Cassava chips that exist in the current market have no standardisation and cannot be stacked
nicely into cylindrical container. The objectives of this work are to determine the different dimension of cassava chips produced with different thickness and to develop stackable chips during mass production. Fresh cassava tubers were harvested, washed, peeled and sliced. The thickness measurements used were 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.75 mm and 2.0 mm and 1.27 mm thickness was measured from commercial potato chips as a controlled sample. Then, it was fried in deep fat fryer with the temperature of 170°C. For each thickness studied, different
numbers of slice (10, 20, 30 and 40 slices) were fried simultaneously. Results showed that there
are 6 shapes of fried chips produced during the frying. To conclude, thickness of the slice and
number of slices fried simultaneously give impact towards the shape of fried chip.
‘Cempedak’ (Artocarpus integer L.) is an aromatic exotic tropical fruit that can be widely found in Malaysia during season. The pulp yield and several physicochemical properties of five varietes of ‘cempedak’ (CH27, CH28, CH29, CH30 and CH33) were determined. The latter included total soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, color, organic acids, sugars and carotenoid contents. Sensory evaluation of the five ‘cempedak’ varieties was conducted using Hedonic test, in which the assessed attributes include color, taste, texture and overall acceptability. Results indicate that CH33 yield the highest percentage (35.8%) of edible portion (fruit pulp), while CH27 shows the highest tiratable acidity (0.52%). CH30 had the lowest L* value (52.41), and highest intensity of color in terms of redness (32.45) and yellowness (65.27) values. All ‘cempedak’ varieties were highest in sucrose content (12.28-20.02 g/100 gFW) compared to fructose (5.70-6.72 g/100 gFW) and glucose (4.94-5.52 g/100 gFW), while malic acid (0.430.70%) was the highest organic acid as compared to citric acid (0.24-0.60%) and succinic acid (0.20-0.33%). All the ‘cempedak’ varieties studied have high content of α-carotene (2.30-45.27 μg/100 gFW), followed by β-carotene (2.30-12.23 μg/100 gFW), with CH28 having the highest content. From the five varieties of ‘cempedak’ fruit examined, it was found that CH28 ranked the highest in terms of sensory properties, namely taste, texture and overall acceptability.
Roasting of whole-kernels is an important step in the production of pistachio paste. The effect of hot air roasting temperatures (90-190°C) and times (5-65 min) on the hardness, moisture content and colour attributes (‘L’, ‘a’ and ‘b’ values and yellowness index) of both whole-kernel and ground-state were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Increases in roasting temperature and time caused a decrease in all the responses except for ‘a’ value of ground-state. The interaction and quadratic models sufficiently described the changes in the hardness and colour values, respectively. The result of RSM analysis showed that hardness and colour attributes (‘L’ and ‘b’ values, yellowness index) of kernels and ‘a’ value of ground-state could be used to monitor the roasting quality of whole-kernels. This study showed that the recommended range of roasting temperature and time of whole-kernel for the production of pistachio paste were 130-140°C and 30-40 min, respectively.
Colour plays an important role in food especially in increasing the aesthetic value of food products. However, the increasing awareness on health implications of synthetic colourants has led to increased market for natural colourants. In this study, the retention of colourant from red beetroot powder in extruded rice flour containing 20% sago or tapioca starch was investigated. The moisture content of the rice flour-starch blends and 100% rice flour (control) was adjusted to 10% and the samples were extruded at 80ºC - 160ºC, with 120 rpm screw speed and 40 rpm feeder speed. The expansion, density, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), hardness, crispness, colour, and betanin content of the extrudates were measured. The results showed that rice flour-sago starch extrudates (RSE) and rice flour-tapioca starch extrudate (RTE) had better expansion compared to the control (100% rice flour) extrudate. The expansion of RTE was not significantly different from that of RSE and no significant difference was found in the densities of these two extrudates. Presence of sago or tapioca starch decreased the WAI and increased the WSI of the extrudates. The WAI of RSE, however, did not differ significantly from that of RTE. The hardness (18.37 kg) and crispness (126.55 kg.sec) of the control extrudate were higher than that of the RSE (16.97 kg, 110.07 kg.sec) and RTE (14.84 kg, 92.77 kg.sec). There was no significant difference between the redness values of the extrudates. However, retention of betanin in the extrudates was highest in RTE (36.06% retention), followed by RSE (34.14%) and lowest in the control extrudate (27.82%). Addition of tapioca starch or sago starch can help to improve the physical and textural properties of betanin coloured rice extrudates with tapioca starch giving higher betanin retention.
