Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 141 in total

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  1. Flaherty G, Udoeyop I, Whooley P, Jones M
    J Travel Med, 2017 05 01;24(3).
    PMID: 28355618 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/taw100
  2. Masir N, Campbell LJ, Jones M, Mason DY
    Pathology, 2010 Apr;42(3):212-6.
    PMID: 20350212 DOI: 10.3109/00313021003631296
    The t(14;18)(q32;q21) chromosomal translocation induces BCL2 protein expression in most follicular lymphomas. However, a small number of cases lack BCL2 expression despite carrying the t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation. This study aims to explore the mechanism accounting for the lack of BCL2 protein expression when the t(14;18) translocation is present.
  3. Leow CY, Willis C, Leow CH, Hofmann A, Jones M
    Mol. Biochem. Parasitol., 2019 12;234:111231.
    PMID: 31628972 DOI: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2019.111231
    Schistosomes are parasitic blood flukes that infect approximately 250 million people worldwide. The disease known as schistosomiasis, is the second most significant tropical parasitic disease after malaria. Praziquantel is the only effective drug currently licensed for schistosomiasis and there are concerns about resistance to the drug. There has been much effort to develop vaccines against schistosomiasis to produce long-term protection in endemic regions. Surface-associated proteins, and in particular, those expressed in the body wall, or tegument, have been proposed as potential vaccine targets. Of these, annexins are thought to be of integral importance for the stability of this apical membrane system. Here, we present the structural and immunobiochemical characterization of four homologous annexins namely annexin B30, annexin B5a, annexin B7a and annexin B5b from S. mansoni. Bioinformatics analysis showed that there was no signal peptide predicted for any annexin in this study. Further analysis showed that each of all four annexin protein possesses a primary structure consisting of a short but variable N-terminal region and a long C-terminal core containing four homologous annexin repeats (I-IV), which contain five alpha-helices. The life cycle expression profile of each annexin was assessed using quantitative PCR. The results showed that the overall transcript levels of the each of four homologous annexins were relatively low in the egg stage, but increased gradually after the transition of cercariae (the invasive schistosome larvae) to schistosomula (the post-invasive larvae). Circular dichroism (CD) demonstrated that rAnnexin B30, rAnnexin B5a and rAnnexin 7a were folded, showing a secondary structure content rich in alpha-helices. The membrane binding affinity was enhanced when rAnnexin B30, rAnnexin B5a and rAnnexin 7a was incubated in the presence of Ca2+. All annexin members evaluated in this study were immunolocalized to the tegument, with immunoreactivity also occurring in cells and in muscle of adult parasites. All four recombinant annexins were immunoreactive and they were recognized by the sera of mice infected with S. mansoni. In conclusion, the overall results present the molecular characterization of annexin B30, annexin B5a, annexin B7a and annexin B5b from S. mansoni in host-parasite interactions and strongly suggest that the molecules could be useful candidates for vaccine or diagnostic development.
  4. Leow CY, Willis C, Chuah C, Leow CH, Jones M
    Parasite Immunol., 2020 03;42(3):e12693.
    PMID: 31880816 DOI: 10.1111/pim.12693
    AIMS: Schistosomes infect approximately 250 million people worldwide. To date, there is no effective vaccine available for the prevention of schistosome infection in endemic regions. There remains a need to develop means to confer long-term protection of individuals against reinfection. In this study, an annexin, namely annexin B30, which is highly expressed in the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni was selected to evaluate its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a mouse model.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Bioinformatics analysis showed that there were three potential linear B-cell epitopes and four conformational B-cell epitopes predicted from annexin B30, respectively. Full-length annexin B30 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). In the presence of adjuvants, the soluble recombinant protein was evaluated for its protective efficacy in two independent vaccine trials. Immunization of CBA mice with recombinant annexin B30 formulated either in alum only or alum/CpG induced a mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine profile but no significant protection against schistosome infection was detected.

    CONCLUSION: Recombinant annexin B30 did not confer significant protection against the parasite. The molecule may not be suitable for vaccine development. However, it could be an ideal biomarker recommended for immunodiagnostics development.

