Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 139 in total

  1. Kim HS, Tang MM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2018 12;73(6):397-399.
    PMID: 30647211
    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADR) are common. However, only very few audits reported the clinical characteristics of cADR captured at district hospitals. We performed a 4-year audit on cADR reported to the Department of Pharmacy in Hospital Pakar Sultanah Fatimah between May 2012 and March 2016. It showed that the main adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporters were pharmacists (84.9%) where the majority of the reactions were clinical descriptions without dermatological diagnosis. Antibiotics (46.4%) were the commonest culprit drug followed by NSAIDs (22%). The most common reactions were immediate reactions, i.e. urticaria and angioedema contributing 55.7% of the cases; followed by maculopapular eruptions (41.8%). There were only six cases (1%) of severe cADR reported in this cohort. Reporting bias and the incomplete dermatological diagnosis were the main limitation of the reports.
  2. Cho EG, Hor YL, Kim HH, Rao VR, Engelmann F
    Cryo Letters, 2001 Nov-Dec;22(6):391-6.
    PMID: 11788881
    The role of pregrowth and preculture treatments in terms of both medium composition and exposure duration on survival of embryonic axes of Citrus madurensis after cryopreservation using the vitrification procedure was investigated. The optimal pregrowth treatment for excised embryonic axes was a 3-day treatment with 0.1M sucrose. Preculture was also essential in increasing survival after cryopreservation. Among the various media and treatment durations evaluated, a 24h-preculture of embryonic axes on medium with 0.3M sucrose and 0.5M glycerol was found to be optimal. Using these pregrowth and preculture conditions followed by treatment at 25 degrees C for 20 min each with a loading solution (0.4M sucrose + 2.0M glycerol) and then the PVS2 vitrification solution, direct immersion in liquid nitrogen, rapid rewarming, unloading in a 1.2M sucrose solution for 20 min and transfer of embryonic axes on recovery medium, 82.5% survival and regrowth without intermediary callus formation were obtained with C. madurensis embryonic axes.
  3. Kakani V, Kim H, Basivi PK, Pasupuleti VR
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Jul 23;12(8).
    PMID: 32717780 DOI: 10.3390/polym12081631
    The Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC) technique has been employed for the surface thermo-dynamic characterization of the polymer Poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrile) (P(VDC-co-AN)) in its pure form. IGC attributes, such as London dispersive surface energy, Gibbs free energy, and Guttman Lewis acid-base parameters were analyzed for the polymer (P(VDC-co-AN)). The London dispersive surface free energy ( γ S L ) was calculated using the Schultz and Dorris-Gray method. The maximum surface energy value of (P(VDC-co-AN )) is found to be 29.93 mJ·m - 2 and 24.15 mJ·m - 2 in both methods respectively. In our analysis, it is observed that the γ S L values decline linearly with an increase in temperature. The Guttman-Lewis acid-base parameter K a , K b values were estimated to be 0.13 and 0.49. Additionally, the surface character S value and the correlation coefficient were estimated to be 3.77 and 0.98 respectively. After the thermo-dynamic surface characterization, the (P(VDC-co-AN)) polymer overall surface character is found to be basic. The substantial results revealed that the (P(VDC-co-AN)) polymer surface contains more basic sites than acidic sites and, hence, can closely associate in acidic media. Additionally, visual traits of the polymer (P(VDC-co-AN)) were investigated by employing Computer Vision and Image Processing (CVIP) techniques on Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images captured at resolutions ×50, ×200 and ×500. Several visual traits, such as intricate patterns, surface morphology, texture/roughness, particle area distribution ( D A ), directionality ( D P ), mean average particle area ( μ a v g ) and mean average particle standard deviation ( σ a v g ), were investigated on the polymer's purest form. This collective study facilitates the researches to explore the pure form of the polymer Poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrile) (P(VDC-co-AN )) in both chemical and visual perspective.
  4. Makky EA, Park GS, Choi IW, Cho SI, Kim H
    Chemosphere, 2011 May;83(9):1228-33.
    PMID: 21489600 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.03.030
