Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 40 in total

  1. Kadhum AA, Shamma MN
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2017 Jan 02;57(1):48-58.
    PMID: 26048727
    Lipid is the general name given to fats and oils, which are the basic components of cooking oils, shortening, ghee, margarine, and other edible fats. The chosen term depends on the physical state at ambient temperature; fats are solids and oils are liquids. The chemical properties of the lipids, including degree of saturation, fatty acid chain length, and acylglycerol molecule composition are the basic determinants of physical characteristics such as melting point, cloud point, solid fat content, and thermal behavior. This review will discuss the major lipid modification strategies, hydrogenation, and chemical and enzymatic interesterification, describing the catalysts used mechanisms, kinetics, and impacts on the health-related properties of the final products. Enzymatic interesterification will be emphasized as method that produces a final product with good taste, zero trans fatty acids, and a low number of calories, requires less contact with chemicals, and is cost efficient.
  2. Alkotaini B, Anuar N, Kadhum AA
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2015 Feb;175(4):1868-78.
    PMID: 25427593 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-014-1410-4
    The mechanisms of action of AN5-1 against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were investigated by evaluations of the intracellular content leakage and by microscopic observations of the treated cells. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were used for this investigation. Measurements of DNA, RNA, proteins, and β-galactosidase were taken, and the results showed a significant increase in the cultivation media after treatment with AN5-1 compared with the untreated cells. The morphological changes of treated cells were shown using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The observations showed that AN5-1 acts against E. coli and against S. aureus in similar ways, by targeting the cell wall, causing disruptions; at a high concentration (80 AU/ml), these disruptions led to cell lysis. The 3D AFM imaging system showed that at a low concentration of 20 AU/ml, the effect of AN5-1 is restricted to pore formation only. Moreover, a separation between the cell wall and the cytoplasm was observed when Gram-negative bacteria were treated with a low concentration (20 AU/ml) of AN5-1.
  3. Salman SD, Kadhum AA, Takriff MS, Mohamad AB
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:543231.
    PMID: 24605055 DOI: 10.1155/2014/543231
    Numerical investigation has been carried out on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of copper-water nanofluid flow in a constant heat-fluxed tube with the existence of new configuration of vortex generator using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. Two types of swirl flow generator: Classical twisted tape (CTT) and Parabolic-cut twisted tape (PCT) with a different twist ratio (y = 2.93, 3.91 and 4.89) and different cut depth (w = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm) with 2% and 4% volume concentration of CuO nanofluid were used for simulation. The effect of different parameters such as flow Reynolds number, twist ratio, cut depth and nanofluid were considered. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate and the friction factor induced by the Classical (CTT) and Parabolic-cut (PCT) inserts increases with twist ratio and cut depth decreases. The results also revealed that the heat transfer enhancement increases with an increase in the volume fraction of the CuO nanoparticle. Furthermore, the twisted tape with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and cut depth w = 0.5 cm offered 10% enhancement of the average Nusselt number with significant increases in friction factor than those of Classical twisted tape.
  4. Basri S, Kamarudin SK, Daud WR, Yaakob Z, Kadhum AA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:547604.
    PMID: 24883406 DOI: 10.1155/2014/547604
    PtRu catalyst is a promising anodic catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) but the slow reaction kinetics reduce the performance of DMFCs. Therefore, this study attempts to improve the performance of PtRu catalysts by adding nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe). Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are used to increase the active area of the catalyst and to improve the catalyst performance. Electrochemical analysis techniques, such as energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), are used to characterize the kinetic parameters of the hybrid catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is used to investigate the effects of adding Fe and Ni to the catalyst on the reaction kinetics. Additionally, chronoamperometry (CA) tests were conducted to study the long-term performance of the catalyst for catalyzing the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The binding energies of the reactants and products are compared to determine the kinetics and potential surface energy for methanol oxidation. The FESEM analysis results indicate that well-dispersed nanoscale (2-5 nm) PtRu particles are formed on the MWCNTs. Finally, PtRuFeNi/MWCNT improves the reaction kinetics of anode catalysts for DMFCs and obtains a mass current of 31 A g(-1) catalyst.