  5. Masir N, Jones M, Abdul-Rahman F, Florence CS, Mason DY
    Pathology, 2012 Apr;44(3):228-33.
    PMID: 22406486 DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0b013e3283513fb2
    The hallmark of follicular lymphoma is the t(14;18)(q32;q21) chromosomal translocations that lead to deregulation of BCL2 expression in tumour cells. However, not all cases of follicular lymphoma express BCL2, nor is the t(14;18) translocation always present. Follicular lymphomas lacking the BCL2 rearrangement are less well studied with regards to their immunohistochemical and molecular features. This study aims to investigate the BCL2 protein expression pattern in t(14;18) negative follicular lymphomas.
  6. Masir N, Jones M, Lee AM, Goff LK, Clear AJ, Lister A, et al.
    Histopathology, 2010 Apr;56(5):617-26.
    PMID: 20459572 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2559.2010.03524.x
    To investigate the relationship between Bcl-2 protein expression and cell proliferation at single-cell level in B-cell lymphomas using double-labelling techniques.
  7. Misnan R, Murad S, Jones M, Taylor G, Rahman D, Arip M, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 2008 Dec;26(4):191-8.
    PMID: 19317337
    The purpose of this study was to characterize major allergens of Indian scad (Decapterus russelli) which is among the most commonly consumed fish in Malaysia. Raw and cooked extracts of the fish were prepared. Protein profiles and IgE binding patterns were produced by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from subjects with fish allergy. The major allergens of the fish were then identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by mass spectrometry of the peptide digests. The SDS-PAGE of the raw extract revealed 27 protein fractions over a wide molecular weight range, while the cooked extract demonstrated only six protein fractions. The 1-DE immunoblotting detected 14 IgE-binding proteins, with a molecular weight range from 90 to < 6.5 kDa. Three protein fractions with molecular weights of approximately 51, 46 and 12 kDa were identified as the major allergens of this fish. The approximately 12 kDa band was a heat-resistant protein while the approximately 51 and 46 kDa proteins were sensitive to heat. The 2-DE gel profile of the raw extract demonstrated > 100 distinct protein spots and immunoblotting detected at least 10 different major IgE reactive spots with molecular masses as expected and isoelectric point (pI) values ranging from 4.0 to 7.0. A comparison of the major allergenic spot sequences of the 12 kDa proteins with known protein sequences in databases revealed extensive similarity with fish parvalbumin. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a parvalbumin which is similar to Gad c 1 is the major allergen of Indian scad. Interestingly, we also detected heat-sensitive proteins as major allergenic components in our fish allergy patients.
  8. Riahi M, Ang HL, Jones M, Prachasilchai P, Baruteau AE, Promphan W, et al.
    Circ Cardiovasc Interv, 2018 04;11(4):e005923.
    PMID: 29618579 DOI: 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.117.005923
  9. Nawawi WMFBW, Jones M, Murphy RJ, Lee KY, Kontturi E, Bismarck A
    Biomacromolecules, 2020 01 13;21(1):30-55.
    PMID: 31592650 DOI: 10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01141
    Greener alternatives to synthetic polymers are constantly being investigated and sought after. Chitin is a natural polysaccharide that gives structural support to crustacean shells, insect exoskeletons, and fungal cell walls. Like cellulose, chitin resides in nanosized structural elements that can be isolated as nanofibers and nanocrystals by various top-down approaches, targeted at disintegrating the native construct. Chitin has, however, been largely overshadowed by cellulose when discussing the materials aspects of the nanosized components. This Perspective presents a thorough overview of chitin-related materials research with an analytical focus on nanocomposites and nanopapers. The red line running through the text emphasizes the use of fungal chitin that represents several advantages over the more popular crustacean sources, particularly in terms of nanofiber isolation from the native matrix. In addition, many β-glucans are preserved in chitin upon its isolation from the fungal matrix, enabling new horizons for various engineering solutions.
  10. Masir N, Campbell LJ, Goff LK, Jones M, Marafioti T, Cordell J, et al.
    Br. J. Haematol., 2009 Mar;144(5):716-25.
    PMID: 19120369 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2008.07528.x
    The t(14;18)(q32;q21) chromosomal translocation induces BCL2 protein overexpression in most follicular lymphomas. However the expression of BCL2 is not always homogeneous and may demonstrate a variable degree of heterogeneity. This study analysed BCL2 protein expression pattern in 33 cases of t(14;18)-positive follicular lymphomas using antibodies against two different epitopes (i.e. the widely used antibody BCL2/124 and an alternative antibody E17). 16/33 (49%) cases demonstrated strong BCL2 expression. In 10/33 (30%) cases, BCL2 expression was heterogeneous and in some of these, its loss appeared to be correlated with cell proliferation, as indicated by Ki67 expression. Double immunofluorescence labelling confirmed an inverse BCL2/Ki67 relationship, where in 24/28 (86%) cases cellular expression of BCL2 and Ki67 was mutually exclusive. In addition, seven BCL2 'pseudo-negative' cases were identified in which immunostaining was negative with antibody BCL2/124, but positive with antibody E17. Genomic DNA sequencing of these 'pseudo-negative' cases demonstrated eleven mutations in four cases and nine of these were missense mutations. It can be concluded that in follicular lymphomas, despite carrying the t(14;18) translocations, BCL2 protein expression may be heterogeneous and loss of BCL2 could be related to cell proliferation. Secondly, mutations in translocated BCL2 genes appear to be common and may cause BCL2 pseudo-negative immunostaining.
  11. Blue ME, Wilson MA, Beaty CA, George TJ, Arnaoutakis GJ, Haggerty KA, et al.
    J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 2014 Dec;73(12):1134-43.
    PMID: 25383634 DOI: 10.1097/NEN.0000000000000134
    Neuropathology and neurologic impairment were characterized in a clinically relevant canine model of hypothermic (18°C) circulatory arrest (HCA) and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Adult dogs underwent 2 hours of HCA (n = 39), 1 hour of HCA (n = 20), or standard CPB (n = 22) and survived 2, 8, 24, or 72 hours. Neurologic impairment and neuropathology were much more severe after 2-hour HCA than after 1-hour HCA or CPB; histopathology and neurologic deficit scores were significantly correlated. Apoptosis developed as early as 2 hours after injury and was most severe in the granule cells of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Necrosis evolved more slowly and was most severe in amygdala and pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis hippocampus. Neuronal injury was minimal up to 24 hours after 1-hour HCA, but 1 dog that survived to 72 hours showed substantial necrosis in the hippocampus, suggesting that, with longer survival time, the injury was worse. Although neuronal injury was minimal after CPB, we observed rare apoptotic and necrotic neurons in hippocampi and caudate nuclei. These results have important implications for CPB in humans and may help explain the subtle cognitive changes experienced by patients after CPB.
  12. Brouckaert O, Rudolph A, Laenen A, Keeman R, Bolla MK, Wang Q, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res., 2017 Nov 07;19(1):119.
    PMID: 29116004 DOI: 10.1186/s13058-017-0909-3
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that reproductive factors are differentially associated with breast cancer (BC) risk by subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between reproductive factors and BC subtypes, and whether these vary by age at diagnosis.