    The protozoan parasites such as Cryptosporidiumparvum and Giardialamblia have been recognized as a frequent cause of recent waterborne disease outbreaks because of their strong resistance against chlorine disinfection. In this study, ozone and Fe(VI) (i.e., FeO(4)(2-)) were compared in terms of inactivation efficiency for Bacillus subtilis spores which are commonly utilized as an indicator of protozoan pathogens. Both oxidants highly depended on water pH and temperature in the spore inactivation. Since redox potential of Fe(VI) is almost the same as that of ozone, spore inactivation efficiency of Fe(VI) was expected to be similar with that of ozone. However, it was found that ozone was definitely superior over Fe(VI): at pH 7 and 20°C, ozone with the product of concentration×contact time (C¯T) of 10mgL(-1)min inactivate the spores more than 99.9% within 10min, while Fe(VI) with C¯T of 30mgL(-1) min could inactivate 90% spores. The large difference between ozone and Fe(VI) in spore inactivation was attributed mainly to Fe(III) produced from Fe(VI) decomposition at the spore coat layer which might coagulate spores and make it difficult for free Fe(VI) to attack live spores.
  5. Tripathi BM, Edwards DP, Mendes LW, Kim M, Dong K, Kim H, et al.
    Mol. Ecol., 2016 May;25(10):2244-57.
    PMID: 26994316 DOI: 10.1111/mec.13620
    Selective logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture are rapidly altering tropical forests. However, functional responses of the soil microbiome to these land-use changes are poorly understood. Using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we compared composition and functional attributes of soil biota between unlogged, once-logged and twice-logged rainforest, and areas converted to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo. Although there was no significant effect of logging history, we found a significant difference between the taxonomic and functional composition of both primary and logged forests and oil palm. Oil palm had greater abundances of genes associated with DNA, RNA, protein metabolism and other core metabolic functions, but conversely, lower abundance of genes associated with secondary metabolism and cell-cell interactions, indicating less importance of antagonism or mutualism in the more oligotrophic oil palm environment. Overall, these results show a striking difference in taxonomic composition and functional gene diversity of soil microorganisms between oil palm and forest, but no significant difference between primary forest and forest areas with differing logging history. This reinforces the view that logged forest retains most features and functions of the original soil community. However, networks based on strong correlations between taxonomy and functions showed that network complexity is unexpectedly increased due to both logging and oil palm agriculture, which suggests a pervasive effect of both land-use changes on the interaction of soil microbes.
  6. Kim H, Schoofs P, Anderson DA, Tannock GA, Rockman SP
    Vaccine, 2014 May 1;32(21):2474-9.
    PMID: 24631096 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.02.079
    Gene reassortment has proved useful in improving yields of influenza A antigens of egg-based inactivated vaccines, but similar approaches have been difficult with influenza B antigens. Current regulations for influenza vaccine seed viruses limit the number of egg passages and as a result resultant yields from influenza B vaccine seed viruses are frequently inconsistent. Therefore, reliable approaches to enhance yields of influenza B vaccine seed viruses are required for efficient vaccine manufacture. In the present study three stable cold-adapted (ca) mutants, caF, caM and caB derived from seasonal epidemic strains, B/Florida/4/2006, B/Malaysia/2506/2004 and B/Brisbane/60/2008 were prepared, which produced high hemagglutinin antigen yields and also increased viral yields of reassortants possessing the desired 6:2 gene constellation. The results demonstrate that consistent improvements in yields of influenza B viruses can be obtained by cold adaptation following extended passage. Taken together, the three ca viruses were shown to have potential as donor viruses for the preparation of high-yielding influenza B vaccine viruses by reassortment.
  7. Jung MJ, Kim HK, Choi SY, Kim SG, Jin SY
    Malays J Pathol, 2017 Dec;39(3):327-330.
    PMID: 29279599
    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is considered a low-malignant neoplasm with a good prognosis. However, 5% to 15% of patients with SPNs develop metastatic disease, most commonly in the liver. Metastatic hepatic malignancies that show pseudocystic features are rare. Here we describe the case of a middle-aged female with a cystic liver metastasis from SPN. To the best of our knowledge, SPN with a single cystic liver metastasis has not been described, although these tumours frequently undergo haemorrhagic-cystic degeneration. Thus, in these patients the marked cystic change could be misinterpreted as a benign lesion.
