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  1. Koe XF, Tengku Muhammad TS, Chong AS, Wahab HA, Tan ML
    Food science & nutrition, 2014 Sep;2(5):500-20.
    PMID: 25473508 DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.122
    A multiplex RT-qPCR was developed to examine CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 induction properties of compounds from food and herbal sources. The induction of drug metabolizing enzymes is an important pharmacokinetic interaction with unique features in comparison with inhibition of metabolizing enzymes. Cytochrome induction can lead to serious drug-drug or drug-food interactions, especially if the coadministered drug plasma level is critical as it can reduce therapeutic effects and cause complications. Using this optimized multiplex RT-qPCR, cytochrome induction properties of andrographolide, curcumin, lycopene, bergamottin, and resveratrol were determined. Andrographolide, curcumin, and lycopene produced no significant induction effects on CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. However, bergamottin appeared to be a significant in vitro CYP1A2 inducer starting from 5 to 50 μmol/L with induction ranging from 60 to 100-fold changes. On the other hand, resveratrol is a weak in vitro CYP1A2 inducer. Examining the cytochrome induction properties of food and herbal compounds help complement CYP inhibition studies and provide labeling and safety caution for such products.
  2. Lim EL, Seah TC, Koe XF, Wahab HA, Adenan MI, Jamil MF, et al.
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2013 Mar;27(2):812-24.
    PMID: 23274770 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2012.12.014
    CYP450 enzymes are key determinants in drug toxicities, reduced pharmacological effect and adverse drug reactions. Mitragynine, an euphoric compound was evaluated for its effects on the expression of mRNAs encoding CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 and protein expression and resultant enzymatic activity. The mRNA and protein expression of CYP450 isoforms were carried out using an optimized multiplex qRT-PCR assay and Western blot analysis. CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities were evaluated using P450-Glo™ assays. The effects of mitragynine on human CYP3A4 protein expression were determined using an optimized hCYP3A4-HepG2 cell-based assay. An in silico computational method to predict the binding conformation of mitragynine to the active site of the CYP3A4 enzyme was performed and further validated using in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition assays. Mitragynine was found to induce mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A2. For the highest concentration of 25 μM, induction of mRNA was approximately 70% that of the positive control and was consistent with the increased CYP1A2 enzymatic activity. Thus, mitragynine is a significant in vitro CYP1A2 inducer. However, it appeared to be a weak CYP3A4 inducer at the transcriptional level and a weak CYP3A4 enzyme inhibitor. It is therefore, unlikely to have any significant clinical effects on CYP3A4 activity.
  3. Koe XF, Lim EL, Seah TC, Amanah A, Wahab HA, Adenan MI, et al.
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2013 Oct;60:98-108.
    PMID: 23876819 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.07.030
    Drug metabolism involving cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is a key determinant of significant drug interactions. Deoxyelephantopin was evaluated for its effects on the expression of mRNAs encoding CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, and protein expression and resultant enzymatic activity. The mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome isoforms were carried out using an optimized multiplex qRT-PCR assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. Human CYP3A4 protein expression was determined using an optimized hCYP3A4-HepG2 cell-based assay and the enzymatic activity was evaluated using P450-Glo™ CYP3A4 assay. The molecular interaction and possible inhibition of deoxyelephantopin of the CYP3A4 enzyme was determined in silico and further validated using substrate-specific CYP3A4 inhibition assays. Deoxyelephantopin produced no significant effect on the CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 mRNA and protein expression. However, it has a weak induction effect on CYP3A4 at the transcriptional level. In silico docking simulation showed that deoxyelephantopin has a weak interaction with CYP3A4 enzyme and it minimally affects the metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates. Deoxyelephantopin is not an in vitro CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 inducer. It is both a weak in vitro CYP3A4 inducer and inhibitor and is unlikely to elicit a clinically significant effect in human.
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