METHODS: This questionnaire is divided into two parts. Part A is to evaluate the clinicians' awareness towards cognitive errors in clinical decision making while Part B is to evaluate their perception towards specific cognitive errors. Content validation for both parts was first determined followed by construct validation for Part A. Construct validation for Part B was not determined as the responses were set in a dichotomous format.
RESULTS: For content validation, all items in both Part A and Part B were rated as "excellent" in terms of their relevance in clinical settings. For construct validation using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for Part A, a two-factor model with total variance extraction of 60% was determined. Two items were deleted. Then, the EFA was repeated showing that all factor loadings are above the cut-off value of >0.5. The Cronbach's alpha for both factors are above 0.6.
CONCLUSION: The CATChES questionnaire tool is a valid questionnaire tool aimed to evaluate the awareness among clinicians toward cognitive errors in clinical decision making.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional validation study. The original English version of the IDAF-4C+ was translated into Malay, back-translated, and then sent for content validation via an expert validation and face validation by the target student population. Three hundred and seventy questionnaires were then distributed among 16-year-old school children. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted for the IDAF-4C module using a bootstrapped maximum likelihood estimator. Spearman's rank correlation was used to assess the relationship between the IDAF-S and IDAF-4C modules. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to determine the stability of the IDAF-S and IDAF-4C modules, while kappa values were used for the IDAF-P module.
Results: The response rate was 86.5% for CFA and 76.9% for stability. CFA showed the existence of only one factor with a reliability estimate of 0.921, obtained via Raykov's procedure. All items in the IDAF-S module were significantly correlated with the IDAF-4C module (P < 0.001). The IDAF-S and IDAF-4C modules were stable, as determined via a two-way mixed model with absolute agreement, a single measure and a Case 3 ICC (A, 1). The IDAF-P module showed satisfactory stability, as assessed via kappa values.
Conclusion: The Malay version of the IDAF-4C+ is valid and reliable in measuring dental anxiety and fear among Malaysian secondary school children.
Methods: The original English version of the GCEQ underwent forward and backward translation into the Malay language. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The finalised Malay version was administered to 674 undergraduate students at the Health Campus of the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) with a mean age of 20.27 years (SD = 1.35 years). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted for the psychometric evaluation.
Results: The measurement model consisted of 20 observed items and five latent factors. CFA demonstrated adequate fit to the data: comparative fit index = 0.929; standardised root mean square residual = 0.052; root mean square error of approximation = 0.061 (90% CI = 0.056, 0.067). The composite reliability coefficients for the five latent factors ranged from 0.777 to 0.851. All the correlations between the factors were less than 0.85, so discriminant validity was achieved.
Conclusion: The findings suggested that the Malay version of the GCEQ is valid and reliable for assessing goal content in the exercise context of undergraduates at the Health Campus, USM.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 166 children aged 6 to 12 years old in Malaysia. Ocular examination, biometry, retinal photography, blood pressure and body mass index measurement were performed. Participants were divided into two groups; obese and non-obese. Retinal vascular parameters were measured using validated software.
RESULTS: Mean age was 9.58 years. Approximately 51.2% were obese. Obese children had significantly narrower retinal arteriolar caliber (F(1,159) = 6.862, p = 0.010), lower arteriovenous ratio (F(1,159) = 17.412, p < 0.001), higher venular fractal dimension (F(1,159) = 4.313, p = 0.039) and higher venular curvature tortuosity (F(1,158) = 5.166, p = 0.024) than non-obese children, after adjustment for age, gender, blood pressure and axial length.
CONCLUSIONS: Obese children have abnormal retinal vascular geometry. These findings suggest that childhood obesity is characterized by early microvascular abnormalities that precede development of overt disease. Further research is warranted to determine if these parameters represent viable biomarkers for risk stratification in obesity.
Methods: The participants were university students at USM's Health Campus, who were invited to volunteer and complete two measures: a demographic form, including the types of co-curricular activities in which the students chose to enrol (sports, uniform and art), and the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS).
Results: A total of 588 university students (female = 79.1%, male = 20.9%) with a mean age of 19.77 (SD = 1.39) participated in the study. The results showed significant differences in the motives of affiliation (P < 0.001), appearance (P = 0.008) and physical condition (P = 0.010) across the types of co-curricular activities in which the students participated. The students who enrolled in sports generally showed higher motives of affiliation, appearance and physical condition for participating in PA than other types of co-curricular activities.
Conclusion: The study findings can provide further insights into the motives for participating in PA among health sciences students and encouragement for students to integrate PA into their daily routines.
AIM: We aimed to test validity and reliability of Malay language translations of GERDQ and QOLRAD in a primary care setting.
METHODS: The questionnaires were first translated into the Malay language (GERDQ-M and QOLRAD-M). Patients from primary care clinics with suspected GERD were recruited to complete GERDQ-M, QOLRAD-M, and Malay-translated 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36 or SF-36-M), and underwent endoscopy and 24-h pH-impedance test.
RESULTS: A total of 104 (mean age 47.1 years, women 51.9%) participants were enrolled. The sensitivity and specificity for GERDQ-M cut-off score ≥8 were 90.2 and 77.4%, respectively. Based on this cut-off score, 54.7% had a high probability of GERD diagnosis. GERD-M score ≥8 vs. < 8 was associated with erosive esophagitis (p < 0.001), hiatus hernia (p = 0.03), greater DeMeester score (p = 0.001), and Zerbib scores for acid refluxes (p < 0.001) but not non-acid refluxes (p = 0.1). Mean total scores of QOLRAD-M and SF-36-M were correlated (r = 0.74, p < 0.001). GERDQ-M ≥8, erosive esophagitis, and DeMeester ≥14.72 were associated with impaired QOLRAD-M in all domains (all p < 0.02) but this was not seen with SF-36.
CONCLUSIONS: GERDQ-M and QOLRAD-M are valid and reliable tools applicable in a primary care setting.