  5. Alkotaini B, Anuar N, Kadhum AA, Sani AA
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2014 Apr;30(4):1377-85.
    PMID: 24272828 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-013-1558-z
    A wild-type, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and motile bacteria has been isolated from palm oil mill sludge in Malaysia. Molecular identification using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the bacteria belonged to genus Paenibacillus. With 97 % similarity to P. alvei (AUG6), the isolate was designated as P. alvei AN5. An antimicrobial compound was extracted from P. alvei AN5-pelleted cells using 95 % methanol and was then lyophilized. Precipitates were re-suspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), producing an antimicrobial crude extract (ACE). The ACE showed antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Escherichia coli ATCC 29522, Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014. By using SP-Sepharose cation exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and Tricine SDS-PAGE, the ACE was purified, which produced a ~2-kDa active band. SDS-PAGE and infrared (IR) spectroscopy indicated the proteinaceous nature of the antimicrobial compound in the ACE, and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy and de novo sequencing using an automatic, Q-TOF premier system detected a peptide with the amino acid sequence F-C-K-S-L-P-L-P-L-S-V-K (1,330.7789 Da). This novel peptide was designated as AN5-2. The antimicrobial peptide exhibited stability from pH 3 to 12 and maintained its activity after being heated to 90 °C. It also remained active after incubation with denaturants (urea, SDS and EDTA).
  6. Nath RK, Zain MF, Kadhum AA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:686497.
    PMID: 24376384 DOI: 10.1155/2013/686497
    The addition of a photocatalyst to ordinary building materials such as concrete creates environmentally friendly materials by which air pollution or pollution of the surface can be diminished. The use of LiNbO3 photocatalyst in concrete material would be more beneficial since it can produce artificial photosynthesis in concrete. In these research photoassisted solid-gas phases reduction of carbon dioxide (artificial photosynthesis) was performed using a photocatalyst, LiNbO3, coated on concrete surface under illumination of UV-visible or sunlight and showed that LiNbO3 achieved high conversion of CO2 into products despite the low levels of band-gap light available. The high reaction efficiency of LiNbO3 is explained by its strong remnant polarization (70 µC/cm(2)), allowing a longer lifetime of photoinduced carriers as well as an alternative reaction pathway. Due to the ease of usage and good photocatalytic efficiency, the research work done showed its potential application in pollution prevention.
  7. Salman SD, Kadhum AA, Takriff MS, Mohamad AB
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:492762.
    PMID: 24078795 DOI: 10.1155/2013/492762
    Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5 cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration.
  8. Al-Amiery AA, Kadhum AA, Obayes HR, Mohamad AB
    Bioinorg Chem Appl, 2013;2013:354982.
    PMID: 24170994 DOI: 10.1155/2013/354982
    The novel curcumin derivative (1E,4Z,6E)-5-chloro-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one (5-chlorocurcumin) was prepared from natural curcumin. The newly synthesised compound was characterised by spectral studies (IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR). The free radical scavenging activity of 5-chlorocurcumin has been determined by measuring interaction with the stable free radical DPPH, and 5-chlorocurcumin has shown encouraging antioxidant activities. Theory calculations of the synthesised 5-chlorocurcumin were performed using molecular structures with optimised geometries. Molecular orbital calculations provided a detailed description of the orbitals, including spatial characteristics, nodal patterns, and the contributions of individual atoms.
  9. Al-Amiery AA, Kadhum AA, Mohamad AB
    Molecules, 2012;17(5):5713-23.
    PMID: 22628043 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17055713
    Newly synthesized coumarins 4-((5-mercapto-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-methoxy)-2H-chromen-2-one and 4-((5-(phenylamino)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-methoxy)-2H-chromen-2-one were tested against selected types of fungi and showed significant activities. DFT calculations of the synthesized coumarins were performed using molecular structures with optimized geometries. Molecular orbital calculations provide a detailed description of the orbitals, including spatial characteristics, nodal patterns, and the contributions of individual atoms.
