Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 40 in total

  1. Kumar SS, Radhakrishnan AK, Cheong SK
    Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2010 Apr 01;13(7):303-15.
    PMID: 20836285
    The aim of this study was to establish an animal model of mammary carcinoma metastasis to discern the in vivo effects of growth and spread of breast cancer. Six-week-old female BALB/c mice were inoculated with 4T1 murine breast cancer cells. Mice weight and primary tumour mass volume were regularly recorded to study the physical effects of a vigorously growing and spreading of cancer cell line. Gross and histological studies were carried out to determine the approximate day of metastatic onset. Production of IFN-gamma was assessed by ELISA to understand its role in tumour growth and metastasis. Lymphocyte markers such as CD8+, CD25 and CD49b were analysed to elucidate its role in tumour growth and progression. Present study showed that the metastatic onset occurs approximately 11 days after the mice were inoculated with the 4T1 murine breast cancer cells. Gross studies showed hepatosplenomegaly. The breast cancer cells from primary tumour were found to spread rapidly to the liver on day 11. IFN-gamma production was higher in inoculated mice serum compared to control mice serum. Higher numbers of CD8+, CD25 and CD49b cells were observed in the peripheral blood of inoculated mice, compared to control mice. In conclusion, the 4T1 murine breast cancer cells can migrate and metastasise rapidly to the liver, eliciting various immune responses.
  2. Lee SC, Tang IP, Singh A, Kumar SS, Singh S
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2009 Dec;36(6):709-11.
    PMID: 19304419 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2009.02.002
    Choanal stenosis has recently been recognized as a late complication of radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The management of velopharyngeal stenosis is challenging with high risk of restenosis. We report a case of velopharyngeal stenosis post-radiotherapy and illustrated the use of mitomycin-C to prevent restenosis. Mitomycin-C application has being shown useful adjunct to surgical technique in managing nasopharyngeal stenosis for surgeons.
  3. Sumathra M, Sadasivuni KK, Kumar SS, Rajan M
    ACS Omega, 2018 Nov 30;3(11):14620-14633.
    PMID: 30555982 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.8b02090
    Presently, tissue engineering approaches have been focused toward finding new potential scaffolds with osteoconductivity on bone-disease-affected cells. This work focused on the cisplatin (CDDP)-loaded graphene oxide (GO)/hydroxyapatite (HAP)/chitosan (CS) composite for enhancing the growth of osteoblast cells and prevent the development of osteosarcoma cells. The prepared composites were characterized for the confirmation of composite formation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. A flowerlike morphology was observed for the GO/HAP/CS-3/CDDP composite. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to observe the controlled release of CDDP from the GO/HAP/CS-3/CDDP composite, and 67.34% of CDDP was released from the composite over a time period of 10 days. The GO/HAP/CS-3/CDDP nanocomposites showed higher viability in comparison with GO/HAP/CS-3 on MG63 osteoblast-like cells and higher cytotoxicity against cancer cells (A549). The synthesized composite was found to show enhanced proliferative, adhesive, and osteoinductive effects on the alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblast-like cells. Our results suggested that the CDDP-loaded GO/HAP/CS-3 nanocomposite has an immense prospective as a bone tissue replacement in the bone-cancer-affected tissues.
  4. Arulselvan P, Tan WS, Gothai S, Muniandy K, Fakurazi S, Esa NM, et al.
    Molecules, 2016 Oct 31;21(11).
    PMID: 27809259
    In the present investigation, we prepared four different solvent fractions (chloroform, hexane, butanol, and ethyl acetate) of Moringa oleifera extract to evaluate its anti-inflammatory potential and cellular mechanism of action in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. Cell cytotoxicity assay suggested that the solvent fractions were not cytotoxic to macrophages at concentrations up to 200 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate fraction suppressed LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner and was more effective than the other fractions. Immunoblot observations revealed that the ethyl acetate fraction effectively inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators including cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 through suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, it upregulated the expression of the inhibitor of κB (IκBα) and blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. These findings indicated that the ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated macrophages via suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway.
