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  1. Khan FA, Shukla AN
    J Cancer Res Ther, 2007 11 14;2(4):196-9.
    PMID: 17998703
    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers and most frequent causes of cancer-related deaths in the world. The overall survival rate is 15-20%. Although the incidence is declining, its prognosis remains poor. The etiological factors and pathogenesis of gastric cancer are not yet fully understood. The integrated research in molecular pathology clarified the details of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of cancer-related genes in the course of development and progression of gastric cancer. Although epidemiological evidences indicate that environmental factors play a major role in the carcinogenesis, the role of immunological, genetic and immunogenetic factors are thought to contribute to etiopathogenesis of gastric carcinoma. In addition to better understanding of pathogenesis of gastric cancer, the incidence, diagnostic studies and the therapeutic options have also undergone important changes in the last decade. There is ongoing debate regarding the role of adjuvant treatment. In advanced disease, palliation of symptoms, rather than cure, is the primary goal of patient management. Several combination therapies have been developed and have been examined in phase III trials; however, in most cases, they have failed to demonstrate a survival advantage over the reference arm. This review summarizes the newer concepts of molecular biology on gastric carcinogenesis and the new important recommendations for the management of patient with gastric carcinoma.
  2. Khan FA, Shukla AN, Joshi SC
    Singapore Med J, 2008 Oct;49(10):759-64.
    PMID: 18946607
    Anaemia is the most common haematological abnormality in cancer patients, and unfortunately, it is often under-recognised and undertreated. The aetiopathology of anaemia in cancer patients is complex and is usually multifactorial. There is enough evidence suggesting that tumour hypoxia in anaemic patients has a negative impact on the treatment outcomes in cancer patients. The use of recombinant human erythropoietin is becoming a new standard of care in cancer patients. Various well-controlled studies have shown that the use of erythropoietin (EPO) increases the haemoglobin level, thereby decreasing the need for frequent transfusions and improving the tumour responses, cancer-free survival and quality-of-life parameters in cancer patients. However, a few recent clinical trials failed to replicate the survival benefit. Hence, a free unrestricted use of EPO is to be avoided. The past belief that anaemia does not matter in cancer patients is now considered invalid and is being seriously challenged. This article aims to present some recent findings on the impact of anaemia on outcomes, with discussion on the possible causes and effects. The benefits of the use of EPO analogues in cancer-related anaemia are also presented.
  3. Khan FA, Akhtar SS, Sheikh MK
    Malays J Med Sci, 2005 Jan;12(1):3-5.
    PMID: 22605940 MyJurnal
    The first aim of cancer treatment is to acheive a cure, and when cure is not possible, a good palliation (life prolongation and relief of sufferings) is warranted. This article highlights the aim of cancer treatment and also attempts to assess the issues of quality of life experienced as a result of the disease and its treatment. Palliative therapy should be less intensive than radical treatment and should cause less morbidity than disease itself. It must be effective, completed in a short time and should be tolerable. It is also essential for a physician to give a clear explanation of illness to the patient and realistic advice regarding the likely outcome of therapy and the long and short term morbidities which may occur. The patient may opt for a palliative treatment with a reduced chance of cure but a better quality of life than accepting a radical treatment with a potentially higher degree of morbidity. Quality of life in oncology practice should be seen as a process and as a part of this process it seems sensible to pursue several different lines of questionnaire development rather than constructing one 'perfect" quality of life instrument.
  4. Khan FA, Phillips CD, Baker RJ
    Syst Biol, 2014 Jan 1;63(1):96-110.
    PMID: 24149076 DOI: 10.1093/sysbio/syt062
    Phylogenetic comparisons of the different mammalian genetic transmission elements (mtDNA, X-, Y-, and autosomal DNA) is a powerful approach for understanding the process of speciation in nature. Through such comparisons the unique inheritance pathways of each genetic element and gender-biased processes can link genomic structure to the evolutionary process, especially among lineages which have recently diversified, in which genetic isolation may be incomplete. Bulldog bats of the genus Noctilio are an exemplar lineage, being a young clade, widely distributed, and exhibiting unique feeding ecologies. In addition, currently recognized species are paraphyletic with respect to the mtDNA gene tree and contain morphologically identifiable clades that exhibit mtDNA divergences as great as among many species. To test taxonomic hypotheses and understand the contribution of hybridization to the extant distribution of genetic diversity in Noctilio, we used phylogenetic, coalescent stochastic modeling, and divergence time estimates using sequence data from cytochrome-b, cytochrome c oxidase-I, zinc finger Y, and zinc finger X, as well as evolutionary reconstructions based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) data. No evidence of ongoing hybridization between the two currently recognized species was identified. However, signatures of an ancient mtDNA capture were recovered in which an mtDNA lineage of one species was captured early in the noctilionid radiation. Among subspecific mtDNA clades, which were generally coincident with morphology and statistically definable as species, signatures of ongoing hybridization were observed in sex chromosome sequences and AFLP. Divergence dating of genetic elements corroborates the diversification of extant Noctilio beginning about 3 Ma, with ongoing hybridization between mitochondrial lineages separated by 2.5 myr. The timeframe of species' divergence within Noctilio supports the hypothesis that shifts in the dietary strategies of gleaning insects (N. albiventris) or fish (N. leporinus) are among the most rapid instances of dietary evolution observed in mammals. This study illustrates the complex evolutionary dynamics shaping gene pools in nature, how comparisons of genetic elements can serve for understanding species boundaries, and the complex considerations for accurate taxonomic assignment.