    METHODS: We used pooled data on tumor markers (estrogen and progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)) and reproductive risk factors (parity, age at first full-time pregnancy (FFTP) and age at menarche) from 28,095 patients with invasive BC from 34 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). In a case-only analysis, we used logistic regression to assess associations between reproductive factors and BC subtype compared to luminal A tumors as a reference. The interaction between age and parity in BC subtype risk was also tested, across all ages and, because age was modeled non-linearly, specifically at ages 35, 55 and 75 years.

    RESULTS: Parous women were more likely to be diagnosed with triple negative BC (TNBC) than with luminal A BC, irrespective of age (OR for parity = 1.38, 95% CI 1.16-1.65, p = 0.0004; p for interaction with age = 0.076). Parous women were also more likely to be diagnosed with luminal and non-luminal HER2-like BCs and this effect was slightly more pronounced at an early age (p for interaction with age = 0.037 and 0.030, respectively). For instance, women diagnosed at age 35 were 1.48 (CI 1.01-2.16) more likely to have luminal HER2-like BC than luminal A BC, while this association was not significant at age 75 (OR = 0.72, CI 0.45-1.14). While age at menarche was not significantly associated with BC subtype, increasing age at FFTP was non-linearly associated with TNBC relative to luminal A BC. An age at FFTP of 25 versus 20 years lowered the risk for TNBC (OR = 0.78, CI 0.70-0.88, p 