  5. Samrot AV, Bhavya KS, Angalene JLA, Roshini SM, Preethi R, Steffi SM, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Jun 15;153:1024-1034.
    PMID: 31751703 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.10.232
    Surface engineering of super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) favor the tagging of any molecule or compound onto it, encapsulating them with a biopolymer make them biocompatible and favor slow release of loaded molecules. Recovery of SPIONs is easier as they obey to external magnetic field. In this study, SPIONS were used for mosquito larvicidal activity after surface engineered with oleic acid to favor the tagging of Cyfluthrin (mosquito larvicidal agent), it was then encapsulated with gum polysaccharide derived from Azadirachta indica and Araucaria heterophylla. Every stage of coreshell formation was microscopically and spectroscopically characterized. The coreshell SPIONs produced using Azadirachta indica and Araucaria heterophylla gum derived polysaccharide encapsulation were found to be the size around 80 nm. Thus, prepared coreshell SPIONs was subjected for mosquito larvicidal activity against Culex sp. The coreshell SPIONs was efficiently killing the mosquito larva and its impact was studied by percentage mortality studies.
  6. Arulselvan P, Fard MT, Tan WS, Gothai S, Fakurazi S, Norhaizan ME, et al.
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2016;2016:5276130.
    PMID: 27803762
    Inflammation is a comprehensive array of physiological response to a foreign organism, including human pathogens, dust particles, and viruses. Inflammations are mainly divided into acute and chronic inflammation depending on various inflammatory processes and cellular mechanisms. Recent investigations have clarified that inflammation is a major factor for the progression of various chronic diseases/disorders, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, eye disorders, arthritis, obesity, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. Free radical productions from different biological and environmental sources are due to an imbalance of natural antioxidants which further leads to various inflammatory associated diseases. In this review article, we have outlined the inflammatory process and its cellular mechanisms involved in the progression of various chronic modern human diseases. In addition, we have discussed the role of free radicals-induced tissue damage, antioxidant defence, and molecular mechanisms in chronic inflammatory diseases/disorders. The systematic knowledge regarding the role of inflammation and its associated adverse effects can provide a clear understanding in the development of innovative therapeutic targets from natural sources that are intended for suppression of various chronic inflammations associated diseases.
  7. Cui YC, Wu Q, Teh SW, Peli A, Bu G, Qiu YS, et al.
    Microb Pathog, 2018 Sep;122:130-136.
    PMID: 29909241 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2018.06.021
    The recent global resurgence of arthritogenic alphaviruses, including Ross River, chikungunya, and dengue, highlights an urgency for the development of therapeutic strategies. Currently, dengue represents the most rapidly transmitting mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. By contracting bone breaking diseases, patients experience devastating clinical manifestations involving muscle pain and bone loss. The bone self-repair and regeneration mechanisms can be damaged by the presence of viruses and bacteria. The rapid establishment of dengue epidemic and the severity of bacterial and viral infections affecting the bone stress the urgent need of developing effective interventions. Herein, we review current knowledge on bone breaking infections, covering both bacterial and mosquito-borne viral ones. The mechanisms exploited by these diseases to significantly affect the bone, including interferences with self-repair and regeneration routes, were discussed. In the final section, challenges for future research aimed to treat and prevent bacterial and mosquito-borne bone-breaking infections have been outlined.
  8. Govindaraj D, Rajan M, Munusamy MA, Alarfaj AA, Sadasivuni KK, Kumar SS
    Nanomedicine, 2017 Nov;13(8):2661-2669.
