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  1. El-Seedi HR, Khalifa SAM, Yosri N, Khatib A, Chen L, Saeed A, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2019 Oct 28;243:112007.
    PMID: 31170516 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.112007
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Over the past thousand years, Islamic physicians have collected cultural, philosophical, sociological and historical backgrounds for understanding diseases and medications. The Prophet Mohammed (Peace Be Upon Him (PBUH) said: "There is no disease that Allah has created, except that Allah also has created its cure." Therefore, Islamic scholars are encouraged to explore and use both traditional and modern forms of medicine.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: (1) To identify some of the medicinal plants mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Ahadith textbooks of the period 700-1500 AD; (2) to compare them with presently used traditional medicines; (3) to evaluate their value based on modern research; and (4) to investigate the contributions of Islamic scholars to the development of the scientific branches, particularly medicine.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed relating to 12 medicinal plants mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Ahadith using textbooks, Al-Azhar scholars, published articles, the plant list website (http://www.theplantlist.org/), the medicinal plant names services website (http://mpns.kew.org/mpns-portal/) and web databases (PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar).

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The Islamic Golden Age was a step towards modern medicine, with unique insights and multi-disciplinary aspects. Traditional Islamic Medicine has had a significant impact on the development of various medical, scientific and educational activities. Innumerable Muslim and non-Muslim physicians have built on the strong foundation of Traditional Islamic Medicine by translating the described natural remedies and effects. The influences of different ancient cultures on the traditional uses of natural products were also documented in Islamic Scriptures in the last part of the second millennium. The divine teachings of Islam combine natural and practical healing and incorporate inherited science and technology.

    CONCLUSION: In this review, we discuss Traditional Islamic Medicine with reference to both medical recommendations mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Prophetic Traditional Medicine (al-Tibb al-Nabawi). Although the molecular mechanisms and functions of some of the listed medicinal plants and their derivatives have been intensively studied, some traditional remedies have yet to be translated into clinical applications.

  2. Nipun TS, Khatib A, Ahmed QU, Redzwan IE, Ibrahim Z, Khan AYF, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Sep 11;25(18).
    PMID: 32932994 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25184161
    The plant Psychotria malayana Jack belongs to the Rubiaceae family and is known in Malaysia as "meroyan sakat/salung". A rapid analytical technique to facilitate the evaluation of the P. malayana leaves' quality has not been well-established yet. This work aimed therefore to develop a validated analytical technique in order to predict the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory action (AGI) of P. malayana leaves, applying a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) fingerprint and utilizing an orthogonal partial least square (OPLS). The dried leaf extracts were prepared by sonication of different ratios of methanol-water solvent (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% v/v) prior to the assessment of alpha-glucosidase inhibition (AGI) and the following infrared spectroscopy. The correlation between the biological activity and the spectral data was evaluated using multivariate data analysis (MVDA). The 100% methanol extract possessed the highest inhibitory activity against the alpha-glucosidase (IC50 2.83 ± 0.32 μg/mL). Different bioactive functional groups, including hydroxyl (O-H), alkenyl (C=C), methylene (C-H), carbonyl (C=O), and secondary amine (N-H) groups, were detected by the multivariate analysis. These functional groups actively induced the alpha-glucosidase inhibition effect. This finding demonstrated the spectrum profile of the FTIR for the natural herb P. malayana Jack, further confirming its medicinal value. The developed validated model can be used to predict the AGI of P. malayana, which will be useful as a tool in the plant's quality control.
  3. El-Seedi HR, Azeem M, Khalil NS, Sakr HH, Khalifa SAM, Awang K, et al.
    Exp. Appl. Acarol., 2017 Sep;73(1):139-157.
    PMID: 28864886 DOI: 10.1007/s10493-017-0165-3
    Due to the role of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in the transmission of many serious pathogens, personal protection against bites of this tick is essential. In the present study the essential oils from 11 aromatic Egyptian plants were isolated and their repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs was evaluated Three oils (i.e. Conyza dioscoridis L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Calendula officinalis L.) elicited high repellent activity in vitro of 94, 84.2 and 82%, respectively. The most active essential oil (C. dioscoridis) was applied in the field at a concentration of 6.5 µg/cm2 and elicited a significant repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs by 61.1%. The most repellent plants C. dioscoridis, C. officinalis and A. herba-alba yielded essential oils by 0.17, 0.11 and 0.14%, respectively. These oils were further investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. α-Cadinol (10.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (10.5%) were the major components of C. dioscoridis whereas in C. officinalis, α-cadinol (21.2%) and carvone (18.2%) were major components. Artemisia herba-alba contained piperitone (26.5%), ethyl cinnamate (9.5%), camphor (7.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (6.9%). Essential oils of these three plants have a potential to be used for personal protection against tick bites.
  4. El-Seedi HR, Khalifa SAM, Taher EA, Farag MA, Saeed A, Gamal M, et al.
    Pharmacol Res, 2019 03;141:123-175.
    PMID: 30579976 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2018.12.015
    Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are a class of naturally occurring steroid-like compounds, and members of this class have been in clinical use for more than 1500 years. They have been used in folk medicine as arrow poisons, abortifacients, heart tonics, emetics, and diuretics as well as in other applications. The major use of CGs today is based on their ability to inhibit the membrane-bound Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme, and they are regarded as an effective treatment for congestive heart failure (CHF), cardiac arrhythmia and atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, increasing evidence has indicated the potential cytotoxic effects of CGs against various types of cancer. In this review, we highlight some of the structural features of this class of natural products that are crucial for their efficacy, some methods of isolating these compounds from natural resources, and the structural elucidation tools that have been used. We also describe their physicochemical properties and several modern biotechnological approaches for preparing CGs that do not require plant sources.
  5. El-Seedi HR, Yosri N, Khalifa SAM, Guo Z, Musharraf SG, Xiao J, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2020 Nov 25;269:113626.
    PMID: 33248183 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.113626
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Egyptian plants are a rich source of natural molecules, representing considerable biodiversity due to climate variations between the Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western regions of the country. Sinai is considered a precious nature reserves preserving flora, fauna, marine organisms, and historical habitats with ancient origins. Here, traditional medicinal approaches have been used for hundreds of years. Healthy lifestyles, low levels of stress and microbial infections, and a dependence on flora and herbal medicine might in combination explain why the burden of cancer is lower in some regions than in others.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: The primary aim of this review is to document the plants and natural products that are used as foods and medicines in Egypt, in general, and in Sinai, in particular, with a focus on those with demonstrated anticancer activities. The documented traditional uses of these plants are described, together with their chemical and pharmacological activities and the reported outcomes of clinical trials against cancer.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed to identify texts describing the medicinal plants that are cultivated and grown in Egypt, including information found in textbooks, published articles, the plant list website (http://www.theplantlist.org/), the medicinal plant names services website (http://mpns.kew.org/mpns-portal/), and web databases (PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar).