  13. Easton DF, Lesueur F, Decker B, Michailidou K, Li J, Allen J, et al.
    J. Med. Genet., 2016 05;53(5):298-309.
    PMID: 26921362 DOI: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103529
    BACKGROUND: BRCA1 interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1 (BRIP1) is one of the Fanconi Anaemia Complementation (FANC) group family of DNA repair proteins. Biallelic mutations in BRIP1 are responsible for FANC group J, and previous studies have also suggested that rare protein truncating variants in BRIP1 are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. These studies have led to inclusion of BRIP1 on targeted sequencing panels for breast cancer risk prediction.

    METHODS: We evaluated a truncating variant, p.Arg798Ter (rs137852986), and 10 missense variants of BRIP1, in 48 144 cases and 43 607 controls of European origin, drawn from 41 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Additionally, we sequenced the coding regions of BRIP1 in 13 213 cases and 5242 controls from the UK, 1313 cases and 1123 controls from three population-based studies as part of the Breast Cancer Family Registry, and 1853 familial cases and 2001 controls from Australia.

    RESULTS: The rare truncating allele of rs137852986 was observed in 23 cases and 18 controls in Europeans in BCAC (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.58 to 2.03, p=0.79). Truncating variants were found in the sequencing studies in 34 cases (0.21%) and 19 controls (0.23%) (combined OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.70, p=0.75).

    CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that truncating variants in BRIP1, and in particular p.Arg798Ter, are not associated with a substantial increase in breast cancer risk. Such observations have important implications for the reporting of results from breast cancer screening panels.

