Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 44 in total

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  1. Zia A, Kamaruzzaman SB, Tan MP
    Postgrad Med, 2015 Mar;127(2):186-93.
    PMID: 25622817 DOI: 10.1080/00325481.2015.996505
    Hypertension is a highly prevalent condition among older people, but many physicians avoid aggressive treatment in this age group due to concerns about adverse effects such as orthostatic hypotension and falls. Orthostatic hypotension, which also increases in prevalence with increasing age, has been considered to be associated with antihypertensive therapy. Both orthostatic hypotension and antihypertensive medications are considered independent yet closely related predictors for falls among older people. The prescription of antihypertensive therapy among the elderly remains a long-standing controversy in geriatric medicine due to ongoing concerns about potential complications such as falls, despite conclusive evidence supporting the treatment of hypertension even among the very elderly. However, recent evidence suggests a dose-dependent relationship between blood pressure lowering therapy and falls among older individuals with preexisting risk factors for falls. In response to the spate of revisions in hypertension treatment targets for older patients in international guidelines and the recent evidence on antihypertensive therapy and falls, this review article examines the complex relationship between hypertension, antihypertensives, orthostatic hypotension, and falls among older patients.
  2. Zia A, Kamaruzzaman SB, Tan MP
    Postgrad Med, 2015 Apr;127(3):330-7.
    PMID: 25539567 DOI: 10.1080/00325481.2014.996112
    The term polypharmacy has negative connotations due to its association with adverse drug reactions and falls. This spectrum of adverse events widens when polypharmacy occurs among the already vulnerable geriatric population. To date, there is no consensus definition of polypharmacy, and diverse definitions have been used by various researchers, the most common being the consumption of multiple number of medications. Taking multiple medications is considered a risk factor for falls through the adverse effects of drug-drug or drug-disease interactions. Falls studies have determined that taking ≥ 4 drugs is associated with an increased incidence of falls, recurrent falls, and injurious falls. In light of existing evidence, careful and regular medication reviews are advised to reduce the effect of polypharmacy on falls. However, intervention studies on medication reviews and their effectiveness on falls reduction have been scarce. This article reviews and discusses the evidence behind polypharmacy and its association with falls among older individuals, and highlights important areas for future research.
  3. Zia A, Kamaruzzaman SB, Tan MP
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2017 Mar;17(3):463-470.
    PMID: 26822931 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.12741
    AIM: The presemt study aimed to determine the association between the risk of recurrent and injurious falls with polypharmacy, fall risk-increasing drugs (FRID) and FRID count among community-dwelling older adults.

    METHODS: Participants (n = 202) were aged ≥65 years with two or more falls or one injurious fall in the past year, whereas controls (n = 156) included volunteers aged ≥65 years with no falls in the past year. A detailed medication history was obtained alongside demographic data. Polypharmacy was defined as "regular use of five or more prescription drugs." FRID were identified as cardiovascular agents, central nervous system drugs, analgesics and endocrine drugs; multiple FRID were defined as two or more FRID. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to adjust for confounders.

    RESULTS: The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was independently associated with an increased risk of falls. Univariate analyses showed both polypharmacy (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.39-3.56; P = 0.001) and the use of two or more FRID (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9-4.5; P = 0.0001) were significantly more likely amongst fallers. After adjustment for age, sex and comorbidities, blood pressure, and physical performance scores, polypharmacy was no longer associated with falls (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.9-2.9; P = 0.102), whereas the consumption of two or more FRID remained a significant predictor for falls (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.3; P = 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Among high risk fallers, the use of two or more FRID was an independent risk factor for falls instead of polypharmacy. Our findings will inform clinical practice in terms of medication reviews among older adults at higher risk of falls. Future intervention studies will seek to confirm whether avoidance or withdrawal of multiple FRID reduces the risk of future falls. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 463-470.