  10. Al-Amiery AA, Kadhum AA, Mohamad AB
    Bioinorg Chem Appl, 2012;2012:795812.
    PMID: 22400016 DOI: 10.1155/2012/795812
    Metal complexes of (Z)-2-(pyrrolidin-2-ylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide (L) with Cu(II), Co(II), and Ni(II) chlorides were tested against selected types of fungi and were found to have significant antifungal activities. The free-radical-scavenging ability of the metal complexes was determined by their interaction with the stable free radical 2,2''-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and all the compounds showed encouraging antioxidant activities. DFT calculations of the Cu complex were performed using molecular structures with optimized geometries. Molecular orbital calculations provide a detailed description of the orbitals, including spatial characteristics, nodal patterns, and the contributions of individual atoms.
  11. Kadhum AA, Al-Amiery AA, Musa AY, Mohamad AB
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(9):5747-61.
    PMID: 22016624 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12095747
    The antioxidant activity of two synthesized coumarins namely, N-(4,7-dioxo-2- phenyl-1,3-oxazepin-3(2H,4H,7H)-yl)-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetamide 5 and N-(4-oxo-2-phenylthiazolidin-3-yl)-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetamide 6 were studied with the DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radical methods and compared with the known antioxidant ascorbic acid. Compounds 5 and 6 were synthesized in a good yield from the addition reaction of maleic anhydride or mercaptoacetic acid to compound 4, namely N'-benzylidene-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetohydrazide. Compound 4 was synthesized by the condensation of compound 3, namely 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy) acetohydrazide, with benzaldehyde. Compound 3, however, was synthesized from the addition of hydrazine to compound 2, namely ethyl 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetate, which was synthesized from the reaction of ethyl bromoacetate with 4-hydroxycoumarin 1. Structures for the synthesized coumarins 2-6 are proposed on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
  12. Al-Amiery AA, Musa AY, Kadhum AA, Mohamad AB
    Molecules, 2011 Aug 10;16(8):6833-43.
    PMID: 21832973 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16086833
    New coumarin derivatives, namely 7-[(5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)methoxy]-2H-chromen-2-one, 5-[(2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy)methyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2(3H)-one, 2-[2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy)acetyl]-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide, 7-[(5-(phenylamino)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)methoxy]-2H-chromen-2-one and 7-[(5-mercapto-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methoxy]-2H-chromen-2-one were prepared starting from the natural compound umbelliferone. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies (IR, ¹H-NMR and ¹³C-NMR).
  13. Kadhum AA, Mohamad AB, Al-Amiery AA, Takriff MS
    Molecules, 2011 Aug 15;16(8):6969-84.
    PMID: 21844844 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16086969
    3-Aminocoumarin (L) has been synthesized and used as a ligand for the formation of Cr(III), Ni(II), and Cu(II) complexes. The chemical structures were characterized using different spectroscopic methods. The elemental analyses revealed that the complexes where M=Ni(II) and Cu(II) have the general formulae [ML(2)Cl(2)], while the Cr(III) complex has the formula [CrL(2)Cl(2)]Cl. The molar conductance data reveal that all the metal chelates, except the Cr(III) one, are non-electrolytes. From the magnetic and UV-Visible spectra, it is found that these complexes have octahedral structures. The stability for the prepared complexes was studied theoretically using Density Function Theory. The total energy for the complexes was calculated and it was shown that the copper complex is the most stable one. Complexes were tested against selected types of microbial organisms and showed significant activities. The free radical scavenging activity of metal complexes have been determined by measuring their interaction with the stable free radical DPPH and all the compounds have shown encouraging antioxidant activities.
  14. Abushammala MF, Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri, Basri H, Ahmed Hussein El-Shafie, Kadhum AA
    Waste Manag Res, 2011 Aug;29(8):863-73.
