METHODS: This questionnaire is divided into two parts. Part A is to evaluate the clinicians' awareness towards cognitive errors in clinical decision making while Part B is to evaluate their perception towards specific cognitive errors. Content validation for both parts was first determined followed by construct validation for Part A. Construct validation for Part B was not determined as the responses were set in a dichotomous format.
RESULTS: For content validation, all items in both Part A and Part B were rated as "excellent" in terms of their relevance in clinical settings. For construct validation using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for Part A, a two-factor model with total variance extraction of 60% was determined. Two items were deleted. Then, the EFA was repeated showing that all factor loadings are above the cut-off value of >0.5. The Cronbach's alpha for both factors are above 0.6.
CONCLUSION: The CATChES questionnaire tool is a valid questionnaire tool aimed to evaluate the awareness among clinicians toward cognitive errors in clinical decision making.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 166 children aged 6 to 12 years old in Malaysia. Ocular examination, biometry, retinal photography, blood pressure and body mass index measurement were performed. Participants were divided into two groups; obese and non-obese. Retinal vascular parameters were measured using validated software.
RESULTS: Mean age was 9.58 years. Approximately 51.2% were obese. Obese children had significantly narrower retinal arteriolar caliber (F(1,159) = 6.862, p = 0.010), lower arteriovenous ratio (F(1,159) = 17.412, p < 0.001), higher venular fractal dimension (F(1,159) = 4.313, p = 0.039) and higher venular curvature tortuosity (F(1,158) = 5.166, p = 0.024) than non-obese children, after adjustment for age, gender, blood pressure and axial length.
CONCLUSIONS: Obese children have abnormal retinal vascular geometry. These findings suggest that childhood obesity is characterized by early microvascular abnormalities that precede development of overt disease. Further research is warranted to determine if these parameters represent viable biomarkers for risk stratification in obesity.
AIM: We aimed to test validity and reliability of Malay language translations of GERDQ and QOLRAD in a primary care setting.
METHODS: The questionnaires were first translated into the Malay language (GERDQ-M and QOLRAD-M). Patients from primary care clinics with suspected GERD were recruited to complete GERDQ-M, QOLRAD-M, and Malay-translated 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36 or SF-36-M), and underwent endoscopy and 24-h pH-impedance test.
RESULTS: A total of 104 (mean age 47.1 years, women 51.9%) participants were enrolled. The sensitivity and specificity for GERDQ-M cut-off score ≥8 were 90.2 and 77.4%, respectively. Based on this cut-off score, 54.7% had a high probability of GERD diagnosis. GERD-M score ≥8 vs. < 8 was associated with erosive esophagitis (p < 0.001), hiatus hernia (p = 0.03), greater DeMeester score (p = 0.001), and Zerbib scores for acid refluxes (p < 0.001) but not non-acid refluxes (p = 0.1). Mean total scores of QOLRAD-M and SF-36-M were correlated (r = 0.74, p < 0.001). GERDQ-M ≥8, erosive esophagitis, and DeMeester ≥14.72 were associated with impaired QOLRAD-M in all domains (all p < 0.02) but this was not seen with SF-36.
CONCLUSIONS: GERDQ-M and QOLRAD-M are valid and reliable tools applicable in a primary care setting.