Muscle and feather in tissue of 40 juveniles and 40 adult green-lipped mussel Perna veridis (L.) collected from Muar Estuary, Johor were analyzed for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentration using a fast and sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). In this study, the average concentration of Cu was 8.96 microg g(-1) dry weights, Cd with 0.58 microg g(-1) dry weight, Pb averaging 2.28 microg g(-1) dry weights and Zn averaged to 86.73 microg g(-1) dry weight. The highest accumulation of metal studied was found in feather sample compared to the muscle. The positive relationship of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn with P. virdis length suggesting that the accumulation of these metals were formed in the mussel. In all cases, metal levels found were lower than the guideline of international standards of reference and the examined bivalve were not associated with enhanced metal content in their tissues and were safe within the limits for human consumption.
Muscle, stomach and gill from four dominant fish species, Mytus nemurus, Pristolepis fasciata, Ompok bimaculatus and Osteochilus hasseltii, caught from Bebar peat swamp forest river were analyzed for mercury (Hg). The concentration of Hg was measured with a fast and sensitive Flow Injector Mercury Spectrometer (FIMS). The average Hg concentration of all species caught was 0.169 microg g(-1) dry weights, lower than a limit for human consumption recommended by the World Health Organization, 0.5 microg g(-1) dry weights. The mean concentration of Hg was relatively high in stomach (0.28 +/- 0.12 microg g(-1) dry weights) followed by gill (0.17 +/- 0.06 microg g(-1) dry weights) and lowest in muscle (0.05 +/- 0.02 microg g(-1) dry weights). The positive relationship of Hg with fish length and weight suggesting that the accumulation of Hg were formed in the fish.
A study on diversity and distribution of fish communities and water qualities were carried out from January 2009 to December 2010 to cover monsoon and non-monsoon at Kuantan estuary, Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 19 species of primary marine fish belong to 12 families were recorded. Out of 311 individuals the fish fauna was dominated by Ariidae followed by Lutjanidae and Lactaridae. As such Ariidae contributes 50% of the fish caught in the study area and its diversity index (H') was 0.97. A The Ariidae family consist of four (4) species; Arius maculatus, Arius sumatranus, Arius tenuispinis and Arius thalassinus. The Ariidae family can be found in all stations as they are euryhaline (highly tolerant to salinity) and this fish family are known to be a hardy estuarine catfish. Among all species in family Ariidae, Arius thalassinus was the most dominant (23%) among all species. As such collected species showed highest species diversity (0.34) followed by Arius tenuispinis (0.25) compared to other species. Arius tenuispinis alone contributed 11.90% among the samples caught from all stations. The fishes were caught and recorded highest in September-December. Pseudorhombus quinque ocellatus, Nibea soldado, Sardinella fimbriata, Toxotes jaculatrix, Dasyatis ushiei, Setipinna taty were the least dominant in the Kuantan estuary with 9.33% of total abundance. Physico-temperatures, such as temperature (22.03-30 degrees C), Conductivity (10.342.43 mS cm(-1)), TDS (0.06-26.34 mg L(-1)), salinity (0.05-29.09 ppt), DO (6.37-8.38 mg L(-1)), pH (4.97-8.03), Chl a (0.01-1.33 microg L(-1)), nitrite (0.01-0.08 mg L(-1)), nitrate (0.60-0.88 mg L(-1)), phosphate (0.24-0.40 mg L(-1)). Nevertheless, the study envisages that the water quality and fish diversity are still conducive in the Kuantan estuary. The fish diversity of Pahang estuary was high monsoon compared to non-monsoons. The station 4 (LKIM fishing boat jetty and adjacent Hospital Kuantan) is the most polluted area due to the presence of several outskirts could be alarming for the sustainable development of fish and other aquatic organisms in Kuantan estuary in the long run.
The accumulative partitioning of Pb and Cu in the Rhizophora apiculata was studied randomly in the Setiu mangrove forest, Terengganu. Samples of leaves, barks and roots were collected randomly from the selected studied species. Sediments between the roots of the sampled mangrove plants were also collected. The results from analysis for Rhizophora apiculata shows that the concentration of Pb and Cu were accumulated higher in root tissue compared to bark and leaf tissue but lower than surrounding sediment level. The average concentration of Cu for Rhizophora apiculata in leaf, bark, root and sediment was 2.73, 3.94, 5.21 and 9.42 mg I(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, the average concentration of Pb in leaf, bark, root and sediment was 1.43, 1.38, 2.05 and 11.66 mg l(-1), respectively. Results of concentration factors (CF) show that the overall the concentration of Pb and Cu were accumulated much higher in roots system of Rhizophora apiculata.
A study on physico-chemical parameters and pathogenic bacterial community was carried out at the coastal waters of Pulau Tuba island, Langkawi. The physico-chemical parameters such as temperature (27.43-28.88 degrees C), dissolved oxygen (3.79-6.49 mg l(-1)), pH (7.72-8.20), salinity (33.10-33.96 ppt), total dissolved solids (32.27-32.77 g l(-1)) and specific conductivity (49.83-51.63 mS cm(-1)) were observed. Station 3 and station 4 showed highest amount of nitrates (26.93 and 14.61 microg at N l(-1)) than station 1 (2.04 microg at N l(-1)) and station 2 (4.18 microg at N l(-1)). The highest concentration (12.4 +/- microg l(-1)) of chlorophyll a was observed in station 4 in October 2005. High phosphorus content (561 microg P l(-1)) was found in the station 2. Thirteen bacterial isolates were successfully identified using API 20E system. The highest amount of bacteria was observed at Station 4 (3400 CFU ml(-1)) and the lowest numberwas at Station 2 (890 CFU ml(-1)). Out of identified 13 Gram-negative bacterial isolates dominant species were Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas baumannii, Vibrio vulnificus, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia alcalifaciens and Serratia liquefaciens. Apart from this, oil biodegrading Pseudomonas putida were also identified. The study reveals the existing status of water quality is still conducive and the reasonably diverse with Gram-negative bacteria along the Pulau Tuba Langkawi.
An effort to analyze selected heavy metal accumulation by the razor clam (Solen brevis) from Tanjung Lumpur was conducted on January to April 2010. A total of fifty individuals of Razor clam Solen brevis were sampled and metals such as Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) Concentrations were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Among the metals Fe occurred in elevated concentration in the soft tissue of razor clam followed by Zn. Cd was found to be in least concentration in the sample. Mean concentration of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the soft tissue were 415.2 +/- 56.52, 87.74 +/- 11.85, 18.71 +/- 2.10, 8.64 +/- 1.75, 0.67 +/- 0.29 and 1.61 +/- 0.45 microg g(-1) dw, respectively indicating that the bioaccumulation of essential metals in the soft tissue was greater than the non essential heavy metals. Metal accumulation in the soft tissue of razor clam followed Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Pb > Cd order in present study. The observed concentration of acute toxicity of metals in Solen brevis (Family: Solenidae) from Tanjung Lumpur Coastal waters was lower than the permissible limit recommended by National and international standards proved that this species could be utilized for human consumption.