Genetic variation in taste is one of the factors that influence taste perception. This study is carried out to ascertain whether CD36 gene variants and PROP taster status are associated with fatty taste sensitivity and perception among lean and obese individuals. A total of 103 obese and 77 lean subjects with mean age of 25.78 ± 5.65 years who took part in the study were classified into PROP nontasters, medium tasters, or supertasters by using the PROP filter paper screening procedure. The suprathreshold sensitivity for linoleic acid solutions and intensity towards two food products (‘Bubur Chacha’ and mango pudding) with different fat content was assessed using the general Labeled Magnitude Scales. The subjects were genotyped for CD36 gene variants (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs): rs1761667, rs152748 and rs1049673). It was observed that obese subjects were less sensitive toward fatty taste and gave a lower creaminess rating for the studied food products. Only one CD36 gene polymorphism i.e. rs1761677 and PROP taster status were associated with fat suprathreshold rating. Subjects with AA homozygous for rs1761667 and the supertaster perceived higher oiliness in linoleic acid solution. PROP supertaster significantly perceived higher creaminess in both the food products, but no association was observed between the creaminess rating and CD36 gene variant (rs1761667). All the CD36 gene variants and PROP taster status were not associated with obesity status. These findings indicated that even though the CD36 gene variant influences individuals’ oral fat sensitivity, PROP taster status plays a more dominant role in fat taste perception among obese and non-obese individuals.
Hydrocolloid has long been utilized as a thickener to increase the consistency such as fruit jam. In this study, the optimum type (xanthan gum/XG, Arabic gum/AG, guar gum/GG, locust bean gum/LBG, pectin/ PC and carboxymethylcellulose/ CMC) and concentrations (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and 1% (w/v)) of the hydrocolloid as thickening agents in ‘Chok Anan’ mango filling was determined using Full Factorial design (108 trials). Physicochemical analyses, including total soluble solid (TSS), pH (acidity), moisture content, and viscosity (Power Law) were conducted. The predicted values for 1.0% PC, and 0.2% XG with the response as TSS (44.9ºBrix), acidity (3.4), moisture content (47.48%) and pseudoplastic behavior (shear thinning) value of n = 0.2917 were similar to experimental optimum values. The optimum type (PC) and concentration of hydrocolloids (1%) of experimental values (TSS= 45.3ºBrix, pH= 3.41) show insignificant different with predicted values. The concentrations (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0%) and type of the hydrocolloids (XG, AG, GG, LBG, PC and CMC applied in this study had significantly (p
Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the popular tree nuts in the world. Proper selection of packaging materials is necessary to prevent absorption of moisture and aflatoxin formation which will influence the overall product quality and safety. This research is undertaken to study the effect of different type of flexible packaging films on the moisture and aflatoxin contents of whole pistachio nuts during storage at ambient temperature (22-28 °C) and relative humidity of 85-100%. Five types of plastic films tested were low density polyethylene (LDPE) which serves as the control, food-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon (LDPE/PA), polyamide/polypropylene (PA/PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The moisture content and aflatoxin content of pistachio nuts were measured using oven drying method and HPLC, respectively. Sample were analysed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 months during the storage period. Results showed that there was an increase in moisture content with the increase in storage time of pistachio nuts. The increase in moisture content was associated with the aflatoxin level of pistachio nuts during storage time. All the packaging materials except LDPE delayed the moisture absorption and aflatoxin formation of the product. The most suitable packaging materials for maintaining the quality and safety of pistachio nuts is PET films followed by nylon, PA/PP and PVC. The shelf-life of pistachio can be extended from 2 months (Control) to 5 months when PET is used as the packaging material.