  5. Sheikh MK, Khan FA, Imran Abdul Khalid IK, Kumar G
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2009 Mar;19(3):201-2.
    PMID: 19268026 DOI: 03.2009/JCPSP.201202
    The influence of age on various histological types of breast cancer at both age <50 years and >50 years to simulate menopause was studied retrospective from 2002 to 2004 in Malaysia. One hundred and fifty five cases were reviewed. Ninety two cases recorded at age <50 years, 60 (65.2%, 95%CI: 54.6 - 74.8%) were infiltrating ductal carcinoma in 11(12.0%, 95% CI: 6.1-20.4%), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in 9 (9.8%, 95% CI: 4.6-17.8%), medullary carcinoma in 6 (6.5%, 85%CI: 2.4-13.6%), invasive lobular carcinoma in 4 (4.3%, 95%CI: 1.2-10.8%), mucinous carcinoma and poorly differentiated carcinoma in 2 cases (2.2%, 95%CI: 0.3-7.6%). At >50 years of age, 63 cases were recorded. Forty seven (74.6%, 95%CI: 62.0- 84.7%) cases were of infiltrating ductal carcinoma, ductal carcinoma in situ in 9 (14.3%, 95%CI: 6.7-25.4%), mucinous carcinoma in 5 (7.9%, 95%CI: 2.6-17.6%), medullary carcinoma (8.5%) and papillary carcinoma in 1 case each (1.6%, 95%CI: 0.0-8.5%). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest histology at both age <50 years and >50 years.
  6. Kamil SM, Mohamad NH, Narazah MY, Khan FA
    Singapore Med J, 2006 Apr;47(4):332-4.
    PMID: 16572249
    We describe a case of dengue haemorrhagic fever with prolonged thrombocytopaenia. A 22-year-old Malay man with no prior illness presented with a history of fever and generalised macular rash of four days duration. Initial work-up suggested the diagnosis of dengue haemorrhagic fever based on thrombocytopaenia and positive dengue serology. Patient recovered from acute illness by day ten, and was discharged from the hospital with improving platelet count. He was then noted to have declining platelet count on follow-up and required another hospital admission on day 19 of his illness because of declining platelet count. The patient remained hospitalised till day 44 of his illness and managed with repeated platelet transfusion and supportive care till he recovered spontaneously.
  7. Sheikh MK, Yusoff NM, Kaur G, Khan FA
    Malays J Med Sci, 2007 Jul;14(2):54-7.
    PMID: 22993492 MyJurnal
    This case report describes a 35-year-old lady who presented with generalized weakness and lethargy of two weeks duration and jaundice of more than 20 years duration. Her initial workup was suggestive of haemolysis and blood film showed a leucoerythoblastic picture with moderate microspherocytes. She was finally diagnosed as a case of hereditary spherocytosis after ruling out other possible causes of chronic haemolysis and supported by an abnormal osmotic fragility test, although family members refused for screening. Hereditory spherocytosis is uncommon in Malay population and presentation with jaundice of 20 years duration with leucoerythroblastic picture on blood film were interesting features in this case. Patient is being followed closely for need of splenectomy in near future as per severity of haemolysis and currently being managed with folic acid supplement.
  8. Joshi SC, Khan FA, Pant I, Shukla A
    Int J Health Sci (Qassim), 2007 Jul;1(2):259-64.