  4. Mat S, Tan MP, Kamaruzzaman SB, Ng CT
    Age Ageing, 2015 Jan;44(1):16-24.
    PMID: 25149678 DOI: 10.1093/ageing/afu112
    INTRODUCTION: osteoarthritis (OA) of knee has been reported as a risk factor for falls and reduced balance in the elderly. This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of physical therapies in improving balance and reducing falls risk among patients with knee OA.
    METHODS: a computerised search was performed to identify relevant studies up to November 2013. Two investigators identified eligible studies and extracted data independently. The quality of the included studies was assessed by the PeDro score.
    RESULTS: a total of 15 randomised controlled trials involving 1482 patients were identified. The mean PeDro score was 7. The pooled standardised mean difference in balance outcome for strength training = 0.3346 (95% CI: 0.3207-0.60, P = 0.01 < 0.00001, P for heterogeneity = 0.85, I(2) = 0%). Tai Chi = 0.7597 (95% CI: 0.5130-1.2043, P<=0.0014, P for heterogeneity = 0.26, I(2) = 0%) and aerobic exercises = 0.6880 (95% CI: 0.5704-1.302, P < 0.00001, P for heterogeneity = 0.71, I(2) = 0%). While pooled results for falls risk outcomes in, strength training, Tai chi and aerobics also showed a significant reduction in reduced risk of falls significantly with pooled result 0.55 (95% CI: 0.41-0.68, P < 0.00001, P for heterogeneity = 0.39, I(2) = 6%).
    CONCLUSION: strength training, Tai Chi and aerobics exercises improved balance and falls risk in older individuals with knee OA, while water-based exercises and light treatment did not significantly improve balance outcomes. Strength training, Tai Chi and aerobics exercises can therefore be recommended as falls prevention strategies for individuals with OA. However, a large randomised controlled study using actual falls outcomes is recommended to determine the appropriate dosage and to measure the potential benefits in falls reduction.
    KEYWORDS: Tai Chi; elderly; exercises; falls; older people; osteoarthritis
  5. Zia A, Kamaruzzaman SB, Myint PK, Tan MP
    Eur. J. Clin. Invest., 2015 Oct;45(10):1069-76.
    PMID: 26214159 DOI: 10.1111/eci.12508
    A drop in postural blood pressure (BP) may contribute to falls, while antihypertensives have been considered to induce postural drop or orthostatic hypotension (OH) and falls among older people. However, this relationship between antihypertensives, postural BP and the risk of falls has never been evaluated in a single study.
  6. Sathasivam J, Kamaruzzaman SB, Hairi F, Ng CW, Chinna K
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Nov;27(8 Suppl):52S-61S.
    PMID: 25902935 DOI: 10.1177/1010539515583332
    In the past decade, the population in Malaysia has been rapidly ageing. This poses new challenges and issues that threaten the ability of the elderly to independently age in place. A multistage cross-sectional study on 789 community-dwelling elderly individuals aged 60 years and above was conducted in an urban district in Malaysia to assess the geriatric syndrome of frailty. Using a multidimensional frailty index, we detected 67.7% prefrail and 5.7% frail elders. Cognitive status was a significant correlate for frailty status among the respondents as well as those who perceived their health status as very poor or quite poor; but self-rated health was no longer significant when controlled for sociodemographic variables. Lower-body weakness and history of falls were associated with increasing frailty levels, and this association persisted in the multivariate model. This study offers support that physical disability, falls, and cognition are important determinants for frailty. This initial work on frailty among urban elders in Malaysia provides important correlations and identifies potential risk factors that can form the basis of information for targeted preventive measures for this vulnerable group in their prefrail state.
  7. McStea M, McGeechan K, Kamaruzzaman SB, Rajasuriar R, Tan MP
    Postgrad Med, 2016 Nov;128(8):797-804.
    PMID: 27558757 DOI: 10.1080/00325481.2016.1229103
    Metabolic Syndrome (METs) definitions vary and diagnosis takes into account consumption of medications commonly prescribed for conditions defining METs. This paper evaluates the potential differences in population characteristics using two different methods of defining METs, with and without the adjustment of the effects of pharmacotherapy on biochemical and blood pressure (BP) measurements Methods: This was a cross-sectional study utilizing the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research (MELoR) cohort comprising urban community-dwellers aged ≥55 years. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire during home visits where medications were reviewed. Health impacts assessed included heart disease, stroke, body mass index (BMI), peptic ulcers, arthritis, and number of medications and comorbidities. Risk factors and health impacts associated with METs were determined by Poisson multivariate regression models using a binary and count dependent variables.
  8. Rajasuriar R, Palmer C, Abdel-Mohsen M, Kamaruzzaman SB