    PMID: 20858637 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X10382064
    The decomposition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in landfills under anaerobic conditions produces landfill gas (LFG) containing approximately 50-60% methane (CH(4)) and 30-40% carbon dioxide (CO(2)) by volume. CH(4) has a global warming potential 21 times greater than CO(2); thus, it poses a serious environmental problem. As landfills are the main method for waste disposal in Malaysia, the major aim of this study was to estimate the total CH(4) emissions from landfills in all Malaysian regions and states for the year 2009 using the IPCC, 1996 first-order decay (FOD) model focusing on clean development mechanism (CDM) project applications to initiate emission reductions. Furthermore, the authors attempted to assess, in quantitative terms, the amount of CH(4) that would be emitted from landfills in the period from 1981-2024 using the IPCC 2006 FOD model. The total CH(4) emission using the IPCC 1996 model was estimated to be 318.8 Gg in 2009. The Northern region had the highest CH(4) emission inventory, with 128.8 Gg, whereas the Borneo region had the lowest, with 24.2 Gg. It was estimated that Pulau Penang state produced the highest CH(4) emission, 77.6 Gg, followed by the remaining states with emission values ranging from 38.5 to 1.5 Gg. Based on the IPCC 1996 FOD model, the total Malaysian CH( 4) emission was forecast to be 397.7 Gg by 2020. The IPCC 2006 FOD model estimated a 201 Gg CH(4) emission in 2009, and estimates ranged from 98 Gg in 1981 to 263 Gg in 2024.
  15. Alkotaini B, Anuar N, Kadhum AA, Sani AA
    J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol, 2013 Jun;40(6):571-9.
    PMID: 23508455 DOI: 10.1007/s10295-013-1259-5
    An antimicrobial substance produced by the Paenibacillus alvei strain AN5 was detected in fermentation broth. Subsequently, cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) was obtained by medium centrifugation and filtration, and its antimicrobial activity was tested. This showed a broad inhibitory spectrum against both Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains. The CFCS was then purified and subjected to SDS-PAGE and infrared spectroscopy, which indicated the proteinaceous nature of the antimicrobial compound. Some de novo sequencing using an automatic Q-TOF premier system determined the amino acid sequence of the purified antimicrobial peptide as Y-S-K-S-L-P-L-S-V-L-N-P (1,316 Da). The novel peptide was designated as peptide AN5-1. Its mode of action was bactericidal, inducing cell lysis in E. coli ATCC 29522 and S. aureus, and non-cell lysis in both S. marcescens and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Peptide AN5-1 displayed stability at a wide range of pH values (2-12) and remained active after exposure to high temperatures (100 °C). It also maintained its antimicrobial activity after incubation with chemicals such as SDS, urea and EDTA.
  16. Myint S, Daud WR, Mohamad AB, Kadhum AA
    J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl, 1996 Apr 26;679(1-2):193-5.
    PMID: 8998560
    An ethanolic extract of cloves was analyzed by gas chromatography directly to identify eugenol and other major phenolic compounds without previous separation of other components. Separation was performed on a fused-silica capillary column of 30 m x 0.53 mm I.D., 0.53 microns film thickness. The detector was a flame ionization detector. Helium gas at a flow-rate of 3 ml/min was used as a carrier gas. The analysis were performed with linear temperature programming. Nine components were detected and special attention was given to the major phenolic compound, eugenol.
  17. Al-Majedy YK, Al-Amiery AA, Kadhum AA, Mohamad AB
    PLoS One, 2016;11(5):e0156625.
    PMID: 27243231 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156625
    The synthesis of derivatives of 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MUs), which are structurally interesting antioxidants, was performed in this study. The modification of 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) by different reaction steps was performed to yield the target compounds, the 4-MUs. The 4-MUs were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transform infrared; FT-IR and Nuclear magnetic resonance; NMR) and micro-elemental analysis (CHNS). The in vitro antioxidant activity of the 4-MUs was evaluated in terms of their free radical scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity assay, chelating activity and their (FRAP) ferric-reducing antioxidant power, which were compared with a standard antioxidant. Our results reveal that the 4-MUs exhibit excellent radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant mechanisms of the 4-MUs were also studied. Density Function Theory (DFT)-based quantum chemical studies were performed with the basis set at 3-21G. Molecular models of the synthesized compounds were studied to understand the antioxidant activity. The electron levels, namely HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital), for these synthesized antioxidants were also studied.