  8. Kerfahi D, Tripathi BM, Dong K, Kim M, Kim H, Ferry Slik JW, et al.
    Microb. Ecol., 2019 Jan;77(1):168-185.
    PMID: 29882154 DOI: 10.1007/s00248-018-1215-z
    Comparing the functional gene composition of soils at opposite extremes of environmental gradients may allow testing of hypotheses about community and ecosystem function. Here, we were interested in comparing how tropical microbial ecosystems differ from those of polar climates. We sampled several sites in the equatorial rainforest of Malaysia and Brunei, and the high Arctic of Svalbard, Canada, and Greenland, comparing the composition and the functional attributes of soil biota between the two extremes of latitude, using shotgun metagenomic Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing. Based upon "classical" views of how tropical and higher latitude ecosystems differ, we made a series of predictions as to how various gene function categories would differ in relative abundance between tropical and polar environments. Results showed that in some respects our predictions were correct: the polar samples had higher relative abundance of dormancy related genes, and lower relative abundance of genes associated with respiration, and with metabolism of aromatic compounds. The network complexity of the Arctic was also lower than the tropics. However, in various other respects, the pattern was not as predicted; there were no differences in relative abundance of stress response genes or in genes associated with secondary metabolism. Conversely, CRISPR genes, phage-related genes, and virulence disease and defense genes, were unexpectedly more abundant in the Arctic, suggesting more intense biotic interaction. Also, eukaryote diversity and bacterial diversity were higher in the Arctic of Svalbard compared to tropical Brunei, which is consistent with what may expected from amplicon studies in terms of the higher pH of the Svalbard soil. Our results in some respects confirm expectations of how tropical versus polar nature may differ, and in other respects challenge them.
  9. Low QJ, Siaw C, Cheo SW, Kim HS, Benjamin Leo CL, Norliza O, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2020 07;75(4):452-454.
    PMID: 32724017
    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare inherited cardiomyopathy characterised by right ventricular dysfunction, ventricular arrhythmias and increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Due to the replacement of myocardium with fibro-fatty and fibrous tissue, patients with ARVC are prone to develop ventricular tachycardia. Histologically, it is often reported as the 'triangle of dysplasia' involving the inflow tract, outflow tract and apex of the right ventricle.2 We describe a 20-years-old patient who collapsed during a futsal match and was subsequently diagnosed to have ARVC with a right ventricular thrombus from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.
  10. Ng KH, Cheung KY, Hu YM, Inamura K, Kim HJ, Krisanachinda A, et al.
    Australas Phys Eng Sci Med, 2009 Dec;32(4):175-9.
    PMID: 20169835
    This document is the first of a series of policy statements being issued by the Asia-Oceania Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (AFOMP). The document was developed by the AFOMP Professional Development Committee (PDC) and was endorsed for official release by AFOMP Council in 2006. The main purpose of the document was to give guidance to AFOMP member organizations on the role and responsibilities of clinical medical physicists. A definition of clinical medical physicist has also been provided. This document discusses the following topics: professional aspects of education and training; responsibilities of the clinical medical physicist; status and organization of the clinical medical physics service and the need for clinical medical physics service.
  11. Kelly B, Hebden L, King L, Xiao Y, Yu Y, He G, et al.
    Health Promot Int, 2016 Mar;31(1):144-52.
    PMID: 24997194 DOI: 10.1093/heapro/dau055
    There is an established link between food promotions and children's food purchase and consumption. Children in developing countries may be more vulnerable to food promotions given the relative novelty of advertising in these markets. This study aimed to determine the scope of television food advertising to children across the Asia-Pacific to inform policies to restrict this marketing. Six sites were sampled, including from China, Indonesia, Malaysia and South Korea. At each site, 192 h of television were recorded (4 days, 16 h/day, three channels) from May to October 2012. Advertised foods were categorized as core/healthy, non-core/unhealthy or miscellaneous, and by product type. Twenty-seven percent of advertisements were for food/beverages, and the most frequently advertised product was sugar-sweetened drinks. Rates of non-core food advertising were highest during viewing times most popular with children, when between 3 (South Korea) and 15 (Indonesia) non-core food advertisements were broadcast each hour. Children in the Asia-Pacific are exposed to high volumes of unhealthy food/beverage television advertising. Different policy arrangements for food advertising are likely to contribute to regional variations in advertising patterns. Cities with the lowest advertising rates can be identified as exemplars of good policy practice.
