Displaying all 4 publications

  1. Apisarnthanarak A, Kwa AL, Chiu CH, Kumar S, Thu LTA, Tan BH, et al.
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 2018 10;39(10):1237-1245.
    PMID: 30227898 DOI: 10.1017/ice.2018.188
    Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to a serious antimicrobial resistance problem in Asian hospitals. Despite resource constraints in the region, all Asian hospitals should implement antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs to optimize antibiotic treatment, improve patient outcomes, and minimize antimicrobial resistance. This document describes a consensus statement from a panel of regional experts to help multidisciplinary AMS teams design programs that suit the needs and resources of their hospitals. In general, AMS teams must decide on appropriate interventions (eg, prospective audit and/or formulary restriction) for their hospital, focusing on the most misused antibiotics and problematic multidrug-resistant organisms. This focus is likely to include carbapenem use with the goal to reduce carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria. Rather than initially trying to introduce a comprehensive, hospital-wide AMS program, it would be practical to begin by pilot testing a simple program based on 1 achievable core intervention for the hospital. AMS team members must work together to determine the most suitable AMS interventions to implement in their hospitals and how best to put them into practice. Continuous monitoring and feedback of outcomes to the AMS teams, hospital administration, and prescribers will enhance sustainability of the AMS programs.
  2. Lee CC, Kwa ALH, Apisarnthanarak A, Feng JY, Gluck EH, Ito A, et al.
    Clin Chem Lab Med, 2020 11 26;58(12):1983-1991.
    PMID: 31926074 DOI: 10.1515/cclm-2019-1122
    Introduction Recently, an expert consensus on optimal use of procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic stewardship was published focusing mainly on Europe and the United States. However, for Asia-Pacific countries, recommendations may need adaptation due to differences in types of infections, available resources and standard of clinical care. Methods Practical experience with PCT-guided antibiotic stewardship was discussed among experts from different countries, reflecting on the applicability of the proposed Berlin consensus algorithms for Asia-Pacific. Using a Delphi process, the group reached consensus on two PCT algorithms for the critically ill and the non-critically ill patient populations. Results The group agreed that the existing evidence for PCT-guided antibiotic stewardship in patients with acute respiratory infections and sepsis is generally valid also for Asia-Pacific countries, in regard to proposed PCT cut-offs, emphasis on diagnosis, prognosis and antibiotic stewardship, overruling criteria and inevitable adaptations to clinical settings. However, the group noted an insufficient database on patients with tropical diseases currently limiting the clinical utility in these patients. Also, due to lower resource availabilities, biomarker levels may be measured less frequently and only when changes in treatment are highly likely. Conclusions Use of PCT to guide antibiotic stewardship in conjunction with continuous education and regular feedback to all stakeholders has high potential to improve the utilization of antibiotic treatment also in Asia-Pacific countries. However, there is need for adaptations of existing algorithms due to differences in types of infections and routine clinical care. Further research is needed to understand the optimal use of PCT in patients with tropical diseases.
  3. Chang FY, Chuang YC, Veeraraghavan B, Apisarnthanarak A, Tayzon MF, Kwa AL, et al.
    JAC Antimicrob Resist, 2022 Dec;4(6):dlac117.
    PMID: 36439993 DOI: 10.1093/jacamr/dlac117
    OBJECTIVES: To determine antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programme practices in Asian secondary- and tertiary-care hospitals.

    METHODS: AMS programme team members within 349 hospitals from 10 countries (Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam) completed a questionnaire via a web-based survey link. The survey contained questions as to whether 12 core components deemed essential for AMS programmes were implemented.

    RESULTS: Overall, 47 (13.5%) hospitals fulfilled all core AMS programme components. There was a mean positive response rate (PRR) of 85.6% for the responding countries in relation to a formal hospital leadership statement of support for AMS activities, but this was not matched by budgeted financial support for AMS activities (mean PRR 57.1%). Mean PRRs were ≥80.0% for the core AMS team comprising a physician or other leader responsible for AMS activities, a pharmacist and infection control and microbiology personnel. Most hospitals had access to a timely and reliable microbiology service (mean PRR 90.4%). Facility-specific antibiotic treatment guidelines for common infections (mean PRR 78.7%) were in place more often than pre-authorization and/or prospective audit and feedback systems (mean PRR 66.5%). In terms of AMS monitoring and reporting, PRRs of monitoring specific antibiotic use, regularly publishing AMS outcome measures, and the existence of a hospital antibiogram were 75.1%, 64.4% and 77.9%, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Most hospitals participating in this survey did not have AMS programmes fulfilling the requirements for gold standard AMS programmes in hospital settings. Urgent action is required to address AMS funding and resourcing deficits.

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