Displaying all 15 publications

  1. Iber BT, Kasan NA
    Heliyon, 2021 Nov;7(11):e08283.
    PMID: 34778576 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08283
    Aquaculture has been celebrated globally and believed to usher in a viable alternative to capture fisheries. It is most welcomed especially now that the world population explosion has pushed the demand on fisheries products to worrisome limits. Shrimp farming is an area of aquaculture that has witnessed significant growth in recent years, contributing substantially to the global aquaculture production. However, intensification of shrimp aquaculture has come with unintended consequences such as wastewater management and other problems emanating from environmental impact of the wastewater. This study identified excess feed and fertilizer application, metabolite wastes, shrimp mortalities, oil spillage from farm machines, drug and chemical abuse as some of the activities contributing to wastewater generation in shrimp aquaculture farming. The impact of shrimp effluent water discharged has been observed to be socio-economic with both positive and negative dimensions. In attempt to overcome the overwhelming problems associated with shrimp effluent water and bring reassurances to its sustainability, a good number of new technological approaches have been identified including caviation, high-rate algal pond system, use of nanomaterials, biofloc technology, nanoadsorbent and polymeric nanoadsorbents. Although all have been proven to be useful, none could boast of a complete and integrated approach that considers all the technological, legal, social, environmental, public health and institutional concerns.
  2. Kasan NA, Ghazali NA, Ikhwanuddin M, Ibrahim Z
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2017;20(6):306-313.
    PMID: 29023055 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2017.306.313
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A new green technology to reduce environmental damages while optimizing production of Pacific Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei was developed known as "Biofloc technology". Microbial communities in biofloc aggregates are responsible in eliminating water exchange and producing microbial proteins that can be used as supplemented feed for L. vannamei. This study aimed to isolate and identify potential bioflocculant-producing bacteria to be used as inoculum for rapid formation of biofloc.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the purpose of this study, bacterial communities during 0, 30 and 70 days of culture (DOC) of L. vannamei grow-out ponds were isolated and identified through phenotypic and 16S rDNA sequences analysis. Phylogenetic relationships between isolated bacteria were then evaluated through phylogenetic tree analysis. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the differences of microbial communities at each DOC.

    RESULTS: Out of 125 bacterial isolates, nine species of bacteria from biofloc were identified successfully. Those bacteria species were identified as Halomonas venusta, H. aquamarina, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus infantis, B. cereus, B. safensis, Providencia vermicola, Nitratireductor aquimarinus and Pseudoalteromonas sp., respectively. Through phylogenetic analysis, these isolates belong to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes families under the genera of Halomonas sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus sp., Providencia sp., Nitratireductor sp. and Pseudoalteromonas sp.

    CONCLUSION: In this study, bioflocculant-producing bacteria were successfully identified which are perfect candidates in forming biofloc to reduce water pollution towards a sustainable aquaculture industry. Presence of Halomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. in all stages of biofloc formation reinforces the need for new development regarding the ability of these species to be used as inoculum in forming biofloc rapidly.

  3. Rahman NA, Katayama T, Wahid MEA, Kasan NA, Khatoon H, Yamada Y, et al.
    Front Bioeng Biotechnol, 2020;8:581628.