  12. Ong WL, Schouwenburg MG, van Bommel ACM, Stowell C, Allison KH, Benn KE, et al.
    JAMA Oncol, 2017 May 01;3(5):677-685.
    PMID: 28033439 DOI: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.4851
    A major challenge in value-based health care is the lack of standardized health outcomes measurements, hindering optimal monitoring and comparison of the quality of health care across different settings globally. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) assembled a multidisciplinary international working group, comprised of 26 health care providers and patient advocates, to develop a standard set of value-based patient-centered outcomes for breast cancer (BC). The working group convened via 8 teleconferences and completed a follow-up survey after each meeting. A modified 2-round Delphi method was used to achieve consensus on the outcomes and case-mix variables to be included. Patient focus group meetings (8 early or metastatic BC patients) and online anonymized surveys of 1225 multinational BC patients and survivors were also conducted to obtain patients' input. The standard set encompasses survival and cancer control, and disutility of care (eg, acute treatment complications) outcomes, to be collected through administrative data and/or clinical records. A combination of multiple patient-reported outcomes measurement (PROM) tools is recommended to capture long-term degree of health outcomes. Selected case-mix factors were recommended to be collected at baseline. The ICHOM will endeavor to achieve wide buy-in of this set and facilitate its implementation in routine clinical practice in various settings and institutions worldwide.
  13. Sung JJ, Ng SC, Chan FK, Chiu HM, Kim HS, Matsuda T, et al.
    Gut, 2015 Jan;64(1):121-32.
    PMID: 24647008 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306503
    OBJECTIVE: Since the publication of the first Asia Pacific Consensus on Colorectal Cancer (CRC) in 2008, there are substantial advancements in the science and experience of implementing CRC screening. The Asia Pacific Working Group aimed to provide an updated set of consensus recommendations.
    DESIGN: Members from 14 Asian regions gathered to seek consensus using other national and international guidelines, and recent relevant literature published from 2008 to 2013. A modified Delphi process was adopted to develop the statements.
    RESULTS: Age range for CRC screening is defined as 50-75 years. Advancing age, male, family history of CRC, smoking and obesity are confirmed risk factors for CRC and advanced neoplasia. A risk-stratified scoring system is recommended for selecting high-risk patients for colonoscopy. Quantitative faecal immunochemical test (FIT) instead of guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) is preferred for average-risk subjects. Ancillary methods in colonoscopy, with the exception of chromoendoscopy, have not proven to be superior to high-definition white light endoscopy in identifying adenoma. Quality of colonoscopy should be upheld and quality assurance programme should be in place to audit every aspects of CRC screening. Serrated adenoma is recognised as a risk for interval cancer. There is no consensus on the recruitment of trained endoscopy nurses for CRC screening.
    CONCLUSIONS: Based on recent data on CRC screening, an updated list of recommendations on CRC screening is prepared. These consensus statements will further enhance the implementation of CRC screening in the Asia Pacific region.
  14. Karbwang J, Koonrungsesomboon N, Torres CE, Jimenez EB, Kaur G, Mathur R, et al.
    BMC Med Ethics, 2018 09 15;19(1):79.
    PMID: 30219106 DOI: 10.1186/s12910-018-0318-x
    BACKGROUND: The use of lengthy, detailed, and complex informed consent forms (ICFs) is of paramount concern in biomedical research as it may not truly promote the rights and interests of research participants. The extent of information in ICFs has been the subject of debates for decades; however, no clear guidance is given. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the perspectives of research participants about the type and extent of information they need when they are invited to participate in biomedical research.

