538 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-019-4312-x
    BACKGROUND: Amid the current burden of non-communicable (NCD) diseases in Malaysia, there is a growing demand for more efficient service delivery of primary healthcare. A complex intervention is proposed to improve NCD management in Malaysia. This exploratory study aimed to assess primary healthcare providers' receptiveness towards change prior to implementation of the proposed complex intervention.

    METHOD: This study was conducted using an exploratory qualitative approach on purposely selected healthcare providers at primary healthcare clinics. Twenty focus group discussions and three in-depth interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. Consent was obtained prior to interviews and for audio-recordings. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), a framework comprised of five major domains promoting implementation theory development and verification across multiple contexts.

    RESULTS: The study revealed via CFIR that most primary healthcare providers were receptive towards any proposed changes or intervention for the betterment of NCD care management. However, many challenges were outlined across four CFIR domains-intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, and individual characteristics-that included perceived barriers to implementation. Perception of issues that triggered proposed changes reflected the current situation, including existing facilitating aspects that can support the implementation of any future intervention. The importance of strengthening the primary healthcare delivery system was also expressed.

    CONCLUSION: Understanding existing situations faced at the primary healthcare setting is imperative prior to implementation of any intervention. Healthcare providers' receptiveness to change was explored, and using CFIR framework, challenges or perceived barriers among healthcare providers were identified. CFIR was able to outline the clinics' setting, individual behaviour and external agency factors that have direct impact to the organisation. These are important indicators in ensuring feasibility, effectiveness and sustainability of any intervention, as well as future scalability considerations.

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