    PMID: 28800874 DOI: 10.1016/j.nano.2017.07.017
    Minerals substituted apatite (M-HA) nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation of minerals and phosphate reactants in choline chloride-Thiourea (ChCl-TU) deep eutectic solvent (DESs) as a facile and green way approach. After preparation of nanoparticles (F-M-HA (F=Fresh solvent)), the DESs was recovered productively and reprocess for the preparation of R-M-HA nanoparticles (R=Recycle solvent).The functional groups, phase, surface texture and the elemental composition of the M-HA nanoparticles were evaluated by advance characterization methods. The physicochemical results of the current work authoritative the successful uses of the novel (ChCl-TU) DESs as eco-friendly recuperate and give the medium for the preparation of M-HA nanoparticles. Moreover, the as-synthesized both M-HA nanoparticles exhibit excellent biocompatibility, consisting of cell co-cultivation and cell adhesion, in vivo according to surgical implantation of Wistar rats.
  9. Higuchi A, Kumar SS, Benelli G, Alarfaj AA, Munusamy MA, Umezawa A, et al.
    Trends Biotechnol., 2017 11;35(11):1102-1117.
    PMID: 28751147 DOI: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2017.06.016
    Current clinical trials that evaluate human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based therapies predominantly target treating macular degeneration of the eyes because the eye is an isolated tissue that is naturally weakly immunogenic. Here, we discuss current bioengineering approaches and biomaterial usage in combination with stem cell therapy for macular degeneration disease treatment. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) differentiated from hPSCs is typically used in most clinical trials for treating patients, whereas bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are intravitreally transplanted, undifferentiated, into patient eyes. We also discuss reported negative effects of stem cell therapy, such as patients becoming blind following transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells, which are increasingly used by 'stem-cell clinics'.
  10. Gothai S, Muniandy K, Zarin MA, Sean TW, Kumar SS, Munusamy MA, et al.
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2017 Oct;13(Suppl 3):S462-S469.
    PMID: 29142400 DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_368_16
    Background: Moringa oleifera (MO), commonly known as the drumstick tree, is used in folklore medicine for the treatment of skin disease.

    Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of MO leaves for in vitro antibacterial, antioxidant, and wound healing activities and conduct gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis.

    Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity was evaluated against six Gram-positive bacteria and 10 Gram-negative bacteria by disc diffusion method. Free radical scavenging activity was assessed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical hydrogen peroxide scavenging and total phenolic content (TPC). Wound healing efficiency was studied using cell viability, proliferation, and scratch assays in diabetic human dermal fibroblast (HDF-D) cells.

    Results: The EtOAc fraction showed moderate activity against all bacterial strains tested, and the maximum inhibition zone was observed against Streptococcus pyogenes (30 mm in diameter). The fraction showed higher sensitivity to Gram-positive strains than Gram-negative strains. In the quantitative analysis of antioxidant content, the EtOAc fraction was found to have a TPC of 65.81 ± 0.01. The DPPH scavenging activity and the hydrogen peroxide assay were correlated with the TPC value, with IC50 values of 18.21 ± 0.06 and 59.22 ± 0.04, respectively. The wound healing experiment revealed a significant enhancement of cell proliferation and migration of HDF-D cells. GC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of 17 bioactive constituents that may be the principal factors in the significant antibacterial, antioxidant, and wound healing activity.

    Conclusion: The EtOAc fraction of MO leaves possesses remarkable wound healing properties, which can be attributed to the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the fraction.

    SUMMARY: Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction possesses antibacterial activities toward Gram-positive bacteria such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus, and Gram-negative bacteria such as Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella typhimuriumMO leaf EtOAc fraction contained the phenolic content of 65.81 ± 0.01 and flavonoid content of 37.1 ± 0.03, respectively. In addition, the fraction contained 17 bioactive constituents associated with the antibacterial, antioxidant, and wound healing properties that were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysisMO leaf EtOAc fraction supports wound closure rate about 80% for treatments when compared with control group. Abbreviations used: MO: Moringa oleifera; EtOAc: Ethyl acetate; GC-MS: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry; HDF-D: Diabetic Human Dermal Fibroblast cells.

  11. Muniandy K, Gothai S, Arulselvan P, Kumar SS, Norhaizan ME, Umamaheswari A, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2019 Mar;32(2):703-707.
