Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 104 in total

  1. Rozali M.N., Wahid F.H., John J., Purmal K.
    Ann Dent, 2017;24(1):27-32.
    The objectives of the study were to determine the normal dental arch width of Malays, their correlation with
    the facial framework and the ideal size of orthodontic impression trays that fit the dental arch. Eighteen adult
    Malays with normal Class I occlusion were evaluated. Arch width was measured on each subject’s dental
    cast. Direct anthropometric measurements were taken for 8 facial landmarks. Orthodontic impression trays
    were tried on each subject’s dental cast to determine the best fitting tray. Correlations analysis was made
    between the arch widths and the best fitting impression trays used and also with various craniofacial
    anthropometric measurements. The eight measurements from the craniofacial region were compared
    with the maxillary and mandibular intercanine, interpremolar and intermolar widths. In the maxillary arch,
    there were significant correlation between the face width and the interpremolar and intermolar widths
    respectively, while in the mandibular arch, significant correlations were noted between the mandible depth
    and the interpremolar and intermolar widths respectively. The most common fitting impression tray was size
    6 for the upper jaw and size 5 for the lower jaw. There was a significant correlation between the maxillary
    intercanine width and the size of the impression trays. The significant correlation between upper and lower
    interpremolar and intermolar widths and the anthropometric measurements of this Malay population may
    assist in predicting arch expansion to achieve Class 1 occlusion during orthodontic or maxillofacial surgical
    treatment. The significant correlation between the upper intercanine width and the size of impression tray
    can be a useful parameter when determining the size of impression tray.
  2. Wafa SW, Hamzaid H, Talib RA, Reilly JJ
    J Trop Pediatr, 2014 Apr;60(2):161-3.
    PMID: 24213306 DOI: 10.1093/tropej/fmt093
    The present study examined objectively measured physical activity in Malaysian children and compared the differences in physical levels between obese and healthy weight children. Eighty-six obese children were matched for age and sex with 86 healthy weight children with median age 9.5 years. Habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured over 5 days using Actigraph accelerometers. Time spent sedentary was significantly higher in the obese group (90% vs. 86% of daytime; p = 0.001). Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly higher in the healthy weight group (1.2 vs. 0.7% of daytime, p < 0.001). In both healthy weight and obese children, physical activity levels were exceptionally low, although moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly lower in the obese group than the healthy weight group. Efforts to prevent and treat obesity in Malaysian children will need a substantial focus on the promotion of reductions in sedentary behaviour and increases in physical activity.
  3. Loo JSE, Lim SW, Ng YK, Tiong JJL
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2017 Dec;25(6):429-437.
    PMID: 28211115 DOI: 10.1111/ijpp.12352
    OBJECTIVES: To identify factors influencing the decisions of Malaysian first-year pharmacy undergraduate students in private higher education when choosing to pursue a degree in pharmacy as well as their choice of private university.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study employed a validated, self-administered questionnaire which was administered to 543 first-year pharmacy students from nine different private universities. Factor analysis was utilised to extract key factors from the responses. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data.

    KEY FINDINGS: Eight factors motivating students' decision to study pharmacy emerged from the responses, accounting for 63.8% of the variance observed. Students were primarily motivated by intrinsic interests, with work conditions and profession attributes also exerting significant influence. In terms of choice of private university, nine factors were identified, accounting for 73.8% of the variance observed. The image of the school and university were most influential factors in this context, followed by university safety, programme attributes and financial factors.

    CONCLUSIONS: First-year pharmacy students in the private higher education sector are motivated by intrinsic interest when choosing to study pharmacy over other courses, while their choice of private university is influenced primarily by the image of the school and university.