Globally, agro-industrial by products such as fruit waste has attained immense recognition to be used for the extraction of valuable functional ingredients. Pectin is naturally occurring biopolymer that is widely recognized in food industry as well as in biotechnology. Keeping in view, current research was conducted for extraction, characterization and utilization of grapefruit peel pectin from Duncan cultivar. The extracted pectin was characterized for different parameters that explored its role in value added products. Acid extraction was carried out and then pectin was characterized for equivalent weight, ash content and methoxyl content. With the addition of extracted pectin, jam was prepared and analysed for physicochemical analysis and sensory attributes. The maximum extraction (22.55%) was done from grapefruit peel at temperature-120°C with pH-1.5, while minimum extraction (0.41%) was obtained at temperature-120°C with pH-2. Moreover, adding pectin in jam formulation resulted in significant effect on texture of the final product. Conclusively, pectin holds a great potential to be extracted and utilized in fruit based products for best quality and value addition.
Red pitaya juice (RPJ) was subjected to UV-C irradiation and the potential of UV as a pasteurization tool for reducing microbial load in pitaya juice was evaluated. Effectiveness of the hurdle concept, i.e. addition of citric acid (CA) and dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) was also studied. Total plate counts (TPC) and yeast and mould counts (YMC) achieved 2.43 log₁₀ and 2.7 log₁₀ reductions respectively after exposure to UV irradiation. Addition of the CA (0.5 - 2.0%) and dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) (5 - 20 µL/100mL) to pitaya juice reduced the microbial loads, with 1.5% CA and 15 µL/100mL DMDC being the most effective concentrations. Addition of CA and DMDC into RPJ prior to UV treatment achieved significantly higher microbial reduction compared to UV alone, which were 4.12 log ₁₀ and 4.14 log₁₀ reductions for TPC and for YMC, respectively.
This study aimed to analyze consumers’ perceptions and acceptance toward ‘belacan’. Results
showed internal reliability of above 0.7 for sections analyzed. Factor analysis found two underlying factors in the section designed to examine consumers’ perceptions. The overall consumers’ perception had a positive and moderate correlation with their acceptance and was significant at .01. Results also showed that ‘belacan’ consumption level was relatively frequent and well accepted by all races in Malaysia. The findings of the study would be noteworthy to the fishery industry and the small and medium industry (SME) in Malaysia in meeting consumers’ needs.
Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) seeds have always being wasted as agricultural waste. Recent studies revealed that the seeds contain high fiber. The purpose of this study is to develop defatted kenaf seeds yellow noodles (DKSY) and assess the nutritional and physicohemical properties of the noodles. Defatted kenaf flour at 25% and 75% were used to make DKSY noodles and compared to wheat yellow noodles (Control). Fresh DKSY noodles were analyzed for their nutritional and physiochemical properties. The ash and fiber contents increased in order of Control > 25% DKSY > 75% DKSY noodles. While total phenolic contents (TPC) was found to be higher in 75% DKSY noodles (138.30 ± 1.63 mg GAE/100 g) than Control noodles. Colour (L, b) and hardness decreased in order of Control > 25% DKSY > 75% DKSY indicating that DKSY noodles developed less quality than Control noodles. However, cooking loss values were found to be in the same order while cooking values exist in the opposite order indicating that. DKSY noodles have better noodle cooking quality. In conclusion, nutritional properties and noodle cooking quality of yellow noodles increased with higher concentration of defatted kenaf flour but the physicochemical properties were compromised. More research needs to be done in order to develop a formulation that can increase all of the attributes studied.
This study was conducted to improve the formulation of chili shrimp paste (CSP) based on sensory evaluation in terms of acidity, source of acid and coarseness of chili paste and to improve the production process of CSP. The effectiveness of dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) as a microbial reduction agent was also evaluated. To produce CSP with different coarseness, a milling machine was used. Two types of preference test were conducted, i.e. ranking and hedonic. The preferred pH level was 4.0, the best acid source was kalamansi juice, and the most preferred coarseness for chili paste was when milling plates with a gap of 120 µm was used. DMDC has no effect on microbial reduction due to the presence of fat globules in CSP which hindered the inactivation action. Milling can substitute pounding as it is much faster and can produce a uniform CSP with higher volume.