    PMID: 33330417 DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2020.581628
    Antioxidants found in microalgae play an essential role in both animals and humans, against various diseases and aging processes by protecting cells from oxidative damage. In this study, 26 indigenous tropical marine microalgae were screened. Out of the 26 screened strains, 10 were selected and were further investigated for their natural antioxidant compounds which include carotenoids, phenolics, and fatty acids collected in their exponential and stationary phases. The antioxidant capacity was also evaluated by a total of four assays, which include ABTS, DPPH, superoxide radical (O2•-) scavenging capacity, and nitric oxide (•NO-) scavenging capacity. This study revealed that the antioxidant capacity of the microalgae varied between divisions, strains, and growth phase and was also related to the content of antioxidant compounds present in the cells. Carotenoids and phenolics were found to be the major contributors to the antioxidant capacity, followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleic acid (LA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), arachidonic acid (ARA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) compared to other fatty acids. The antioxidant capacity of the selected bacillariophytes and haptophytes was found to be positively correlated to phenolic (R2-value = 0.623, 0.714, and 0.786 with ABTS, DPPH, and •NO-) under exponential phase, and to carotenoid fucoxanthin and β-carotene (R2 value = 0.530, 0.581 with ABTS, and 0.710, 0.795 with O2•-) under stationary phase. Meanwhile, antioxidant capacity of chlorophyte strains was positively correlated with lutein, β-carotene and zeaxanthin under the exponential phase (R2 value = 0.615, 0.615, 0.507 with ABTS, and R2 value = 0.794, 0.659, and 0.509 with •NO-). In the stationary phase, chlorophyte strains were positively correlated with violaxanthin (0.755 with •NO-), neoxanthin (0.623 with DPPH, 0.610 with •NO-), and lutein (0.582 with •NO-). This study showed that antioxidant capacity and related antioxidant compound production of tropical microalgae strains are growth phase-dependent. The results can be used to improve the microalgal antioxidant compound production for application in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, food, and feed industry.
  4. Kasan NA, Yusof SZM, Manan H, Khairul WM, Zakeri HA
    J Environ Manage, 2021 Sep 15;294:113008.
    PMID: 34119989 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113008
    High nutrient loading in aquatic environment has become the main causative of harmful algae blooms (HABs) in water resources particularly pond, lake and river. HABs are mostly dominated by microalgae derived from the group of blue-green algae which are capable of releasing harmful toxins. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the inhibitory effects of thiourea derivatives on the growth of such blue-green algae. Thiourea derivatives have been proven to exhibit antifungal and antibacterial effects. However, there is still limited study had been conducted on the effect of thiourea derivatives toward blue-green algae species in recent years. In this research, a species of blue-green algae from Kenyir Lake, Terengganu, Malaysia was successfully isolated using morphological characters and molecularly identified as Synechoccus elongatus. Four new thiourea derivative compounds were also successfully synthesised. The compounds were designed with variation on different R-substitution group and characterised using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to confirm their molecular structure. Those compounds were characterised as 1-Benzyl-3-(3,5-dimethoxy-benzoyl)-thiourea (C1), 1-(3-Chloro-benzyl)-3-(3,5-dimethoxy-benzoyl)-thiourea (C2), 1-(3,5-Dimethoxy-benzoyl)-3-(3-methyl-benzyl)-thiourea (C3) and 1-(3,5-Dimethoxy-benzoyl)-3-(3-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-thiourea (C4). For the inhibition assessment,S. elongatus were treated with C1-C4 for 5 day at concentration of 2, 5, 10 and 20 μg/ml, respectively. C3 compound showed the highest inhibition percentage with 98% of inhibition after 5 days treatment. By using Bradford method, protein extraction of S. elongatus was conducted at the highest inhibition percentage. Protein concentration of treated species was observed with 3.28 μg/ml as compared to protein concentration of control with 6.48 μg/ml. This result indicated the reduction of protein content after the treatment. Protein band pattern was identified intensed after the treatment SDS PAGE was carried out. The thiourea derivatives compound proved to have successfully inhibited the growth of blue-green algae. Hence, further study should be carried out to ensure the compound can be practically utilized in the pond and in natural environment.
  5. Abdul Hamid SH, Lananan F, Kasan NA, Yasmin Sayid Abdullah SH, Endut A
    Chemosphere, 2022 Nov;307(Pt 4):136005.
    PMID: 35973500 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.136005
    The physical profile and chemical composition of growing media are vital in evaluating fish waste filtration efficiency and plant growth performance in aquaponics. The present study reported and compared the physical and chemical evaluation of the novel fabricated Kaolina, gravel, and commercially used lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) as growing medias in aquaponics. Field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FESEM-EDX) was utilized to analyze the growing media's chemical composition and structural characterization. The resultant effect of these growing medias on water quality and the growth performance of Clarias gariepinus and Lactuca sativa were also reported. Kaolina exhibited an excellent physical profile (42.95 ± 1.39%) in water absorption capacity as compared to LECA (35.90 ± 1.28%) and gravel (1.97 ± 0.25%), showing a significant difference at p 
  6. Odeyemi OA, Amin M, Dewi FR, Kasan NA, Onyeaka H, Stratev D, et al.
    Antibiotics (Basel), 2023 Apr 28;12(5).