    AIDS, 2019 02 01;33(2):345-347.
    PMID: 30562173 DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000002064
  9. Samy AL, Kamaruzzaman SB, Krishnaswamy S, Low WY
    Clin Gerontol, 2019 May 20.
    PMID: 31107185 DOI: 10.1080/07317115.2019.1608611
    Objectives: To study the prevalence of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) among older people attending primary care clinics and its predictors of QOL. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at two primary care clinics in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, recruiting 271 participants by utilizing the universal sampling method. Every patient who attended both the clinics during the study period and met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were approached and briefed about the study. Patients who gave consent were recruited as study participants. Information on sociodemographic, medical condition, and lifestyle behaviors were obtained. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was used to screen for MCI at a score < 23. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire was used to evaluate QOL. Results: Prevalence of MCI was 27.3%. Lower QOL scores were found in the physical (67.3 ± 1.4), psychological (67.3 ± 1.4), social (66.9 ± 1.6) and environmental (71.3 ± 1.3) domains among participants with MCI. Among them, predictors of QOL were depression in the physical domain, age and stroke in the psychological domain, presence of other types of disorders in the social domain and diabetes and stroke in the environmental domain. Conclusions: MCI was prevalent among study participants and were associated with poorer QOL in all domains of QOL. A better understanding of predictors of QOL in older people with MCI is deemed important. Clinical implication: Routine cognitive screening at primary care clinics will facilitate early recognition of MCI and facilitates referral to memory clinics for further assessment and treatment.
  10. Tan MP, Kamaruzzaman SB, Zakaria MI, Chin AV, Poi PJ
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2015 Jan 22.
    PMID: 25613422 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.12446
    METHODS: Information on sociodemographics, dependency using the Barthel index and fall characteristics were collected from consecutive patients attending the ED over a 6-month period. Barthel score was reassessed at 12 months. Ten-year mortality data were obtained through the National Registry Department.
    RESULTS: A total of 198 participants, with a mean age (standard deviation) of 76.2 years (6.3 years) and 74% women, were recruited. Of these, 70% sustained falls indoors, while 49% of falls occurred between 06.00 to 12.00 hours. Total Barthel scores were significantly lower at 1-year follow up compared with baseline (median [interquartile range], 20 [2] vs 18 [5], P 
  11. Nordin N, Kamaruzzaman SB, Chin AV, Poi PJ, Tan MP
    J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr, 2015;34(1):34-49.
    PMID: 25803603 DOI: 10.1080/21551197.2014.998326
    The strong emphasis on feeding in Asian cultures may influence decisions for nasogastric (NG) tube feeding in geriatric inpatients. We evaluated the utility, complications, and opinions of caregivers toward NG tube feeding in an acute geriatric ward in a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Consecutive patients aged 65 years and older receiving NG tube feeding were included. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory indices were recorded. Opinion on NG tube feeding were evaluated through face-to-face interviews with caregivers, recruited through convenience sampling. Of 432 patients admitted, 96 (22%), age ± standard deviation = 80.8 ± 7.4 years, received NG tube feeding. The complication and mortality rates were 69% and 38%, respectively. Diabetes (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.34 [1.07, 10.44], aspiration pneumonia (8.15 [2.43, 27.24]), impaired consciousness (3.13 [1.05, 9.36]), and albumin ≤26 g/dl (4.43 [1.46, 13.44]) were independent predictors of mortality. Other relatives were more likely than spouses (23.5 [3.59, 154.2]) and caregivers with tertiary education more likely than those with no formal education ( 18 [1.23, 262.7]) to agree to NG feeding. Sixty-four percent of caregivers felt NG tube feeding was appropriate at the end of life, mostly due to the fear of starvation. NG tube feeding is widely used in our setting, despite high complication and mortality rates, with likely influences from cultural emphasis on feeding.
  12. Lam NW, Goh HT, Kamaruzzaman SB, Chin AV, Poi PJ, Tan MP
    Singapore Med J, 2016 Oct;57(10):578-584.
    PMID: 26768064 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2015164
    INTRODUCTION: Hand strength is a good indicator of physical fitness and frailty among the elderly. However, there are no published hand strength references for Malaysians aged > 65 years. This study aimed to establish normative data for hand grip strength (HGS) and key pinch strength (KPS) for Malaysians aged ≥ 60 years, and explore the relationship between hand strength and physical ability.