  18. Gaaz TS, Sulong AB, Akhtar MN, Kadhum AA, Mohamad AB, Al-Amiery AA
    Molecules, 2015;20(12):22833-47.
    PMID: 26703542 DOI: 10.3390/molecules201219884
    The aim of this review was to analyze/investigate the synthesis, properties, and applications of polyvinyl alcohol-halloysite nanotubes (PVA-HNT), and their nanocomposites. Different polymers with versatile properties are attractive because of their introduction and potential uses in many fields. Synthetic polymers, such as PVA, natural polymers like alginate, starch, chitosan, or any material with these components have prominent status as important and degradable materials with biocompatibility properties. These materials have been developed in the 1980s and are remarkable because of their recyclability and consideration of the natural continuation of their physical and chemical properties. The fabrication of PVA-HNT nanocomposites can be a potential way to address some of PVA's limitations. Such nanocomposites have excellent mechanical properties and thermal stability. PVA-HNT nanocomposites have been reported earlier, but without proper HNT individualization and PVA modifications. The properties of PVA-HNT for medicinal and biomedical use are attracting an increasing amount of attention for medical applications, such as wound dressings, drug delivery, targeted-tissue transportation systems, and soft biomaterial implants. The demand for alternative polymeric medical devices has also increased substantially around the world. This paper reviews individualized HNT addition along with crosslinking of PVA for various biomedical applications that have been previously reported in literature, thereby showing the attainability, modification of characteristics, and goals underlying the blending process with PVA.
  19. Al-Amiery AA, Al-Majedy YK, Kadhum AA, Mohamad AB
    Molecules, 2014 Dec 29;20(1):366-83.
    PMID: 25551187 DOI: 10.3390/molecules20010366
    The anticorrosion ability of a synthesized coumarin, namely 2-(coumarin-4-yloxy)acetohydrazide (EFCI), for mild steel (MS) in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution has been studied using a weight loss method. The effect of temperature on the corrosion rate was investigated, and some thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. The IE value reaches 94.7% at the highest used concentration of the new eco-friendly inhibitor. The adsorption of inhibitor on MS surface was found to obey a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on inhibited and uninhibited mild steel samples to characterize the surface. The Density Function theory (DFT) was employed for quantum-chemical calculations such as EHOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital energy), ELUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy) and μ (dipole moment), and the obtained results were found to be consistent with the experimental findings. The synthesized inhibitor was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies.
  20. Al-Alwani MA, Mohamad AB, Kadhum AA, Ludin NA
    PMID: 25483560 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2014.11.018
    Nine solvents, namely, n-hexane, ethanol, acetonitrile, chloroform, ethyl-ether, ethyl-acetate, petroleum ether, n-butyl alcohol, and methanol were used to extract natural dyes from Cordyline fruticosa, Pandannus amaryllifolius and Hylocereus polyrhizus. To improve the adsorption of dyes onto the TiO2 particles, betalain and chlorophyll dyes were mixed with methanol or ethanol and water at various ratios. The adsorption of the dyes mixed with titanium dioxide (TiO2) was also observed. The highest adsorption of the C.fruticosa dye mixed with TiO2 was achieved at ratio 3:1 of methanol: water. The highest adsorption of P.amaryllifolius dye mixed with TiO2 was observed at 2:1 of ethanol: water. H.polyrhizus dye extracted by water and mixed with TiO2 demonstrated the highest adsorption among the solvents. All extracted dye was adsorbed onto the surface of TiO2 based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The inhibition of crystallinity of TiO2 was likewise investigated by X-ray analysis. The morphological properties and composition of dyes were analyzed via SEM and EDX.
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