    PMID: 37237733 DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12050829
    The objective of this study was to examine the frequency and extent of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in seafood sold in Malaysia, using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach to analyze primary research studies. Four bibliographic databases were systematically searched for primary studies on occurrence. Meta-analysis using a random-effect model was used to understand the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in retail seafood sold in Malaysia. A total of 1938 primary studies were initially identified, among which 13 met the inclusion criteria. In the included primary studies, a total of 2281 seafoods were analyzed for the presence of antibiotic-resistant seafood-borne pathogens. It was observed that 51% (1168/2281) of the seafood was contaminated with pathogens. Overall, the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant seafood-borne pathogens in retail seafood was 55.7% (95% CI: 0.46-0.65). Antibiotic-resistant Salmonella species had an overall prevalence of 59.9% (95% CI: 0.32-0.82) in fish, Vibrio species had an overall prevalence of 67.2% (95% CI: 0.22-0.94) in cephalopods, and MRSA had an overall prevalence of 70.9% (95% CI: 0.36-0.92) in mollusks. It could be concluded that there is a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant seafood-borne pathogens in the retail seafood sold in Malaysia, which could be of public health importance. Therefore, there is a need for proactive steps to be taken by all stakeholders to reduce the widespread transmission of antibiotic-resistant pathogens from seafood to humans.
  7. Kasan NA, Ikhwanuddin M, Manan H, Zakaria NS, Kamaruzzan AS, Rahim AIA, et al.
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2023 Mar;34(1):51-66.
    PMID: 37065803 DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2023.34.1.4
    In order to determine the safety level of water parameters and nutrients in the natural environment of fish and freshwater prawn in Nyatuh River, Terengganu, Malaysia, it is necessary to conduct an assessment of water quality parameters. Due to its important, a study was conducted to assess the water quality parameter and nutrients contents from Nyatuh River of Setiu Terengganu in relations to the population of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii caught along the Nyatuh River basin. Total of four expeditions and five stations at different tidal condition for the water quality parameter were assessed during the study. From the results achieved, the overall temperature varied between (26.56°C-29.30°C), dissolved oxygen, DO (3.59 mg/L-6.50 mg/L), pH (4.99-7.01), salinity (0.01ppt-4.22ppt), depth (2.71 m-5.54 m) while for ammonia (0.01 mg/L-0.24 mg/L), nitrite (0.01 mg/L-0.05 mg/L) and phosphate (0.01 mg/L-0.12 mg/L). While the number of prawns caught are 176, 160, 102 and 68 for Expeditions 1, 2, 4 and 3, respectively. Possibly, the heterogeneous number of prawns caught is a result of significant differences in water level depth during high tides and low tides, as well as a fluctuation in the ammonia concentration levels in each of the stations and expeditions. For statistical analysis, the temperature showed no significant difference between the expedition, stations and tidal. That is p = 0.280, p > 0.05 and F = 1.206, respectively. While dissolved oxygen, DO, showed no significant difference as well, that is p = 0.714, p > 0.05 and F = 0.737. However, the level of water depth was significantly different between expedition, station and tidal, that is p = 0.000, p < 0.05 and F = 3.120. Ammonia, on the other hand shows no significant difference between expedition, station and tidal, that is p = 0.476, p > 0.05 and F = 0.973. The same goes for nitrite and phosphate concentration. There was no significant difference between expedition, stations and tidal, that is p = 0.569, p > 0.05 and F = 0.879 and p = 0.247, p > 0.05, F = 1.255, respectively. In Expedition 1, the good water quality parameter and very low ammonia concentration resulted in a larger prawn population as compared to other expeditions. The distribution or mixture of prawns caught is heterogeneous at different stations due to the significant differences in water depth and also to the fluctuation in water quality due to varying ammonia levels. In conclusion, the water quality in Nyatuh River fluctuated across expeditions, stations, and tides, as well as significant differences in water level depths between high and low tides. Due to the rapid growth and importance of industrial and aquaculture operations along the river, extra attention should be devoted to avoid the impact of excessive pollutant in order to protect the ecosystem.
