CASE PRESENTATION: A 46-year-old man presented with fever and acute surgical abdomen with concomitant P. knowlesi malaria infection at Kapit Hospital. He was in compensated shock upon arrival to the hospital. He had generalized abdominal tenderness, maximal at the epigastric region. Bedside focused abdominal ultrasonography revealed free fluid in the abdomen. He underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy in view of haemodynamic instability and worsening peritonism. Intraoperatively, haemoperitoneum and bleeding from the spleen was noted. Splenectomy was performed. Histopathological examination findings were suggestive of splenic rupture and presence of malarial pigment. Analysis of his blood sample by nested PCR assays confirmed P. knowlesi infection. The patient completed a course of anti-malarial treatment and recovered well post-operation.
CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare complication of malaria. This is the first reported case of splenic rupture in P. knowlesi malaria infection. Detection of such a complication requires high index of clinical suspicion and is extremely challenging in hospitals with limited resources.
METHODS: Geraniin (95% purity) was extracted and purified from rambutan rind. Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with 60% high-fat diet and standard rat chow, respectively, for 12 weeks. High-fat diet-treated rats were then administered geraniin at different doses. Body weight, blood pressure and blood glucose readings were measured. At the end of treatment, blood was collected for analysis of glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin, advanced glycation end-product (AGE) levels, renin, aldosterone and electrolytes.
RESULTS: Within the first week of treatment, even the lowest dose of geraniin caused a significant reduction in blood pressure, which was comparable to control diet-treated rats. There were no changes in serum electrolytes, renin or aldosterone. Similarly, there was a significant reduction in serum insulin, insulin resistance and AGE levels at the lowest dose. However, there was no significant decrease in fasting blood glucose or HbA1c. The effects of decreasing insulin, insulin resistance and AGEs were observed only at the lower doses, unlike the results observed for blood pressure reduction.
CONCLUSION: Geraniin at lower doses improved blood pressure and other metabolic parameters. Secondary metabolites of geraniin, associated with antihypertensive activity, are relatively different to those involved in inhibiting AGE formation and increasing insulin sensitivity. The secondary metabolites of geraniin may be individually responsible for the bioactivities demonstrated.
METHODS: A total of 93 blood samples from Macaca fascicularis, Macaca leonina and Macaca arctoides were collected from four locations in Thailand: 32 were captive M. fascicularis from Chachoengsao Province (CHA), 4 were wild M. fascicularis from Ranong Province (RAN), 32 were wild M. arctoides from Prachuap Kiri Khan Province (PRA), and 25 were wild M. leonina from Nakornratchasima Province (NAK). DNA was extracted from these samples and analysed by nested PCR assays to detect Plasmodium, and subsequently to detect P. knowlesi, P. coatneyi, P. cynomolgi, P. inui and P. fieldi.
RESULTS: Twenty-seven of the 93 (29%) samples were Plasmodium-positive by nested PCR assays. Among wild macaques, all 4 M. fascicularis at RAN were infected with malaria parasites followed by 50% of 32 M. arctoides at PRA and 20% of 25 M. leonina at NAK. Only 2 (6.3%) of the 32 captive M. fascicularis at CHA were malaria-positive. All 5 species of Plasmodium were detected and 16 (59.3%) of the 27 macaques had single infections, 9 had double and 2 had triple infections. The composition of Plasmodium species in macaques at each sampling site was different. Macaca arctoides from PRA were infected with P. knowlesi, P. coatneyi, P. cynomolgi, P. inui and P. fieldi.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and species of Plasmodium varied among the wild and captive macaques, and between macaques at 4 sampling sites in Thailand. Macaca arctoides is a new natural host for P. knowlesi, P. inui, P. coatneyi and P. fieldi.
METHODS: 85 participants (43 fallers, 42 non-fallers) were evaluated with conventional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequences of the brain. DTI metrics were obtained from selected WMT using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. This was followed by binary logistic regression to investigate the clinical variables that could act as confounding elements on the outcomes. The TBSS analysis was then repeated, but this time including all significant predictor variables from the regression analysis as TBSS covariates.
RESULTS: The mean diffusivity (MD) and axial diffusivity (AD) and to a lesser extent radial diffusivity (RD) values of the projection fibers and commissural bundles were significantly different in fallers (p < 0.05) compared to non-fallers. However, the final logistic regression model obtained showed that only functional reach, white matter lesion volume, hypertension and orthostatic hypotension demonstrated statistical significant differences between fallers and non-fallers. No significant differences were found in the DTI metrics when taking into account age and the four variables as covariates in the repeated analysis.
CONCLUSION: This DTI study of 85 subjects, do not support DTI metrics as a singular factor that contributes independently to the fall outcomes. Other clinical and imaging factors have to be taken into account.
METHODS: 100 CKD stage 3-4 patients were included in the study. Direct chemiluminesent immunoassay was used to determine the level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. All subjects underwent a carotid ultrasound to measure common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) and to assess the presence of carotid plaques or significant stenosis (≥50 %). Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D