    METHODS: Healthy participants aged ≥ 60 years with no neurological conditions were recruited from rural and urban locations in Malaysia. HGS and KPS were measured using hand grip and key pinch dynamometers. Basic demographic data, anthropometric measures, modified Barthel Index scores and results of the Functional Reach Test (FRT), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT) were recorded.

    RESULTS: 362 subjects aged 60-93 years were recruited. The men were significantly stronger than the women in both HGS and KPS (p < 0.001). The hand strength of the study cohort was lower than that of elderly Western populations. Significant correlations were observed between hand strength, and residential area (p < 0.001), FRT (r = 0.236, p = 0.028), TUG (r = -0.227, p = 0.009) and JTHFT (r = -0.927, p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: This study established reference ranges for the HGS and KPS of rural and urban elderly Malaysian subpopulations. These will aid the use of hand strength as a screening tool for frailty among elderly persons in Malaysia. Future studies are required to determine the modifiable factors for poor hand strength.

  13. Habib MA, Mohktar MS, Kamaruzzaman SB, Lim KS, Pin TM, Ibrahim F
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(4):7181-208.
    PMID: 24759116 DOI: 10.3390/s140407181
    This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of smartphone (SP)-based solutions for fall detection and prevention. Falls are considered as major health hazards for both the elderly and people with neurodegenerative diseases. To mitigate the adverse consequences of falling, a great deal of research has been conducted, mainly focused on two different approaches, namely, fall detection and fall prevention. Required hardware for both fall detection and prevention are also available in SPs. Consequently, researchers' interest in finding SP-based solutions has increased dramatically over recent years. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no published review on SP-based fall detection and prevention. Thus in this paper, we present the taxonomy for SP-based fall detection and prevention solutions and systematic comparisons of existing studies. We have also identified three challenges and three open issues for future research, after reviewing the existing articles. Our time series analysis demonstrates a trend towards the integration of external sensing units with SPs for improvement in usability of the systems.
  14. Khor HM, Tan J, Saedon NI, Kamaruzzaman SB, Chin AV, Poi PJ, et al.
    Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 2014 Nov-Dec;59(3):536-41.
    PMID: 25091603 DOI: 10.1016/j.archger.2014.07.011
    The presence of pressure ulcers imposes a huge burden on the older person's quality of life and significantly increases their risk of dying. The objective of this study was to determine patient characteristics associated with the presence of pressure ulcers and to evaluate the risk factors associated with mortality among older patients with pressure ulcers. A prospective observational study was performed between Oct 2012 and May 2013. Patients with preexisting pressure ulcers on admission and those with hospital acquired pressure ulcers were recruited into the study. Information on patient demographics, functional status, nutritional level, stages of pressure ulcer and their complications were obtained. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to assess the risk of death in all patients. 76/684 (11.1%) patients had pre-existing pressure ulcers on admission and 30/684 (4.4%) developed pressure ulcers in hospital. There were 68 (66%) deaths by the end of the median follow-up period of 12 (IQR 2.5-14) weeks. Our Cox regression model revealed that nursing home residence (Hazard Ratio, HR=2.33, 95% confidence interval, CI=1.30, 4.17; p=0.005), infected deep pressure ulcers (HR=2.21, 95% CI=1.26, 3.87; p=0.006) and neutrophilia (HR=1.76; 95% CI 1.05, 2.94; p=0.031) were independent predictors of mortality in our elderly patients with pressure ulcers. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in our setting is comparable to previously reported figures in Europe and North America. Mortality in patients with pressure ulcer was high, and was predicted by institutionalization, concurrent infection and high neutrophil counts.
  15. Habib MA, Ibrahim F, Mohktar MS, Kamaruzzaman SB, Rahmat K, Lim KS
    World Neurosurg, 2016 Apr;88:576-585.
    PMID: 26548833 DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2015.10.096
    BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography source imaging (ESI) is a promising tool for localizing the cortical sources of both ictal and interictal epileptic activities. Many studies have shown the clinical usefulness of interictal ESI, but very few have investigated the utility of ictal ESI. The aim of this article is to examine the clinical usefulness of ictal ESI for epileptic focus localization in patients with refractory focal epilepsy, especially extratemporal lobe epilepsy.