  8. Katayama T, Nagao N, Kasan NA, Khatoon H, Rahman NA, Takahashi K, et al.
    J Biotechnol, 2020 Nov 10;323:113-120.
    PMID: 32768414 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2020.08.001
    We isolated fifty-two strains from the marine aquaculture ponds in Malaysia that were evaluated for their lipid production and ammonium tolerance and four isolates were selected as new ammonium tolerant microalgae with high-lipid production: TRG10-p102 Oocystis heteromucosa (Chlorophyceae); TRG10-p103 and TRG10-p105 Thalassiosira weissflogii (Bacillariophyceae); and TRG10-p201 Amphora coffeiformis (Bacillariophyceae). Eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) in three diatom strain was between 2.6 and 18.6 % of total fatty acids, which were higher than in O. heteromucosa. Only A. coffeiformi possessed arachidonic acid. Oocystis heteromucosa naturally grew at high ammonium concentrations (1.4-10 mM), whereas the growth of the other strains, T. weissflogii and A. coffeiformi, were visibly inhibited at high ammonium concentrations (>1.4 mM-NH4). However, two strains of T. weissflogii were able to grow at up to 10 mM-NH4 by gradually acclimating to higher ammonium concentrations. The ammonium tolerant strains, especially T. weissflogii which have high EPA contents, were identified as a valuable candidate for biomass production utilizing NH4-N media, such as ammonium-rich wastewater.
  9. Yee CS, Okomoda VT, Hashim F, Waiho K, Sheikh Abdullah SR, Alamanjo C, et al.
    PeerJ, 2021;9:e11217.
    PMID: 33981498 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.11217
    This study investigated the effect of co-culturing microalgae with a floc-forming bacterium. Of the six microalgae isolated from a biofloc sample, only Thalassiosira weissflogii, Chlamydomonas sp. and Chlorella vulgaris were propagated successfully in Conway medium. Hence, these species were selected for the experiment comparing microalgae axenic culture and co-culture with the floc-forming bacterium, Bacillus infantis. Results obtained showed that the co-culture had higher microalgae biomass compared to the axenic culture. A similar trend was also observed concerning the lipid content of the microalgae-bacterium co-cultures. The cell number of B. infantis co-cultured with T. weissflogii increased during the exponential stage until the sixth day, but the other microalgae species experienced a significant early reduction in cell density of the bacteria at the exponential stage. This study represents the first attempt at co-culturing microalgae with B. infantis, a floc-forming bacterium, and observed increased biomass growth and lipid accumulation compared to the axenic culture.
  10. Hossain S, Manan H, Shukri ZNA, Othman R, Kamaruzzan AS, Rahim AIA, et al.
    Microbiol Res, 2023 Jan;266:127239.
    PMID: 36327659 DOI: 10.1016/j.micres.2022.127239
    Microplastics pollution has become a threat to aquaculture practices, as nearly all farming systems are saturated with microplastics (MPs) particles. Current research on MPs is limited considering their effects on aquatic organisms and human health. However, limited research has been conducted on potential cures and treatments. In today's world, bioremediation of needful parameters in different culture systems is being successfully practiced by introducing floc-forming bacteria. Researchers had found that some bacteria are efficacious in degrading microplastics particles including polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polypropylene (PP). In addition, some bacteria that can form floc, are being used in fish and shellfish culture systems to treat toxic pollutants as the heterotrophic bacteria use organic compounds to grow and are effective in degrading microplastics and minimizing toxic nitrogen loads in aquaculture systems. In this review, the ability of biofloc bacteria to degrade microplastics has been summarized by collating the results of previous studies. The concept of this review may represent the efficacy of biofloc technology as an implicit tool in the fish culture system restricting the MPs contamination in water resources to safeguard ecological as well as human health.