    PMID: 31081786
    Wound healing is a natural intricate cascade process involving cellular, biochemical and molecular mechanism to restore the injured or wounded tissue. Malaysia's multi-ethnic social fabric is reflected in its different traditional folk cuisines with different nutritional important ingredients. Despite these differences, there are some commonly used pantry ingredients among Malaysians and these ingredients may possess some healing power for acute and chronic wounds. These essential nutritional ingredients are included Amla (Ribes uva-crispa), Cinnamon (Cinnamomun venum), Curry Leaves (Murraya koenigii), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), Garlic (Allium indica), Onion (Allium cepa) and Tamarind (Tamarindus indica). This article provides a review of the remedies with confirmed wound healing activities from previous experiments conducted by various researchers. Most of the researchers have focused only on the preliminary studies through appropriate model; hence detailed investigations which including pharmacological and pre-clinical studies are needed to discover its molecular mechanisms. In this review article, we have discussed about the wound healing potential of few commonly used edible plants and their known mechanism.
  12. Sung TC, Su HC, Ling QD, Kumar SS, Chang Y, Hsu ST, et al.
    Biomaterials, 2020 Sep;253:120060.
    PMID: 32450407 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120060
    The current differentiation process of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into cardiomyocytes to enhance the purity of hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes requires some purification processes, which are laborious processes. We developed cell sorting plates, which are prepared from coating thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and extracellular matrix proteins. After hPSCs were induced into cardiomyocytes on the thermoresponsive surface coated with laminin-521 for 15 days, the temperature of the cell culture plates was decreased to 8-9 °C to detach the cells partially from the thermoresponsive surface. The detached cells exhibited a higher cardiomyocyte marker of cTnT than the remaining cells on the thermoresponsive surface as well as the cardiomyocytes after purification using conventional cell selection. The detached cells expressed several cardiomyocyte markers, such as α-actinin, MLC2a and NKX2.5. This study suggested that the purification of hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes using cell sorting plates with the thermoresponsive surface is a promising method for the purification of hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes without conventional laborious processes.
  13. Higuchi A, Hirad AH, Kumar SS, Munusamy MA, Alarfaj AA
    Acta Biomater, 2020 10 15;116:162-173.
    PMID: 32911107 DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2020.09.010
    Thermoresponsive surfaces enable the detachment of cells or cell sheets by decreasing the temperature of the surface when harvesting the cells. However, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, cannot be directly cultured on a thermoresponsive surface; hPSCs need a specific extracellular matrix to bind to the integrin receptors on their surfaces. We prepared a thermoresponsive surface by using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylacrylate) and recombinant vitronectin to provide an optimal coating concentration for the hPSC culture. hPSCs can be cultured on the same thermoresponsive surface for 5 passages by partial detachment of the cells from the surface by decreasing the temperature for 30 min; then, the remaining hPSCs were subsequently cultured on the same dishes following the addition of new cultivation media. The detached cells, even after continual culture for five passages, showed high pluripotency, the ability to differentiate into cells derived from the 3 germ layers and the ability to undergo cardiac differentiation.
  14. Sundaram CS, Kumar JS, Kumar SS, Ramesh PLN, Zin T, Rao USM
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 Nov;75(6):677-684.
    PMID: 33219177
    INTRODUCTION: Brassica oleracea var acephala was studied for preliminary phytochemical screening. The results showed that the ethanolic crude extract of the leaf contain high phytochemical activity hence B.oleracea var acephala is rich in flavonoids, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and phytosterols.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ethanolic extract was used to synthesise copper nanoparticles. The copper nanoparticles were successfully synthesised from copper sulphate solution which was identified by the colour change from dark green colour of the extract. Thus the B.oleracea var acephala is a good source to synthesis copper nanoparticles. The synthesised copper nanoparticles were characterised using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. The SEM image displayed the high-density nanoparticles synthesised by leaf extracts and that the nanoparticles were crystals in shape.