    METHODS: Both ictal and interictal ESI were performed by the use of patient-specific realistic forward models and 3 different linear distributed inverse models. Lateralization as well as concordance between ESI-estimated focuses and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) focuses were assessed.

    RESULTS: All the ESI focuses (both ictal and interictal) were found lateralized to the same hemisphere as ictal SPECT focuses. Lateralization results also were in agreement with the lesion sides as visualized on magnetic resonance imaging. Ictal ESI results, obtained from the best-performing inverse model, were fully concordant with the same cortical lobe as SPECT focuses, whereas the corresponding concordance rate is 87.50% in case of interictal ESI.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that ictal ESI gives fully lateralized and highly concordant results with ictal SPECT and may provide a cost-effective substitute for ictal SPECT.

  16. Tey NP, Siraj SB, Kamaruzzaman SB, Chin AV, Tan MP, Sinnappan GS, et al.
    Gerontologist, 2016 08;56(4):603-9.
    PMID: 26553738 DOI: 10.1093/geront/gnv153
    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians.
  17. Sharif-Abdullah SS, Chong MC, Surindar-Kaur SS, Kamaruzzaman SB, Ng KH
    Singapore Med J, 2016 May;57(5):262-6.
    PMID: 27211885 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2016091
    INTRODUCTION: Inadequate oral care has been implicated in the development of aspiration pneumonia in frail geriatric patients and is a major cause of mortality, due to the colonisation of microbes in vulnerable patients. This type of pneumonia has been associated with an increase in respiratory pathogens in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chlorhexidine compared to routine oral care in edentulous geriatric inpatients.

    METHODS: A double-blind, parallel-group randomised controlled trial was carried out. The intervention group received oral care with chlorhexidine 0.2%, while the control group received routine oral care with thymol. Nurses provided oral care with assigned solutions of 20 mL once daily over seven days. Oral cavity assessment using the Brief Oral Health Status Examination form was performed before each oral care procedure. Data on medication received and the subsequent development of aspiration pneumonia was recorded. An oral swab was performed on Day 7 to obtain specimens to test for colonisation.

    RESULTS: The final sample consisted of 35 (control) and 43 (intervention) patients. Chlorhexidine was effective in reducing oral colonisation compared to routine oral care with thymol (p < 0.001). The risk of oral bacterial colonisation was nearly three times higher in the thymol group compared to the chlorhexidine group.

    CONCLUSION: The use of chlorhexidine 0.2% significantly reduced oral colonisation and is recommended as an easier and more cost-effective alternative for oral hygiene.