  4. John J, Mani SA, Azizah Y
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Aug;59(3):433-9.
    PMID: 15727396
    One of the undeniable facts about living is that everyday we are getting older. By 2050, it is projected that one out of every five Malaysians will be 60 or older. The economic challenge of this demographic change will affect development and the financial implications of sustaining well being of this group are formidable and complex. This population group has extensive oral disease, medical problems that complicate their oral care, and unique dental treatment challenges. The authors discuss the problem of oral healthcare among the aged, its impediments and propose some approaches for improvement to better serve the needs of this group of vulnerable members of our nation.
  5. Mani SA, Mohsin WS, John J
    PMID: 24968691
    Tooth agenesis in Malay children, hitherto unreported, was assessed retrospectively from orthopantomograms of 834 healthy children aged 12-16 years who attended the Dental Clinic of Universiti Sains Malaysia. All teeth, including third molars, were assessed for agenesis. On an average, 2.3 teeth were missing per child. Missing third molars were found in 25.7% of children with one or two third molars found to be missing in 18.3% of children. Three point two percent of children had missing teeth other than third molars. After third molars, the upper lateral incisors were found to be the most common missing tooth (1.7%), followed by upper and lower second premolars (1.5%). Eight missing upper canines were also seen (1%). Bilateral agenesis was more common than unilateral agenesis. There were no significant differences between males and females. There was a significant difference between missing teeth between the maxilla and the mandible and right and left side, with more missing teeth in the maxilla and on the right side. The odds of any 3rd molar missing were increased 3.3 times when there was any other missing tooth. In conclusion, the prevalence of tooth agenesis among the studied population was within the normal range, but less than some Asian countries. Unlike other Asian countries, the upper lateral incisor was the most common missing tooth. The prevalence of maxillary canine agenesis was higher than most previous reports. Missing teeth were associated with missing third molars, which is likely due to a genetic abnormality.
  6. Mani SA, Burhanudin NA, John J
    Eur J Paediatr Dent, 2012 Mar;13(1):64-8.
    PMID: 22455531
    AIM: In Malaysia, Early Childhood Caries (ECC) was found to affect 76.2% of 5-year-olds (2005). General practitioners are more likely to encounter preschool children and are in a better position to educate parents and caretakers about ECC and make appropriate referrals. This study assessed the knowledge and opinions on early childhood oral health among medical and dental undergraduates.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross sectional study involved 245 students enrolled in the first year medical (M1) and dental (D1) course and fourth year medical (M4) and dental (D4) course. The students completed a self-administered questionnaire which included knowledge and opinions on early childhood oral health. Comparisons between the groups were done using chi-square test.

    RESULTS: Dental students showed significantly better knowledge than medical students. D1 students showed significantly better knowledge of age of first tooth eruption over M1. Knowledge of recommended age for bottle weaning was higher among D4 students but not significantly more than M4 students.

    CONCLUSION: The majority of medical students showed inadequate knowledge indicating that medical curriculum should emphasise on oral health topics of public health relevance like ECC and its prevention. Dental students had better knowledge regarding early childhood oral health, but lacked knowledge on its preventive aspects.

  7. John J, Yatim FM, Mani SA
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2011 Sep;23(5):742-53.
    PMID: 20460281 DOI: 10.1177/1010539509357341
    This study investigates patients' expectations and perceptions of service quality in public dental health care and measures their "satisfaction gap." This descriptive study involved 481 dental outpatients in Kelantan, Malaysia. A modified SERVQUAL 20-item instrument was used to assess patients' expectations before and perceptions after receiving dental treatment. The "satisfaction gap" was then measured.
    RESULTS: showed that patients visiting for management of dental pain were more satisfied (P = .007) than those visiting with appointment. The most significant service quality dimensions were related to responsiveness, assurance, and empathy of the dental health care providers. There was a significant difference between the patients' expectations and their perceptions of service provided (P < .01) with regard to all dimensions. In conclusion, dental service providers should give emphasis to the compassionate and emotional aspects of care and to remember that they are integral components of quality service.
  8. Al-koshab M, Nambiar P, John J
    PLoS One, 2015;10(3):e0121682.
    PMID: 25803868 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121682
    INTRODUCTION: Proper imaging allows practitioners to evaluate an asymptomatic tempormandibular joint (TMJ) for potential degenerative changes prior to surgical and orthodontic treatment. The recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) allows measurement of TMJ bony structures with high accuracy. A study was undertaken to determine the morphology, and its variations, of the mandibular condyle and glenoid fossa among Malay and Chinese Malaysians.