    RESULTS: The copper nanoparticles (CNP) bind to the leaf extract. B.oleracea var acephala also has shown the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. A comparative study was done between ethanolic its crude extract and nanoparticles. Both extracts exhibited zone of inhibition and better antioxidant potential but the CuNPs shows major zone of inhibition and showed more antioxidant activity. Anticancer activity of B.oleracea var acephala against Cervical HeLa cell line was confirmed using ethanolic crude extract and CNP. The results showed that HeLa cells proliferation was inhibited with increasing concentration of ethanolic crude extract and copper nanoparticles. From the results, it was seen that percentage viability of the cancer cells decreased with increased concentration of the samples whereas cytotoxicity against HeLa cell lines increased with the increased concentration of the samples.

    CONCLUSION: Thus B.oleracea var acephala possesses anticancer activity against HeLa cell lines.

  15. Higuchi A, Ling QD, Kumar SS, Munusamy MA, Alarfaj AA, Chang Y, et al.
    Lab Invest, 2015 Jan;95(1):26-42.
    PMID: 25365202 DOI: 10.1038/labinvest.2014.132
    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a platform to obtain patient-specific cells for use as a cell source in regenerative medicine. Although iPSCs do not have the ethical concerns of embryonic stem cells, iPSCs have not been widely used in clinical applications, as they are generated by gene transduction. Recently, iPSCs have been generated without the use of genetic material. For example, protein-induced PSCs and chemically induced PSCs have been generated by the use of small and large (protein) molecules. Several epigenetic characteristics are important for cell differentiation; therefore, several small-molecule inhibitors of epigenetic-modifying enzymes, such as DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, and histone demethylases, are potential candidates for the reprogramming of somatic cells into iPSCs. In this review, we discuss what types of small chemical or large (protein) molecules could be used to replace the viral transduction of genes and/or genetic reprogramming to obtain human iPSCs.
  16. Kumar SS, Alarfaj AA, Munusamy MA, Singh AJ, Peng IC, Priya SP, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(12):23418-47.
    PMID: 25526563 DOI: 10.3390/ijms151223418
    Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), hold promise as novel therapeutic tools for diabetes treatment because of their self-renewal capacity and ability to differentiate into beta (β)-cells. Small and large molecules play important roles in each stage of β-cell differentiation from both hESCs and hiPSCs. The small and large molecules that are described in this review have significantly advanced efforts to cure diabetic disease. Lately, effective protocols have been implemented to induce hESCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to differentiate into functional β-cells. Several small molecules, proteins, and growth factors promote pancreatic differentiation from hESCs and hMSCs. These small molecules (e.g., cyclopamine, wortmannin, retinoic acid, and sodium butyrate) and large molecules (e.g. activin A, betacellulin, bone morphogentic protein (BMP4), epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), noggin, transforming growth factor (TGF-α), and WNT3A) are thought to contribute from the initial stages of definitive endoderm formation to the final stages of maturation of functional endocrine cells. We discuss the importance of such small and large molecules in uniquely optimized protocols of β-cell differentiation from stem cells. A global understanding of various small and large molecules and their functions will help to establish an efficient protocol for β-cell differentiation.
  17. Samrot AV, Angalene JLA, Roshini SM, Stefi SM, Preethi R, Raji P, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Nov 01;140:393-400.
    PMID: 31425761 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.08.121
    In this study, gum of Araucaria heterophylla was collected. The collected gum was subjected for extraction of polysaccharide using solvent extraction system. Thus, extracted polysaccharide was further purified using solvent method and was characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, Phenol sulfuric acid assay, FTIR, TGA, TLC and GC-MS. The gum derived polysaccharide was found to have the following sugars Rhamnose, Allose, Glucosinolate, Threose, Idosan, Galactose and Arabinose. The extracted polysaccharide was tested for various in-vitro bioactive studies such as antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity. The polysaccharide was found to have antioxidant and anticancer activity. Further, the polysaccharide was subjected for carboxymethylation to favor the nanocarrier synthesis, where it was chelated using Sodium Tri Meta Phosphate (STMP) to form nanocarriers. The nanocarriers so formed were loaded with curcumin and were characterized using FTIR, SEM, EDX and AFM. Both the loaded and unloaded nanocarriers were studied for its in-vitro cytotoxic effect against the MCF7 human breast cancer cell lines. The nanocarriers were found to deliver the drug efficiently against the cancer cell line used in this study.