    PMID: 21475437
    Radiotherapy has an established role in reducing the local relapses in breast cancer patients. The objective of this review was to investigate whether radiotherapy or its omission after breast surgery has measurable consequences on local tumor recurrence and patient survival. The late excess of cardiac deaths has also been published in various reports but important advances in the delivery of radiotherapy have overcome this problem to the extent that, excess cardiac deaths do not appear to be occurring in more recent trials. In this article some recent data, suggesting that radiotherapy following mastectomy and/or breast conserving surgery has a beneficial effect on survival is reviewed. Omission of radiotherapy is associated with a large increase in risk of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and with a small increase in the risk of patient's mortality.
  9. Hamdan NE, Ng YL, Lee WB, Tan CS, Khan FA, Chong YL
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2017 Jan;28(1):151-159.
    PMID: 28228923 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2017.28.1.11
    Rodents belong to the order Rodentia, which consists of three families in Borneo (i.e., Muridae, Sciuridae and Hystricidae). These include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. They are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. Some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (Family: Bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in Peninsular Malaysia in the early 1980s, information on their infection in rodent species in Malaysia is still lacking. The rodent populations in residential and forested areas in Sarawak were sampled. A total of 108 individuals from 15 species of rodents were collected in residential (n = 44) and forested ( n = 64) areas. The species diversity of rodents in forested areas was significantly higher (H = 2.2342) compared to rodents in residential areas (H = 0.64715) (p < 0.001 of Zar-t test based on the Shannon index). Rattus rattus and Sundamys muelleri were present at high frequencies in both localities. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that hantavirus-targeting antibodies were absent from 53 tested serum samples. This is the first report of hantavirus seroprevalence surveillance in rodent populations in Sarawak, East Malaysia. The results suggested that hantavirus was not circulating in the studied rodent populations in Sarawak, or it was otherwise at a low prevalence that is below the detection threshold. It is important to remain vigilant because of the zoonotic potential of this virus and its severe disease outcome. Further studies, such as molecular detection of viral genetic materials, are needed to fully assess the risk of hantavirus infection in rodents and humans in this region of Malaysia.
  10. Tan CS, Noni V, Sathiya Seelan JS, Denel A, Anwarali Khan FA
    BMC Res Notes, 2021 Dec 20;14(1):461.
    PMID: 34930456 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-021-05880-6
    OBJECTIVE: Coronaviruses (CoVs) are natural commensals of bats. Two subgenera, namely Sarbecoviruses and Merbecoviruses have a high zoonotic potential and have been associated with three separate spillover events in the past 2 decades, making surveillance of bat-CoVs crucial for the prevention of the next epidemic. The study was aimed to elucidate the presence of coronavirus in fresh bat guano sampled from Wind Cave Nature Reserve (WCNR) in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Samples collected were placed into viral transport medium, transported on ice within the collection day, and preserved at - 80 °C. Nucleic acid was extracted using the column method and screened using consensus PCR primers targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene. Amplicons were sequenced bidirectionally using the Sanger method. Phylogenetic tree with maximum-likelihood bootstrap and Bayesian posterior probability were constructed.

    RESULTS: CoV-RNA was detected in ten specimens (47.6%, n  = 21). Six alphacoronavirus and four betacoronaviruses were identified. The bat-CoVs can be phylogenetically grouped into four novel clades which are closely related to Decacovirus-1 and Decacovirus-2, Sarbecovirus, and an unclassified CoV. CoVs lineages unique to the Island of Borneo were discovered in Sarawak, Malaysia, with one of them closely related to Sarbecovirus. All of them are distant from currently known human coronaviruses.

  11. Adi O, Baherin MF, Fong CP, Fatan AAA, Ahmad AH, Yusof AA, et al.
    Am J Emerg Med, 2022 Mar;53:23-28.
    PMID: 34968971 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajem.2021.12.027
    As foreign body airway obstruction (FBAO) can be life-threatening, it has to be promptly diagnosed and treated. We report a case series of three patients presenting to the emergency department with cardiac arrest due to FBAO. In each case, ventilation was difficult due to high airway resistance. As FBAO was suspected, the emergency physician did a prompt flexible bronchoscopy to confirm the diagnosis and retrieve the foreign body. Flexible bronchoscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool for emergency airway management, and is a relatively safe procedure if performed by a trained personnel. The life-saving benefits of bronchoscopy outweigh the small risks of complications such as bleeding, desaturation and pneumothorax. In the three cases, the removal of the obstructing material led to immediate improvements in oxygenation and ventilation. The patients had return of spontaneous circulation after cardiopulmonary resuscitation and definite airway control.
  12. Ahmad H, Ahmad S, Shah SAA, Khan HU, Khan FA, Ali M, et al.
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2018 Feb;20(2):172-181.