    METHODS: CBCT was used to assess 200 joints in 100 subjects (mean age, 30.5 years). i-CAT CBCT software and The Mimics 16.0 software were employed to measure the volume, metrical size, position of each condyle sample and the thickness of the roof of the glenoid fossa (RGF).

    RESULTS: No significant gender differences were noted in thickness of the RGF and condylar length; however condylar volume, width, height and the joint spaces were significantly greater among males. With regards to comparison of both TMJs, the means of condylar volume, width and length of the right TMJ were significantly higher, while the means of the left condylar height and thickness of RGF were higher. When comparing the condylar measurements and the thickness of RGF between the two ethnic groups, we found no significant difference for all measurements with exception of condylar height, which is higher among Chinese.

    CONCLUSION: The similarity in measurements for Malays and Chinese may be due to their common origin. This information can be clinically useful in establishing the diagnostic criteria for condylar volume, metrical size, and position in the Malaysian East Asians population.

  9. Heo CC, Mohamad AM, John J, Baharudin O
    Trop Biomed, 2008 Apr;25(1):93-5.
    PMID: 18600210 MyJurnal
    During a forensic entomological study conducted in a palm oil plantation in Tg.Sepat, Selangor in September 2007, a spider (Arachnida), Oxyopes sp. (Oxyopidae) was found to predate on a calliphorid fly (Chrysomya rufifacies). The female spider laid a silk thread, or "drag line", behind it as it moved. This spider bites its prey by using a pairs of chelicerae, and injecting venom into the fly. The fly was moving its wing trying to escape, however, it succumbed to the deadly bite.
  10. Heo CC, Mohamad AM, John J, Baharudin O
    Trop Biomed, 2008 Apr;25(1):23-9.
    PMID: 18600201
    This entomological study was conducted in a man-made freshwater pond in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor from 23 July 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model. A 1.5 month old piglet (5 kg), which died of asphyxia after being accidentally crushed by its mother, was thrown into a pond. Observation was made for ten days; one visit per day and climatological data were recorded. On the first two days, the piglet carcass sunk to the bottom of the pond. The carcass floated to the surface on the third day but no fly activities were seen. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies started to oviposit on the fourth day. Other than adult flies, a spider (Arachnida) was also observed on the carcass. Bubbles accumulated at the mouthpart, and the abdomen was greenish black. A lot of blow fly eggs were seen on the body surface on the fifth day (floating decay), along with first and second instars C. megacephala crawling under the piglet's skin. On the sixth day, adult blow fly, C. megacephala,and C. rufifacies,and muscid flies, Ophyra spinigera and Musca domestica were observed on to the carcass. High numbers of first and second instars of flies were observed wandering around the body surface with C. megacephala larvae being the predominant species. Two prominent maggot masses occurred on seventh and eighth days. Bloated deterioration stage began on day eighth exposing rib bones, humerus bones and intestines. Carcass was partially sinking and the maggot masses were at the water level. On day ninth, the carcass was partially sinking and three maggot masses were observed on the exposed surface. There were very few adult flies, including a scarab beetle was sighted on the carcass at this stage. The carcass along with the maggots sunk on day tenth, leaving an oily layer on the water surface.
  11. Hamzaid H, Talib RA, Azizi NH, Maamor N, Reilly JJ, Wafa SW
    Int J Pediatr Obes, 2011 Oct;6(5-6):450-4.
    PMID: 21767214 DOI: 10.3109/17477166.2011.590206
    BACKGROUND:Quality of life (QoL) is impaired in childhood obesity, but the literature on this is all from Western countries. Aim. To test for impairment of QoL in obese children in Malaysia, using parent-reported and child-reported QoL.
    METHODS:Health-related Quality of Life was measured using the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory version 4.0. Comparison of QoL between a community sample of 90 obese children (as defined by US CDC and Cole-IOTF definitions), median age 9.5 y (interquartile range [IQR] 8.6, 10.5 y) and 90 control children of healthy weight (BMI less than the 85th centile of US reference data), median age 10.0 y (IQR 9.6, 10.5 y). Children were matched pair-wise for age, gender, and ethnic group, and controls were recruited from schools in the same area as obese participants.
    RESULTS:For child self-report, the healthy weight group had significantly higher QoL for the physical (median 82.9, IQR 65.7, 90.6), and psychosocial domains (median, 73.3, IQR 64.4, 83.3), and total QoL (median 76.1, IQR 64.1, 84.8) compared to the obese group (median 67.2, IQR 59.4, 81.3; median 62.5, IQR 53.3, 75.4; median 60.9, IQR 50.8, 73.9; all p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the obese and healthy weight group for parent-reported physical health, psychosocial health, or total QoL.
    CONCLUSION:Obese children in Malaysia have markedly poorer QoL than their peers, but this is not evident when parent reports of QoL are used.
    Study name: Malaysian Childhood Obesity Treatment Trial (MASCOT)