  11. Azwar E, Chan DJC, Kasan NA, Rastegari H, Yang Y, Sonne C, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2022 02 15;424(Pt A):127329.
    PMID: 34601414 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127329
    Aquatic weeds pose hazards to aquatic ecosystems and particularly the aquatic environment in shellfish aquaculture due to its excessive growth covering entire freshwater bodies, leading to environmental pollution particularly eutrophication intensification, water quality depletion and aquatic organism fatality. In this study, pyrolysis of six aquatic weed types (wild and cultured species of Salvinia sp., Lemna sp. and Spirodella sp.) were investigated to evaluate its potential to reduce and convert the weeds into value-added chemicals. The aquatic weeds demonstrated high fixed carbon (8.7-47.3 wt%), volatile matter content (39.0-76.9 wt%), H/C ratio (1.5-2.0) and higher heating value (6.6-18.8 MJ/kg), representing desirable physicochemical properties for conversion into biofuels. Kinetic analysis via Coats-Redfern integral method obtained different orders for chemical reaction mechanisms (n = 1, 1.5, 2, 3), activation energy (55.94-209.41 kJ/mol) and pre-exponential factor (4.08 × 104-4.20 × 1017 s-1) at different reaction zones (zone 1: 150-268 °C, zone 2: 268-409 °C, zone 3: 409-600 °C). The results provide useful information for design and optimization of the pyrolysis reactor and establishment of the process condition to dispose this environmentally harmful species.
  12. Fazhan H, Waiho K, Shu-Chien AC, Wang Y, Ikhwanuddin M, Abualreesh MH, et al.
    PeerJ, 2022;10:e13961.
    PMID: 36032946 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.13961
    Mud crabs (genus Scylla) are gaining attention as potential aquaculture species due to their lucrative market price and high demand. One of the essential components of mud crab culture is broodstock quality. The optimisation of mud crab broodstock culture currently focused on its nutritional aspects and common rearing parameters, including stocking density and temperature. The use of sandy substrate to induce egg extrusion in female Scylla broodstock is common; however, its optimisation has never been conducted. This study investigated (1) the substrate association of two Scylla species (S. olivacea, S. paramamosain) during broodstock conditioning until egg extrusion when the choices of fine (66.99 ± 14.48 μm) and coarse (656.17 ± 38.13 μm) sands were given; (2) the female reproductive output when S. olivacea females were individually exposed to either fine sand, coarse sand, or no sand treatments. Females, spawners and non-spawners, of S. olivacea and S. paramamosain were associated with fine sand and none was observed to bury in the coarse sand tray. The occurrence of egg extrusion was not significantly different between species but moderately associated with the duration of visits (stayed in sand for 1 d, 2 d, ≥3 d). The final incubation period in the sand tray was more than 2 days in all cases, except for one female S. paramamosain (buried in the sand for 1 day prior to egg extrusion). When no choice was available, the highest percentage (58.3%) of females extruded eggs in fine sand treatment, followed by coarse sand treatment (33.3%), and no sand treatment (8.3%). Sand type influenced the weight of egg clutch, total egg number, fecundity, and clutch size. These results suggest that fine sand (<70 μm) substrate should be incorporated into Scylla broodstock rearing to maximise female reproductive output.
  13. Waiho K, Abd Razak MS, Abdul Rahman MZ, Zaid Z, Ikhwanuddin M, Fazhan H, et al.
    PeerJ, 2023;11:e15758.