    PMID: 28463565 DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2017.1319820
    New lycoctonine-type dual cholinesterase inhibitor, swatinine-C (1), along with three known norditerpenoid alkaloids, hohenackerine (2), aconorine (5) and lappaconitine (6) and two synthetically known but phytochemically new benzene derivatives, methyl 2-acetamidobenzoate (3) and methyl 4-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)anilino]-4-oxobutanoate (4), was isolated from the roots of A. laeve. Structures of new and known compounds (1-6) were established on the basis of latest spectroscopic techniques and by close comparison with the data available in literature. In vitro, compounds (1-6) were tested against AChE and BChE inhibitory activities. Compounds 1 and 2 showed competitive inhibition against AChE (IC50 = 3.7 μM, 4.53 μM) and BChE (IC50 = 12.23 μM, 9.94 μM), respectively. Compounds 5 and 6 showed promising noncompetitive type of inhibitory profile against AChE (IC50 = 2.51 and 6.13 μM) only. Compounds 3 and 4 showed weak inhibitory profile against both AChE and BChE.
  13. Ahmad H, Ahmad S, Shah SAA, Latif A, Ali M, Khan FA, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2017 07 01;25(13):3368-3376.
    PMID: 28457693 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2017.04.022
    Extensive chromatographic separations performed on the basic (pH=8-10) chloroform soluble fraction of Aconitum heterophyllum resulted in the isolation of three new diterpenoid alkaloids, 6β-Methoxy, 9β-dihydroxylheteratisine (1), 1α,11,13β-trihydroxylhetisine (2), 6,15β-dihydroxylhetisine (3), and the known compounds iso-atisine (4), heteratisine (5), hetisinone (6), 19-epi-isoatisine (7), and atidine (8). Structures of the isolated compounds were established by means of mass and NMR spectroscopy as well as single crystal X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1-8 were screened for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities followed by in silico studies to find out the possible inhibitory mechanism of the tested compounds. This work is the first report demonstrating significant antioxidant and anticholinesterase potentials of diterpenoid alkaloids isolated from a natural source.
  14. Abbasi MA, Anwar A, Rehman A, Siddiqui SZ, Rubab K, Shah SAA, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2017 Sep;30(5):1715-1724.
    PMID: 29084694
    Heterocyclic molecules have been frequently investigated to possess various biological activities during the last few decades. The present work elaborates the synthesis and enzymatic inhibition potentials of a series of sulfonamides. A series of 1-arylsulfonyl-4-Phenylpiperazine (3a-n) geared up by the reaction of 1-phenylpiperazine (1) and different (un)substituted alkyl/arylsulfonyl chlorides (2a-n), under defined pH control using water as a reaction medium. The synthesized molecules were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR and EI-MS spectral data. The enzyme inhibition study was carried on α-glucosidase, lipoxygenase (LOX), acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and butyryl cholinesterase (BChE) enzymes supported by docking simulation studies and the IC50 values rendered a few of the synthesized molecules as moderate inhibitors of these enzymes where, the compound 3e exhibited comparatively better potency against α-glucosidase enzyme. The synthesized compounds showed weak or no inhibition against LOX, AChE and BChE enzymes.
  15. Nafeesa K, Aziz-Ur-Rehman -, Abbasi MA, Siddiqui SZ, Rasool S, Ali Shah SA, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2019 Nov;32(6):2651-2658.
    PMID: 31969298
    A series of 1, 2, 4-triazole derivatives bearing piperidine moiety has been introduced as new anti-diabetic drug candidates with least cytotoxicity. p-Chlorophenylsulfonyl chloride (1) and ethyl nipecotate (2) were the starting reagents that resulted into corresponding 3,4,5-trisubstituted-1,2,4-triazole (6) through a series of steps. A series of electrophiles, 9a-e, were synthesized by reacting 4-bromobutyryl chloride (7) with differently substituted aromatic amines (8a-e) under basic aqueous medium. Target derivatives, 10a-e, were synthesized by the reaction of compound 6 with N-aryl-4-bromobutanamides (9a-e) in an aprotic solvent. Structures of all the derivatives were verified by spectroscopic analysis using IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EIMS. Most of the derivatives revealed moderate to good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with reference to acarbose. The moderate hemolytic potential demonstrated least toxicity.
  16. Lim LS, Csorba G, Wong CM, Zubaid A, Rahman SP, Kumaran JV, et al.
    Zootaxa, 2016 Sep 22;4170(1):169-177.