    Study site: Two primary schools, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  12. Clavadetscher J, Hoffmann S, Lilienkampf A, Mackay L, Yusop RM, Rider SA, et al.
    Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2016 12 12;55(50):15662-15666.
    PMID: 27860120 DOI: 10.1002/anie.201609837
    The copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction has proven to be a pivotal advance in chemical ligation strategies with applications ranging from polymer fabrication to bioconjugation. However, application in vivo has been limited by the inherent toxicity of the copper catalyst. Herein, we report the application of heterogeneous copper catalysts in azide-alkyne cycloaddition processes in biological systems ranging from cells to zebrafish, with reactions spanning from fluorophore activation to the first reported in situ generation of a triazole-containing anticancer agent from two benign components, opening up many new avenues of exploration for CuAAC chemistry.
  13. Rashid RM, Ramli S, John J, Dahlui M
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(13):5143-7.
    PMID: 25040965
    Cervical cancer screening in Malaysia is by opportunistic Pap smear which contributes to the low uptake rate. To overcome this, a pilot project called the SIPPS program (translated as information system of Pap smear program) had been introduced whereby women aged 20-65 years old are invited for Pap smear and receive recall to repeat the test. This study aimed at determining which recall method is most cost-effective in getting women to repeat Pap smear. A randomised control trial was conducted where one thousand women were recalled for repeat smear either by registered letter, phone messages, phone call or the usual postal letter. The total cost applied for cost-effectiveness analysis includes the cost of sending letter for first invitation, cost of the recall method and cost of two Pap smears. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) of Pap smear uptake by each recall method was then performed. The uptake of Pap smear by postal letter, registered letters, SMS and phone calls were 18.8%, 20.0%, 21.6% and 34.4%, respectively (p<0.05). The CER for the recall method was lowest by phone call compared to other interventions; RM 69.18 (SD RM 0.14) compared to RM 106.53 (SD RM 0.13), RM 134.02 (SD RM 0.15) and RM 136.38 (SD RM 0.11) for SMS, registered letter and letter, respectively. ICER showed that it is most cost saving if the usual method of recall by postal letter be changed to recall by phone call. The possibility of letter as a recall for repeat Pap smear to reach the women is higher compared to sending SMS or making phone call. However, getting women to do repeat Pap smear is better with phone call which allows direct communication. Despite the high cost of the phone call as a recall method for repeat Pap smear, it is the most cost-effective method compared to others.
  14. Mani SA, Aziz AA, John J, Ismail NM
    J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent, 2010 Apr-Jun;28(2):78-83.
    PMID: 20660972 DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.66741
    The role of caretakers at day-care centers has become more imperative in promoting oral health care in children since many new mothers opt to work outside their homes, leaving their children at day-care centers. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among secondary caretakers of children attending day-care centers.
  15. Mani SA, Naing L, John J, Samsudin AR
    Int J Paediatr Dent, 2008 Sep;18(5):380-8.
    PMID: 18284472 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2007.00890.x
    BACKGROUND: Numerous methods of age estimation have been proposed. The Demirjian method is the most frequently used, which was first applied in a French Canadian population in 1973. The Willems method is a modification of the above and was applied in a Belgian population in 2002.
    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to test the applicability of the two methods, namely Demirjian and Willems, for age estimation in a Malay population, and to find the correlation between body mass index and the difference between the dental age and the chronological age.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 214 boys and 214 girls, selected by a simple stratified random sampling method was carried out. The orthopantomograph was used to score the seven left mandibular teeth, and the calculated maturity score was used to obtain the Demirjian dental age. Willems dental age was estimated using the tables proposed in the Willems method. Results. The Demirjian method overestimated the age by 0.75 and 0.61 years, while the Willems method overestimated the age by 0.55 and 0.41 years among boys and girls, respectively. In boys, the body mass index was significantly correlated to the difference in age using the Willems method.
    CONCLUSION: Further modification of either method is indicated for dental age estimation among the Malay population.
  16. Md Bohari NF, Kruger E, John J, Tennant M
    Int Dent J, 2019 Jun;69(3):223-229.
    PMID: 30565655 DOI: 10.1111/idj.12454
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse, in detail, the distribution of primary dental clinics in relation to the Malaysian population and relative population wealth, to test the hypothesis that an uneven distribution of dental services exists in Malaysia.

