METHODS: This article analyzed data from the National Family Health Survey III, which provides a representative sample of the Indian population. Patterns in tobacco consumption among HIV-positive and negative respondents were assessed through logistic and ordinal regression models. Associations between smoking, asthma, and tuberculosis were examined through bivariate logistic regressions.
RESULTS: A greater percentage of male HIV-positive participants (68%) reported current tobacco use in comparison to male HIV-negative respondents (58%) and female HIV-positive (12%) and negative (11%) participants. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that there was a positive correlation between male respondents' HIV-status and their propensity to use tobacco (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48, confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-2.1, P < .05) when controlled for extraneous variables. Results from ordinal regression analyses illustrated that male HIV-positive respondents had a twofold increased OR of smoking 20 or more cigarettes (OR = 2.1, CI = 1.4-3.2, P < .005). Finally, there was a positive association between being HIV-infected (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.6, CI = 2.02-10.6, P < .005), smoking 15-19 cigarettes (AOR = 2.11, CI = 1.1-4.1, P < .05) and male participants' TB-status.
CONCLUSIONS: Results in this article suggest HIV-positive men in India were not only significantly more likely to consume tobacco, but they also smoked a higher number of cigarettes compared to their HIV-negative counterparts. This is a cause for concern as our analyses revealed a possible association between the number of cigarettes smoked and TB-status.
IMPLICATIONS: This article contributes to knowledge on the intertwining epidemics of HIV and smoking through using cross-sectional data from the National Family Survey III to demonstrate that HIV-positive men in India display patterns of tobacco consumption which differs to that of HIV-negative men. These findings could have strong implications for long-term treatment of HIV-positive patients as smoking has been proven to increase the likelihood of contracting HIV-related illnesses.