Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of MO leaves for in vitro antibacterial, antioxidant, and wound healing activities and conduct gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis.
Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity was evaluated against six Gram-positive bacteria and 10 Gram-negative bacteria by disc diffusion method. Free radical scavenging activity was assessed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical hydrogen peroxide scavenging and total phenolic content (TPC). Wound healing efficiency was studied using cell viability, proliferation, and scratch assays in diabetic human dermal fibroblast (HDF-D) cells.
Results: The EtOAc fraction showed moderate activity against all bacterial strains tested, and the maximum inhibition zone was observed against Streptococcus pyogenes (30 mm in diameter). The fraction showed higher sensitivity to Gram-positive strains than Gram-negative strains. In the quantitative analysis of antioxidant content, the EtOAc fraction was found to have a TPC of 65.81 ± 0.01. The DPPH scavenging activity and the hydrogen peroxide assay were correlated with the TPC value, with IC50 values of 18.21 ± 0.06 and 59.22 ± 0.04, respectively. The wound healing experiment revealed a significant enhancement of cell proliferation and migration of HDF-D cells. GC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of 17 bioactive constituents that may be the principal factors in the significant antibacterial, antioxidant, and wound healing activity.
Conclusion: The EtOAc fraction of MO leaves possesses remarkable wound healing properties, which can be attributed to the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the fraction.
SUMMARY: Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction possesses antibacterial activities toward Gram-positive bacteria such as Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus, and Gram-negative bacteria such as Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella typhimuriumMO leaf EtOAc fraction contained the phenolic content of 65.81 ± 0.01 and flavonoid content of 37.1 ± 0.03, respectively. In addition, the fraction contained 17 bioactive constituents associated with the antibacterial, antioxidant, and wound healing properties that were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysisMO leaf EtOAc fraction supports wound closure rate about 80% for treatments when compared with control group. Abbreviations used: MO: Moringa oleifera; EtOAc: Ethyl acetate; GC-MS: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry; HDF-D: Diabetic Human Dermal Fibroblast cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ethanolic extract was used to synthesise copper nanoparticles. The copper nanoparticles were successfully synthesised from copper sulphate solution which was identified by the colour change from dark green colour of the extract. Thus the B.oleracea var acephala is a good source to synthesis copper nanoparticles. The synthesised copper nanoparticles were characterised using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. The SEM image displayed the high-density nanoparticles synthesised by leaf extracts and that the nanoparticles were crystals in shape.
RESULTS: The copper nanoparticles (CNP) bind to the leaf extract. B.oleracea var acephala also has shown the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. A comparative study was done between ethanolic its crude extract and nanoparticles. Both extracts exhibited zone of inhibition and better antioxidant potential but the CuNPs shows major zone of inhibition and showed more antioxidant activity. Anticancer activity of B.oleracea var acephala against Cervical HeLa cell line was confirmed using ethanolic crude extract and CNP. The results showed that HeLa cells proliferation was inhibited with increasing concentration of ethanolic crude extract and copper nanoparticles. From the results, it was seen that percentage viability of the cancer cells decreased with increased concentration of the samples whereas cytotoxicity against HeLa cell lines increased with the increased concentration of the samples.
CONCLUSION: Thus B.oleracea var acephala possesses anticancer activity against HeLa cell lines.