    METHODS: This multi-center, cross-sectional, descriptive survey was conducted at 54 study sites in seven Asia-Pacific countries. A modified Likert-scale questionnaire was used to determine the importance of each element in the ICF among research participants of a biomedical study, with an anchored rating scale from 1 (not important) to 5 (very important).

    RESULTS: Of the 2484 questionnaires distributed, 2113 (85.1%) were returned. The majority of respondents considered most elements required in the ICF to be 'moderately important' to 'very important' for their decision making (mean score, ranging from 3.58 to 4.47). Major foreseeable risk, direct benefit, and common adverse effects of the intervention were considered to be of most concerned elements in the ICF (mean score = 4.47, 4.47, and 4.45, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: Research participants would like to be informed of the ICF elements required by ethical guidelines and regulations; however, the importance of each element varied, e.g., risk and benefit associated with research participants were considered to be more important than the general nature or technical details of research. Using a participant-oriented approach by providing more details of the participant-interested elements while avoiding unnecessarily lengthy details of other less important elements would enhance the quality of the ICF.

  15. Whittam DH, Karthikeayan V, Gibbons E, Kneen R, Chandratre S, Ciccarelli O, et al.
    J. Neurol., 2020 Jul 04.
    PMID: 32623595 DOI: 10.1007/s00415-020-10026-y
    INTRODUCTION: While monophasic and relapsing forms of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody associated disorders (MOGAD) are increasingly diagnosed world-wide, consensus on management is yet to be developed.

    OBJECTIVE: To survey the current global clinical practice of clinicians treating MOGAD.

    METHOD: Neurologists worldwide with expertise in treating MOGAD participated in an online survey (February-April 2019).

    RESULTS: Fifty-two responses were received (response rate 60.5%) from 86 invited experts, comprising adult (78.8%, 41/52) and paediatric (21.2%, 11/52) neurologists in 22 countries. All treat acute attacks with high dose corticosteroids. If recovery is incomplete, 71.2% (37/52) proceed next to plasma exchange (PE). 45.5% (5/11) of paediatric neurologists use IV immunoglobulin (IVIg) in preference to PE. Following an acute attack, 55.8% (29/52) of respondents typically continue corticosteroids for ≥ 3 months; though less commonly when treating children. After an index event, 60% (31/51) usually start steroid-sparing maintenance therapy (MT); after ≥ 2 attacks 92.3% (48/52) would start MT. Repeat MOG antibody status is used by 52.9% (27/51) to help decide on MT initiation. Commonly used first line MTs in adults are azathioprine (30.8%, 16/52), mycophenolate mofetil (25.0%, 13/52) and rituximab (17.3%, 9/52). In children, IVIg is the preferred first line MT (54.5%; 6/11). Treatment response is monitored by MRI (53.8%; 28/52), optical coherence tomography (23.1%; 12/52) and MOG antibody titres (36.5%; 19/52). Regardless of monitoring results, 25.0% (13/52) would not stop MT.

    CONCLUSION: Current treatment of MOGAD is highly variable, indicating a need for consensus-based treatment guidelines, while awaiting definitive clinical trials.

  16. NGAL Meta-Analysis Investigator Group, Albert C, Zapf A, Haase M, Röver C, Pickering JW, et al.
    Am. J. Kidney Dis., 2020 Jul 14.
    PMID: 32679151 DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.05.015
    RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: The usefulness of measures of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in urine or plasma (u/pNGAL) obtained on clinical laboratory platforms for predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) and severe AKI requiring kidney dialysis (AKI-D) has not been fully evaluated. We sought to quantitatively summarize published data to evaluate the value of urinary and plasma NGAL for prediction.

    STUDY DESIGN: Literature-based meta-analysis and individual-study-data meta-analysis of diagnostic studies following PRISMA-IPD guidelines.

    SETTING & STUDY POPULATIONS: Studies of adults investigating AKI, severe AKI, and AKI-D in the setting of cardiac surgery, intensive care, or emergency department care using either urine or plasma NGAL measured on clinical laboratory platforms.

    SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus and congress abstracts ever published through February 2020 reporting diagnostic test studies of NGAL measured on clinical laboratory platforms to predict AKI.

    DATA EXTRACTION: Individual-study-data meta-analysis was accomplished by providing authors data specifications tailored to their studies and requesting standardized patient-level data analysis.

    ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Individual-study-data meta-analysis utilized a bivariate time-to-event model for interval-censored data from which discriminative ability (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)) was characterized. NGAL cutoff concentrations at 95% sensitivity, 95% specificity, as well as optimal sensitivity and specificity were also estimated. Models incorporated as confounders clinical setting and use versus non-use of urine output as a criterion for AKI. A literature-based meta-analysis was also performed for all published studies including those studies for which the authors were unable to provide individual study data analyses.

    RESULTS: We included 52 observational studies involving 13,040 patients. We analyzed 30 datasets for the individual-study-data meta-analysis with 837 AKI events, 304 severe AKI events, and 103 severe AKI-D events for analyses of urine NGAL and 705 AKI events, 271 severe AKI events, and 178 AKI-D events for analyses of plasma NGAL. Discriminative performance was similar in individual-study-data meta-analysis and literature-based meta-analysis. Individual-study-data meta-analysis AUCs for uNGAL were 0.75 (95% CI 0.73-0.76) and 0.80 (0.79-0.81) for severe AKI and AKI-D, respectively; for pNGAL, the corresponding values were 0.80 (0.79-0.81) and 0.86 (0.84-0.86). Cut-off-concentrations at 95% specificity for uNGAL were >580 ng/mL with 27% sensitivity for severe AKI and >589 ng/mL with 24% sensitivity for AKI-D. Corresponding cut-offs for pNGAL were >364 ng/mL with 44% sensitivity and >546 ng/mL with 26% sensitivity, respectively.