  18. Goh CH, Ng SC, Kamaruzzaman SB, Chin AV, Tan MP
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2017 Oct;96(42):e8193.
    PMID: 29049203 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000008193
    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between falls and beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) variability.Continuous noninvasive BP measurement is as accurate as invasive techniques. We evaluated beat-to-beat supine and standing BP variability (BPV) using time and frequency domain analysis from noninvasive continuous BP recordings.A total of 1218 older adults were selected. Continuous BP recordings obtained were analyzed to determine standard deviation (SD) and root mean square of real variability (RMSRV) for time domain BPV and fast-Fourier transform low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), total power spectral density (PSD), and LF:HF ratio for frequency domain BPV.Comparisons were performed between 256 (21%) individuals with at least 1 fall in the past 12 months and nonfallers. Fallers were significantly older (P = .007), more likely to be female (P = .006), and required a longer time to complete the Timed-Up and Go test (TUG) and frailty walk test (P ≤ .001). Standing systolic BPV (SBPV) was significantly lower in fallers compared to nonfallers (SBPV-SD, P = .016; SBPV-RMSRV, P = .033; SBPV-LF, P = .003; SBPV-total PSD, P = .012). Nonfallers had significantly higher supine to standing ratio (SSR) for SBPV-SD, SBPV-RMSRV, and SBPV-total PSD (P = .017, P = .013, and P = .009). In multivariate analyses, standing BPV remained significantly lower in fallers compared to nonfallers after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes, frailty walk, and supine systolic BP. The reduction in frequency-domain SSR among fallers was attenuated by supine systolic BP, TUG, and frailty walk.In conclusion, reduced beat-to-beat BPV while standing is independently associated with increased risk of falls. Changes between supine and standing BPV are confounded by supine BP and walking speed.
  19. Romli MH, Tan MP, Mackenzie L, Lovarini M, Kamaruzzaman SB, Clemson L
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2018 Mar;18(3):387-395.
    PMID: 29139186 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.13189
    AIM: Previous studies have investigated home hazards as a risk factor for falls without considering factors associated with the presence of home hazards. The present study aimed to determine patterns of home hazards among urban community-dwelling older Malaysians, and to identify factors contributing to home hazards.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the initial wave of the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study were used. Basic demographics were obtained from the Global Questionnaire. Basic and instrumental activities of daily living were measured using the Katz and Lawton-Brody scales, and home hazards were identified using the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool. Participants were also asked if they had fallen in the previous 12 months.

    RESULTS: Data were analyzed from 1489 participants. Hazards were frequently identified (>30%) in the toilet and bathroom areas (no grab rail, no non-slip mat, distant toilet), slippery floors, no bedside light access and inappropriate footwear. Lower educational attainment, traditional housing, Chinese ethnicity, greater number of home occupants, lower monthly expenditure, poor vision and younger age were the factors independently associated with home hazards.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that home hazards are a product of the interaction of the individual's function within their home environment. Hazards are also influenced by local sociocultural and environmental factors. The relationship between home hazards and falls appears complex and deserves further evaluation. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 387-395.

  20. Tan MP, Nalathamby N, Mat S, Tan PJ, Kamaruzzaman SB, Morgan K
    Int J Aging Hum Dev, 2018 12;87(4):415-428.
    PMID: 29359579 DOI: 10.1177/0091415017752942
    While the prevalence of falls among Malaysian older adults is comparable to other older populations around the world, little is currently known about fear of falling in Malaysia. The Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) and short FES-I scales to measure fear of falling have not yet been validated for use within the Malaysian population, and are currently not available in Bahasa Malaysia (BM). A total of 402 participants aged ≥63 years were recruited. The questionnaire was readministered to 149 participants, 4 to 8 weeks after the first administration to determine test-retest reliability. The original version of the 7-item short FES-I is available in English, while the Mandarin was adapted from the 16-item Mandarin FES-I. The BM version was translated according to protocol by four experts. The internal structure of the FES-I was examined by factor analysis. The 7-item short FES-I showed good internal reliability and test-retest reliability for English, Mandarin, and BM versions for Malaysia.
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