The objective of the present work was to investigate the effects of alginate coating combined with repetitive pulsed light (RPL) treatment on the enzymatic activity of fresh-cut cantaloupes during chilled storage. Fresh-cut cantaloupes were coated with alginate (1.86%, w/v) followed by RPL treatment (0.9 J/cm2 at every 48 h up to 26 d) during storage. Untreated samples and samples with alginate or RPL alone were used as controls. Enzymatic activities [polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD), pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG), pectate lyase (PEL), β-galactosidase (β-Gal), α-arabinofuranosidase (α-AF) and cellulase] of fresh-cut cantaloupes were evaluated every 4 d during storage. Neither alginate coating nor RPL treatment has any effect on the activities of PE and PEL of freshcut cantaloupes during storage. The individual treatment or in combination did not increase the PAL, PPO, PG and cellulase activities of fresh-cut cantaloupes throughout the storage. Alginate coating with or without RPL was effective in maintaining low POD activity of freshcut cantaloupes. In addition, treatments using alginate coating or alginate coating+RPL were effective in reducing the β-Gal and α-AF activities of fresh-cut cantaloupes during storage. Overall, alginate without or with RPL was effective in reducing changes of enzymatic activities in fresh-cut cantaloupes during storage.
A novel way to reduce rambutan wastage is to ferment the fruit and valorise the seed post-fer- mentation into other food products and ingredients. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties of rambutan seed during solid-state fermentation of the fruit. Peeled rambutan fruits were subjected to natural fermentation for ten days at 30°C. The environmental temperature, relative humidity, internal and external temperatures of the fermentation mass were measured daily. After ten days of fermentation, the seeds had higher cut test score (867.5), fermentation index (1.527), and a* value (8.20 for non-dried seeds and
9.93 for dried seeds), and lower L* (51.90 for non-dried seeds and 49.22 for dried seeds) and b* (30.52 for non-dried seeds and 30.12 for dried seeds) values; as compared to the non-fer- mented seeds (cut test score, 0.0; fermentation index, 0.856; L*, a*, and b* values, 64.52, 2.25, and 42.07 for non-dried seeds, respectively, and 61.03, 3.23 and 36.70 for dried seeds, respectively). During this time, pH, total soluble solids, fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, and tartaric acid contents of the seeds decreased by 46, 44, 59, 61, 100, 85, and 100%, respec- tively, while the titratable acidity, lactic acid, acetic acid, and ascorbic acid contents of the seeds increased by 5.5, 7.8, 6.0, and 2.2-fold, respectively. Results showed that eight days of fermentation are adequate to produce well-fermented rambutan seeds that could be further processed into a cocoa powder-like product by roasting the fermented fruits in a manner similar to that of cocoa bean roasting.
Ikan pekasam is a fermented fish product produced in Malaysia and is usually made from freshwater fish with ground roasted uncooked rice as the main source of carbohydrate. In this study, the amino acid, biogenic amine, and trans- and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) contents of fifteen commercial samples of Ikan pekasam made from Javanese carp and black tilapia, that had undergone either natural or acid-assisted fermentation, were quantified. The latter includes either tamarind (Tamarindus indica) pulp or dried slices of Garcinia atroviridis fruit in the fermentation process. Results showed that there are no significant differences in most of the biogenic amines including histamine, while there are significant differences in total UCA content, and trans- and cis-UCA contents between the two samples. Differences in the amino acid contents were largely fish-dependent.
Successful wound healing depends on various factors, including exudate control, prevention of microbial contaminants, and moisture balance. We report two cases of managing burn wounds with SMARTPORE Technology polyurethane foam dressing.
We describe a convenient, versatile and safe method for preparing bacterial DNA for ribotyping analysis. In this method, extraction of bacterial DNA from Salmnonella typhi and Burkholderia pseudomallei. and subsequent restriction endonuclease digestion, was performed in agarose blocks/plugs thus minimizing shearing and loss of DNA, problems commonly associated with liquid phase phenol extraction. Digested DNA in the plugs was then electrophoresed directly, transferred to nylon membranes and hybridized with labeled rDNA probes in the usual manner to provide reproducible restriction patterns. This method is particularly useful for bacterial species where standard DNA extraction in the liquid phase using phenol has been problematic (e.g. B. pseudomallei) but can be used for any bacterial species. The DNA extracted within the agarose plugs can be stored for long periods and can be used in other, widely-used typing methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR-based techniques. Embedding live cells directly in agarose plugs also minimizes the risk of exposure to these virulent human pathogens among laboratory workers.