    LIMITATIONS: Practice variability on initiation of acute dialysis. Imperfect harmonization of data across studies.

    CONCLUSIONS: Urinary and plasma NGAL concentrations may identify patients at high risk for AKI in clinical research and practice. The reported cut-off concentrations in this study require prospective evaluation.

  17. Fulsom BG, Pedlar TK, Adachi I, Aihara H, Al Said S, Asner DM, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2018 Dec 07;121(23):232001.
    PMID: 30576207 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.232001
    We report the observation of ϒ(2S)→γη_{b}(1S) decay based on an analysis of the inclusive photon spectrum of 24.7  fb^{-1} of e^{+}e^{-} collisions at the ϒ(2S) center-of-mass energy collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e^{+}e^{-} collider. We measure a branching fraction of B[ϒ(2S)→γη_{b}(1S)]=(6.1_{-0.7-0.6}^{+0.6+0.9})×10^{-4} and derive an η_{b}(1S) mass of 9394.8_{-3.1-2.7}^{+2.7+4.5}  MeV/c^{2}, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. The significance of our measurement is greater than 7 standard deviations, constituting the first observation of this decay mode.
  18. Guan Y, Vossen A, Adachi I, Adamczyk K, Ahn JK, Aihara H, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2019 Feb 01;122(4):042001.
    PMID: 30768311 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.042001
    We report the first observation of the spontaneous polarization of Λ and Λ[over ¯] hyperons transverse to the production plane in e^{+}e^{-} annihilation, which is attributed to the effect arising from a polarizing fragmentation function. For inclusive Λ/Λ[over ¯] production, we also report results with subtracted feed-down contributions from Σ^{0} and charm. This measurement uses a dataset of 800.4  fb^{-1} collected by the Belle experiment at or near a center-of-mass energy of 10.58 GeV. We observe a significant polarization that rises with the fractional energy carried by the Λ/Λ[over ¯] hyperon.
  19. Li YB, Shen CP, Yuan CZ, Adachi I, Aihara H, Al Said S, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2019 Mar 01;122(8):082001.
    PMID: 30932568 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.082001
    We present the first measurements of absolute branching fractions of Ξ_{c}^{0} decays into Ξ^{-}π^{+}, ΛK^{-}π^{+}, and pK^{-}K^{-}π^{+} final states. The measurements are made using a dataset comprising (772±11)×10^{6} BB[over ¯] pairs collected at the ϒ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB e^{+}e^{-} collider. We first measure the absolute branching fraction for B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0} using a missing-mass technique; the result is B(B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0})=(9.51±2.10±0.88)×10^{-4}. We subsequently measure the product branching fractions B(B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0})B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→Ξ^{-}π^{+}), B(B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0})B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→ΛK^{-}π^{+}), and B(B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0})B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→pK^{-}K^{-}π^{+}) with improved precision. Dividing these product branching fractions by the result for B^{-}→Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-}Ξ_{c}^{0} yields the following branching fractions: B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→Ξ^{-}π^{+})=(1.80±0.50±0.14)%, B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→ΛK^{-}π^{+})=(1.17±0.37±0.09)%, and B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→pK^{-}K^{-}π^{+})=(0.58±0.23±0.05)%. For the above branching fractions, the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic. Our result for B(Ξ_{c}^{0}→Ξ^{-}π^{+}) can be combined with Ξ_{c}^{0} branching fractions measured relative to Ξ_{c}^{0}→Ξ^{-}π^{+} to yield other absolute Ξ_{c}^{0} branching fractions.
  20. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2018 Aug 10;121(6):062002.
    PMID: 30141647 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.062002
    The pseudorapidity distributions of dijets as functions of their average transverse momentum (p_{T}^{ave}) are measured in proton-lead (pPb) and proton-proton (pp) collisions. The data samples were collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC, at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. A significant modification of the pPb spectra with respect to the pp spectra is observed in all p_{T}^{ave} intervals investigated. The ratios of the pPb and pp distributions are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations with unbound nucleon and nuclear parton distribution functions (PDFs). These results give the first evidence that the gluon PDF at large Bjorken x in lead ions is strongly suppressed with respect to the PDF in unbound nucleons.
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