  14. Orr N, Dudbridge F, Dryden N, Maguire S, Novo D, Perrakis E, et al.
    Hum. Mol. Genet., 2015 May 15;24(10):2966-84.
    PMID: 25652398 DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddv035
    We recently identified a novel susceptibility variant, rs865686, for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer at 9q31.2. Here, we report a fine-mapping analysis of the 9q31.2 susceptibility locus using 43 160 cases and 42 600 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 52 studies and a further 5795 cases and 6624 controls of Asian ancestry from nine studies. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs676256 was most strongly associated with risk in Europeans (odds ratios [OR] = 0.90 [0.88-0.92]; P-value = 1.58 × 10(-25)). This SNP is one of a cluster of highly correlated variants, including rs865686, that spans ∼14.5 kb. We identified two additional independent association signals demarcated by SNPs rs10816625 (OR = 1.12 [1.08-1.17]; P-value = 7.89 × 10(-09)) and rs13294895 (OR = 1.09 [1.06-1.12]; P-value = 2.97 × 10(-11)). SNP rs10816625, but not rs13294895, was also associated with risk of breast cancer in Asian individuals (OR = 1.12 [1.06-1.18]; P-value = 2.77 × 10(-05)). Functional genomic annotation using data derived from breast cancer cell-line models indicates that these SNPs localise to putative enhancer elements that bind known drivers of hormone-dependent breast cancer, including ER-α, FOXA1 and GATA-3. In vitro analyses indicate that rs10816625 and rs13294895 have allele-specific effects on enhancer activity and suggest chromatin interactions with the KLF4 gene locus. These results demonstrate the power of dense genotyping in large studies to identify independent susceptibility variants. Analysis of associations using subjects with different ancestry, combined with bioinformatic and genomic characterisation, can provide strong evidence for the likely causative alleles and their functional basis.
  15. Glubb DM, Maranian MJ, Michailidou K, Pooley KA, Meyer KB, Kar S, et al.
    Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2015 Jan 08;96(1):5-20.
    PMID: 25529635 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.11.009
    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed SNP rs889312 on 5q11.2 to be associated with breast cancer risk in women of European ancestry. In an attempt to identify the biologically relevant variants, we analyzed 909 genetic variants across 5q11.2 in 103,991 breast cancer individuals and control individuals from 52 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified three independent risk signals: the strongest associations were with 15 correlated variants (iCHAV1), where the minor allele of the best candidate, rs62355902, associated with significantly increased risks of both estrogen-receptor-positive (ER(+): odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21-1.27, ptrend = 5.7 × 10(-44)) and estrogen-receptor-negative (ER(-): OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.15, ptrend = 3.0 × 10(-4)) tumors. After adjustment for rs62355902, we found evidence of association of a further 173 variants (iCHAV2) containing three subsets with a range of effects (the strongest was rs113317823 [pcond = 1.61 × 10(-5)]) and five variants composing iCHAV3 (lead rs11949391; ER(+): OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.87-0.93, pcond = 1.4 × 10(-4)). Twenty-six percent of the prioritized candidate variants coincided with four putative regulatory elements that interact with the MAP3K1 promoter through chromatin looping and affect MAP3K1 promoter activity. Functional analysis indicated that the cancer risk alleles of four candidates (rs74345699 and rs62355900 [iCHAV1], rs16886397 [iCHAV2a], and rs17432750 [iCHAV3]) increased MAP3K1 transcriptional activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed diminished GATA3 binding to the minor (cancer-protective) allele of rs17432750, indicating a mechanism for its action. We propose that the cancer risk alleles act to increase MAP3K1 expression in vivo and might promote breast cancer cell survival.
  16. Lin WY, Camp NJ, Ghoussaini M, Beesley J, Michailidou K, Hopper JL, et al.
    Hum. Mol. Genet., 2015 Jan 01;24(1):285-98.
    PMID: 25168388 DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddu431
    Previous studies have suggested that polymorphisms in CASP8 on chromosome 2 are associated with breast cancer risk. To clarify the role of CASP8 in breast cancer susceptibility, we carried out dense genotyping of this region in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 1 Mb region around CASP8 were genotyped in 46 450 breast cancer cases and 42 600 controls of European origin from 41 studies participating in the BCAC as part of a custom genotyping array experiment (iCOGS). Missing genotypes and SNPs were imputed and, after quality exclusions, 501 typed and 1232 imputed SNPs were included in logistic regression models adjusting for study and ancestry principal components. The SNPs retained in the final model were investigated further in data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising in total 10 052 case and 12 575 control subjects. The most significant association signal observed in European subjects was for the imputed intronic SNP rs1830298 in ALS2CR12 (telomeric to CASP8), with per allele odds ratio and 95% confidence interval [OR (95% confidence interval, CI)] for the minor allele of 1.05 (1.03-1.07), P = 1 × 10(-5). Three additional independent signals from intronic SNPs were identified, in CASP8 (rs36043647), ALS2CR11 (rs59278883) and CFLAR (rs7558475). The association with rs1830298 was replicated in the imputed results from the combined GWAS (P = 3 × 10(-6)), yielding a combined OR (95% CI) of 1.06 (1.04-1.08), P = 1 × 10(-9). Analyses of gene expression associations in peripheral blood and normal breast tissue indicate that CASP8 might be the target gene, suggesting a mechanism involving apoptosis.
  17. Zeng C, Guo X, Long J, Kuchenbaecker KB, Droit A, Michailidou K, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res., 2016 06 21;18(1):64.
    PMID: 27459855 DOI: 10.1186/s13058-016-0718-0
    BACKGROUND: Multiple recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10771399, at 12p11 that is associated with breast cancer risk.

    METHOD: We performed a fine-scale mapping study of a 700 kb region including 441 genotyped and more than 1300 imputed genetic variants in 48,155 cases and 43,612 controls of European descent, 6269 cases and 6624 controls of East Asian descent and 1116 cases and 932 controls of African descent in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC; http://bcac.ccge.medschl.cam.ac.uk/ ), and in 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Stepwise regression analyses were performed to identify independent association signals. Data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project (ENCODE) and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used for functional annotation.

