Freshly squeezed kasturi lime fruit juice was sonicated (for 0, 30 and 60min at 20°C, 25kHz frequency) to evaluate its impact on selected physico-chemical and antioxidant properties, such as pH, °Brix, titratable acidity, Hunter color values (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗)), ascorbic acid, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and flavonols. Additionally, the effect of sonication treatments on the microbial load (TPC, yeast and mold) were also evaluated. Sonication of juice samples for 60min showed enhancement in most of the bioactive compounds compared to samples treated for 30min and control samples (untreated). Significant reductions in the microbial load corresponding to sonication time were also recorded. Results of the present study indicate that sonication may be employed as a suitable technique for kasturi lime juice processing, where antioxidant and other bioactive compound retention or enhancement is desired, along with the achievement of safety and quality standards.
Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60-74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG), protein supplementation group (PrG), or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI) was observed, with the PrG (-2.1% body weight, -1.8% BMI) showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (-4.5%) and an increase in fat-free mass (kg) (+5.7%) in the ExG after 12 weeks (P < 0.05). The highest increments in lower and upper body strength were observed in the PrG (73.2%) and ExG (47.6%), respectively. In addition, the ExG showed a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, and both interventions did not alter either lipid or protein oxidation. In conclusion, the exercise program was found to improve muscle strength and body composition, while protein supplementation reduced body weight and increased upper body strength, among sarcopenic elderly in Malaysia.