  18. Sung TC, Liu CH, Huang WL, Lee YC, Kumar SS, Chang Y, et al.
    Biomater Sci, 2019 Oct 28.
    PMID: 31656967 DOI: 10.1039/c9bm00817a
    Current xeno-free and chemically defined methods for the differentiation of hPSCs (human pluripotent stem cells) into cardiomyocytes are not efficient and are sometimes not reproducible. Therefore, it is necessary to develop reliable and efficient methods for the differentiation of hPSCs into cardiomyocytes for future use in cardiovascular research related to drug discovery, cardiotoxicity screening, and disease modeling. We evaluated two representative differentiation methods that were reported previously, and we further developed original, more efficient methods for the differentiation of hPSCs into cardiomyocytes under xeno-free, chemically defined conditions. The developed protocol successively differentiated hPSCs into cardiomyocytes, approximately 90-97% of which expressed the cardiac marker cTnT, with beating speeds and sarcomere lengths that were similar to those of a healthy adult human heart. The optimal cell culture biomaterials for the cardiac differentiation of hPSCs were also evaluated using extracellular matrix-mimetic material-coated dishes. Synthemax II-coated and Laminin-521-coated dishes were found to be the most effective and efficient biomaterials for the cardiac differentiation of hPSCs according to the observation of hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes with high survival ratios, high beating colony numbers, a similar beating frequency to that of a healthy adult human heart, high purity levels (high cTnT expression) and longer sarcomere lengths similar to those of a healthy adult human heart.
  19. Ghosh P, Kumar M, Kapoor R, Kumar SS, Singh L, Vijay V, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 Jan;296:122275.
    PMID: 31683109 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122275
    The present study intends to evaluate the potential of co-digestion for utilizing Organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) and sewage sludge (SS) for enhanced biogas production. Metagenomic analysis was performed to identify the dominant bacteria, archaea and fungi, changes in their communities with time and their functional roles during the course of anaerobic digestion (AD). The cumulative biogas yield of 586.2 mL biogas/gVS with the highest methane concentration of 69.5% was observed under an optimum ratio of OFMSW:SS (40:60 w/w). Bacteria and fungi were found to be majorly involved in hydrolysis and initial stages of AD. Probably, the most common archaea Methanosarsina sp. primarily followed the acetoclastic pathway. The hydrogenotrophic pathway was less followed as indicated by the reduction in abundance of syntrophic acetate oxidizers. An adequate understanding of microbial communities is important to manipulate and inoculate the specific microbial consortia to maximize CH4 production through AD.
  20. Muniandy K, Gothai S, Tan WS, Kumar SS, Mohd Esa N, Chandramohan G, et al.
    PMID: 29670658 DOI: 10.1155/2018/3142073
    Impaired wound healing is one of the serious problems among the diabetic patients. Currently, available treatments are limited due to side effects and cost effectiveness. In line with that, we attempted to use a natural source to study its potential towards the wound healing process. Therefore, Alternanthera sessilis (A. sessilis), an edible and medicinal plant, was chosen as the target sample for the study. During this investigation, the wound closure properties using stem extract of A. sessilis were analyzed. Accordingly, we analyzed the extract on free radical scavenging capacity and the cell migration of two most prominent cell types on the skin, human dermal fibroblast (NHDF), keratinocytes (HaCaT), and diabetic human dermal fibroblast (HDF-D) to mimic the wound healing in diabetic patients. The bioactive compounds were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We discovered that the analysis exhibited a remarkable antioxidant, proliferative, and migratory rate in NHDF, HaCaT, and HDF-D in dose-dependent manner, which supports wound healing process, due to the presence of wound healing associated phytocompounds such as Hexadecanoic acid. This study suggested that the stem extract of A. sessilis might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing, supporting its traditional medicinal uses.
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