    METHOD: This 2016 study located every dental practice in Malaysia (private and public) and mapped these practices against population, using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools. Population clusters within 5, 10 and 20 km of a dental clinic were identified, and clinic-to-population ratios were ascertained. Population data were obtained from the Population and Housing Census of Malaysia 2010. Population relative wealth was obtained from the 2014 Report on Household Income and Basic Amenities Survey for Malaysia. The physical address for each dental practice in Malaysia was gathered from the Official Portal of Ministry of Health Malaysia. All data for analysis were extracted from the integrated database in Quantum GIS (QGIS) into Microsoft Excel.

    RESULT: The population of Malaysia (24.9 million) was distributed across 127 districts, with 119 (94%) having at least one dental clinic. Sixty-four districts had fewer than 10 dental clinics, and 11.3% of Malaysians did not reside in the catchment of 20 km from any dental clinic. The total dental clinic-to-population ratio was 1:9,000: for public dental clinics it was 1:38,000 and for private clinics it was 1:13,000.

    CONCLUSION: Dental services were distributed relative to high population density, were unevenly distributed across Malaysia and the majority of people with the highest inaccessibility to a dental service resided in Malaysian Borneo.

  17. John J, Nandhini AR, Velayudhaperumal Chellam P, Sillanpää M
    Environ Chem Lett, 2021 Oct 07.
    PMID: 34642583 DOI: 10.1007/s10311-021-01326-4
    Microplastic pollution has recently been identified as a major issue for the health of ecosystems. Microplastics have typically sizes of less than 5 mm and occur in various forms, such as pellets, fibres, fragments, films, and granules. Mangroves and coral reefs are sensitive and restricted ecosystems that provide free ecological services such as coastal protection, maintaining natural cycles, hotspots of biodiversity and economically valuable goods. However, urbanization and industrial activities have started contaminating even these preserved ecosystems. Here we review sources, occurrence, and toxicity of microplastics in the trophic levels of mangrove and coral reef ecosystems. We present detection methods, such as microscopic identification and spectroscopy. We discuss mitigating measures that prevent the entry of microplastics into the marine environment.
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