    PMID: 27701281 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4170.1.10
    The Southeast Asian species of Hypsugo are rare bats, except for H. cadornae and H. pulveratus, which are distributed throughout the Indomalayan region. Hypsugo macrotis is restricted to Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java and adjacent islands, and is known only from a handful of specimens. Here we report a new locality record of the species from Seremban, Peninsular Malaysia, which also represents the first known building-dweller colony of any Hypsugo from the region. We discuss the taxonomic status of two morphologically similar species, H. macrotis and H. vordermanni, and provide the first COI and cyt b gene sequences for H. macrotis and reconstruct the species' phylogenetic relationships.
  17. Colella JP, Agwanda BR, Anwarali Khan FA, Bates J, Carrión Bonilla CA, de la Sancha NU, et al.
    Science, 2020 11 13;370(6518):773-774.
    PMID: 33184198 DOI: 10.1126/science.abe4813
  18. Roth S, Balvín O, Siva-Jothy MT, Di Iorio O, Benda P, Calva O, et al.
    Curr Biol, 2019 06 03;29(11):1847-1853.e4.
    PMID: 31104934 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.04.048
    All 100+ bedbug species (Cimicidae) are obligate blood-sucking parasites [1, 2]. In general, blood sucking (hematophagy) is thought to have evolved in generalist feeders adventitiously taking blood meals [3, 4], but those cimicid taxa currently considered ancestral are putative host specialists [1, 5]. Bats are believed to be the ancestral hosts of cimicids [1], but a cimicid fossil [6] predates the oldest known bat fossil [7] by >30 million years (Ma). The bedbugs that parasitize humans [1, 8] are host generalists, so their evolution from specialist ancestors is incompatible with the "resource efficiency" hypothesis and only partially consistent with the "oscillation" hypothesis [9-16]. Because quantifying host shift frequencies of hematophagous specialists and generalists may help to predict host associations when vertebrate ranges expand by climate change [17], livestock, and pet trade in general and because of the previously proposed role of human pre-history in parasite speciation [18-20], we constructed a fossil-dated, molecular phylogeny of the Cimicidae. This phylogeny places ancestral Cimicidae to 115 mya as hematophagous specialists with lineages that later frequently populated bat and bird lineages. We also found that the clades, including the two major current urban pests, Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus, separated 47 mya, rejecting the notion that the evolutionary trajectories of Homo caused their divergence [18-21]. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
  19. Usman MB, Ojha S, Jha SK, Chellappan DK, Gupta G, Singh SK, et al.
    J Integr Neurosci, 2022 Jan 28;21(1):41.
    PMID: 35164477 DOI: 10.31083/j.jin2101041
    Computational approach to study of neuronal impairment is rapidly evolving, as experiments and intuition alone could not explain the complexity of brain system. The increase in an overwhelming amount of new data from both theory and computational modeling necessitate the development of databases and tools for analysis, visualization, and interpretation of neuroscience data. To ensure the sustainability of this development, consistent update and training of young professionals are imperative. For this purpose, relevant articles, chapters, and modules are essential to keep abreast of developments. Therefore, this article seeks to outline the biological databases and analytical tools along with their applications. It's envisaged that knowledge along this line would be a "training recipe" for young talents and guide for professionals and researchers in neuroscience.
  20. Chew NWS, Ngiam JN, Tan BY, Tham SM, Tan CY, Jing M, et al.
    BJPsych Open, 2020 Oct 08;6(6):e116.
    PMID: 33028449 DOI: 10.1192/bjo.2020.98
    BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant strain on front-line healthcare workers.

    AIMS: In this multicentre study, we compared the psychological outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in various countries in the Asia-Pacific region and identified factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes.

    METHOD: From 29 April to 4 June 2020, the study recruited healthcare workers from major healthcare institutions in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A self-administrated survey that collected information on prior medical conditions, presence of symptoms, and scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relating to COVID-19 was compared, and multivariable logistic regression identified independent factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes within each country.

    RESULTS: A total of 1146 participants from India, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam were studied. Despite having the lowest volume of cases, Vietnam displayed the highest prevalence of PTSD. In contrast, Singapore reported the highest case volume, but had a lower prevalence of depression and anxiety. In the multivariable analysis, we found that non-medically trained personnel, the presence of physical symptoms and presence of prior medical conditions were independent predictors across the participating countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that the varied prevalence of psychological adversity among healthcare workers is independent of the burden of COVID-19 cases within each country. Early psychological interventions may be beneficial for the vulnerable groups of healthcare workers with presence of physical symptoms, prior medical conditions and those who are not medically trained.

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