    RESULTS: Analysis of data from European descendants found evidence for four independent association signals at 12p11, represented by rs7297051 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.12; P = 3 × 10(-9)), rs805510 (OR = 1.08, 95 % CI = 1.04-1.12, P = 2 × 10(-5)), and rs1871152 (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.06; P = 2 × 10(-4)) identified in the general populations, and rs113824616 (P = 7 × 10(-5)) identified in the meta-analysis of BCAC ER-negative cases and BRCA1 mutation carriers. SNPs rs7297051, rs805510 and rs113824616 were also associated with breast cancer risk at P 

  18. Kar SP, Beesley J, Amin Al Olama A, Michailidou K, Tyrer J, Kote-Jarai Z, et al.
    Cancer Discov, 2016 09;6(9):1052-67.
    PMID: 27432226 DOI: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-15-1227
    Breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers are hormone-related and may have a shared genetic basis, but this has not been investigated systematically by genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Meta-analyses combining the largest GWA meta-analysis data sets for these cancers totaling 112,349 cases and 116,421 controls of European ancestry, all together and in pairs, identified at P < 10(-8) seven new cross-cancer loci: three associated with susceptibility to all three cancers (rs17041869/2q13/BCL2L11; rs7937840/11q12/INCENP; rs1469713/19p13/GATAD2A), two breast and ovarian cancer risk loci (rs200182588/9q31/SMC2; rs8037137/15q26/RCCD1), and two breast and prostate cancer risk loci (rs5013329/1p34/NSUN4; rs9375701/6q23/L3MBTL3). Index variants in five additional regions previously associated with only one cancer also showed clear association with a second cancer type. Cell-type-specific expression quantitative trait locus and enhancer-gene interaction annotations suggested target genes with potential cross-cancer roles at the new loci. Pathway analysis revealed significant enrichment of death receptor signaling genes near loci with P < 10(-5) in the three-cancer meta-analysis.

    SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that combining large-scale GWA meta-analysis findings across cancer types can identify completely new risk loci common to breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers. We show that the identification of such cross-cancer risk loci has the potential to shed new light on the shared biology underlying these hormone-related cancers. Cancer Discov; 6(9); 1052-67. ©2016 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 932.

  19. Couch FJ, Kuchenbaecker KB, Michailidou K, Mendoza-Fandino GA, Nord S, Lilyquist J, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2016 04 27;7:11375.
    PMID: 27117709 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11375
    Common variants in 94 loci have been associated with breast cancer including 15 loci with genome-wide significant associations (P<5 × 10(-8)) with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and BRCA1-associated breast cancer risk. In this study, to identify new ER-negative susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consisting of 4,939 ER-negative cases and 14,352 controls, combined with 7,333 ER-negative cases and 42,468 controls and 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers genotyped on the iCOGS array. We identify four previously unidentified loci including two loci at 13q22 near KLF5, a 2p23.2 locus near WDR43 and a 2q33 locus near PPIL3 that display genome-wide significant associations with ER-negative breast cancer. In addition, 19 known breast cancer risk loci have genome-wide significant associations and 40 had moderate associations (P<0.05) with ER-negative disease. Using functional and eQTL studies we implicate TRMT61B and WDR43 at 2p23.2 and PPIL3 at 2q33 in ER-negative breast cancer aetiology. All ER-negative loci combined account for ∼11% of familial relative risk for ER-negative disease and may contribute to improved ER-negative and BRCA1 breast cancer risk prediction.
  20. Milne RL, Kuchenbaecker KB, Michailidou K, Beesley J, Kar S, Lindström S, et al.
    Nat. Genet., 2017 Dec;49(12):1767-1778.
    PMID: 29058716 DOI: 10.1038/ng.3785
    Most common breast cancer susceptibility variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of predominantly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We conducted a GWAS using 21,468 ER-negative cases and 100,594 controls combined with 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer), all of European origin. We identified independent associations at P < 5 × 10-8 with ten variants at nine new loci. At P < 0.05, we replicated associations with 10 of 11 variants previously reported in ER-negative disease or BRCA1 mutation carrier GWAS and observed consistent associations with ER-negative disease for 105 susceptibility variants identified by other studies. These 125 variants explain approximately 16% of the familial risk of this breast cancer subtype. There was high genetic correlation (0.72) between risk of ER-negative breast cancer and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. These findings may lead to improved risk prediction and inform further fine-mapping and functional work to better understand the biological basis of ER-negative breast cancer.
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