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We collected data for most of the plants cultivated or grown in Egypt that have been previously investigated for anticancer effects and reported their identified bioactive elements. Several plant species, belonging to different families and associated with 67 bioactive compounds, were investigated as potential anticancer agents (in vitro studies). The most potent cytotoxic activities were identified for the families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Gramineae, and Liliaceae. The anticancer activities of some species, such as Punica granatum L., Nerium oleander L., Olea europea L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Cassia acutifolia L., Nigella sativa L., Capsicum frutescens L., Withania somnifera L., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, have been examined in clinical trials. Among the various Egyptian plant habitats, we found that most of these plants are grown in the North Sinai, New-Delta, and Giza Governorates.

    CONCLUSION: In this review, we highlight the role played by Egyptian flora in current medicinal therapies and the possibility that these plants may be examined in further studies for the development of anticancer drugs. These bioactive plant extracts form the basis for the isolation of phytochemicals with demonstrated anticancer activities. Some active components derived from these plants have been applied to preclinical and clinical settings, including resveratrol, quercetin, isoquercetin, and rutin.

  6. Zahra MH, Salem TAR, El-Aarag B, Yosri N, El-Ghlban S, Zaki K, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 08;24(13).
    PMID: 31288458 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24132495
    BACKGROUND/AIM: Plants play an important role in anti-cancer drug discovery, therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the biological activity of Alpinia zerumbet (A. zerumbet) flowers.

    METHODS: The phytochemical and biological criteria of A. zerumbet were in vitro investigated as well as in mouse xenograft model.

    RESULTS: A. zerumbet extracts, specially CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts, exhibited the highest potent anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. The most active CH2Cl2 extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation leading to isolatation of the naturally occurring 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK) which was characterized by IR, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. A. zerumbet extracts, specially MeOH and CH2Cl2 extracts, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards tumor volume (TV). Furthermore, A. zerumbet extracts declined the high level of malonaldehyde (MDA) as well as elevated the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver tissue homogenate. Moreover, DK showed anti-proliferative action on different human cancer cell lines. The recorded IC50 values against breast carcinoma (MCF-7), liver carcinoma (Hep-G2) and larynx carcinoma cells (HEP-2) were 3.08, 6.8, and 8.7 µg/mL, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings open the door for further investigations in order to explore the potential medicinal properties of A. zerumbet.

  7. Khalifa SAM, Yosri N, El-Mallah MF, Ghonaim R, Guo Z, Musharraf SG, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2020 Aug 29.
    PMID: 33067112 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153311
    BACKGROUND: Starting December 2019, mankind faced an unprecedented enemy, the COVID-19 virus. The world convened in international efforts, experiences and technologies in order to fight the emerging pandemic. Isolation, hygiene measure, diagnosis, and treatment are the most efficient ways of prevention and intervention nowadays. The health organizations and global care systems screened the available resources and offered recommendations of approved and proposed medications. However, the search for a specific selective therapy or vaccine against COVID-19 remains a challenge.

    METHODS: A literature search was performed for the screening of natural and derived bio-active compounds which showed potent antiviral activity against coronaviruses using published articles, patents, clinical trials website (https://clinicaltrials.gov/) and web databases (PubMed, SCI Finder, Science Direct, and Google Scholar).

    RESULTS: Through the screening for natural products with antiviral activities against different types of the human coronavirus, extracts of Lycoris radiata (L'Hér.), Gentiana scabra Bunge, Dioscorea batatas Decne., Cassia tora L., Taxillus chinensis (DC.), Cibotium barometz L. and Echinacea purpurea L. showed a promising effect against SARS-CoV. Out of the listed compound Lycorine, emetine dihydrochloride hydrate, pristimerin, harmine, conessine, berbamine, 4`-hydroxychalcone, papaverine, mycophenolic acid, mycophenolate mofetil, monensin sodium, cycloheximide, oligomycin and valinomycin show potent activity against human coronaviruses. Additionally, it is worth noting that some compounds have already moved into clinical trials for their activity against COVID-19 including fingolimod, methylprednisolone, chloroquine, tetrandrine and tocilizumab.

    CONCLUSION: Natural compounds and their derivatives could be used for developing potent therapeutics with significant activity against SARS-COV-2, providing a promising frontline in the fighting against COVID-19.

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