    PMID: 37790619 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.15758
    Biofloc technology improves water quality and promote the growth of beneficial bacteria community in shrimp culture. However, little is known about the bacteria community structure in both water and gut of cultured organisms. To address this, the current study characterised the metagenomes derived from water and shrimp intestine samples of novel Rapid BFTTM with probiotic and clearwater treatments using 16S V4 region and full length 16S sequencing. Bacteria diversity of water and intestine samples of Rapid BFTTM and probiotic treatments were similar. Based on the 16S V4 region, water samples of >20 μm biofloc had the highest abundance of amplicon sequence variant (ASV). However, based on full length 16S, no clear distinction in microbial diversity was observed between water samples and intestine samples. Proteobacteria was the most abundant taxon in all samples based on both 16S V4 and full length 16S sequences. Vibrio was among the highest genus based on 16S V4 region but only full length 16S was able to discern up to species level, with three Vibrios identified-V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus. Vibrio harveyi being the most abundant species in all treatments. Among water samples, biofloc water samples had the lowest abundance of all three Vibrios, with V. vulnificus was present only in bioflocs of <20 μm. Predicted functional profiles of treatments support the beneficial impacts of probiotic and biofloc inclusion into shrimp culture system. This study highlights the potential displacement of opportunistic pathogens by the usage of biofloc technology (Rapid BFTTM) in shrimp culture.
  14. Hossain S, Ahmad Shukri ZN, Waiho K, Ibrahim YS, Minhaz TM, Kamaruzzan AS, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2023 Jul 15;329:121697.
    PMID: 37088255 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2023.121697
    Microplastics (MPs) occurrence in farmed aquatic organisms has already been the prime priority of researchers due to the food security concerns for human consumption. A number of commercially important aquaculture systems have already been investigated for MPs pollution but the mud crab (Scylla sp.) aquaculture system has not been investigated yet even though it is a highly demanded commercial species globally. This study reported the MPs pollution in the mud crab (Scylla sp.) aquaculture system for the first time. Three different stations of the selected aquafarm were sampled for water and sediment samples and MPs particles in the samples were isolated by the gravimetric analysis (0.9% w/v NaCl solution). MP abundance was visualized under a microscope along with their size, shape, and color. A subset of the isolated MPs was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the surface and chemical characterization respectively. The average MPs concentration was 47.5 ± 11.875 particles/g in sediment and 127.92 ± 14.99 particles/100 L in the water sample. Fibrous-shaped (72.17%) and transparent-colored (59.37%) MPs were dominant in all the collected samples. However, smaller MPs (>0.05-0.5 mm) were more common in the water samples (47.69%) and the larger (>1-5 mm) MPs were in the sediment samples (47.83%). SEM analysis found cracks and roughness on the surface of the MPs and nylon, polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene MPs were identified by FTIR analysis. PLI value showed hazard level I in water and level II in sediment. The existence of deleterious MPs particles in the mud crab aquaculture system was well evident. The other commercial mud crab aquafarms must therefore be thoroughly investigated in order to include farmed mud crabs as an environmentally vulnerable food security concern.
  15. Kurniawan SB, Imron MF, Chik CENCE, Owodunni AA, Ahmad A, Alnawajha MM, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2022 Feb 01;806(Pt 4):150902.
    PMID: 34653447 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150902
    Biocoagulants and bioflocculants are alternative items that can be used to substitute the utilization of common-chemical coagulants and flocculants. Biocoagulants/bioflocculants can be extracted from animals, microorganisms, and plants. Moreover, biocoagulants/bioflocculants have specific characteristics that contribute to the coagulation and flocculation processes. The active compounds inside biocoagulants/bioflocculants vary and correspond to the specific working mechanisms, including charge neutralization, sweep coagulation, adsorption, bridging, and patch flocculation. This review paper summarizes the characteristics of biocoagulants/bioflocculants from different sources and its performance in treating various pollutants. Furthermore, this paper discusses the most contributing compounds and functional groups of biocoagulants/bioflocculants that can be related to their working mechanisms. Several functional groups and compounds in biocoagulants/bioflocculants are highlighted in this review article, as well as the correlation between the highlighted groups/compounds to the aforementioned coagulation-flocculation mechanisms. In addition, current knowledge gaps in the study of biocoagulants/bioflocculants and future approaches that may serve as research directions are also emphasized. This review article is expected to shed information on the characteristics of biocoagulants/bioflocculants, which may then become a focus in the optimization to obtain higher performance in future application of coagulation-flocculation processes.
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