Methylene blue (MB) is a dye pollutant commonly present in textile wastewater. We investigate and critically evaluate the applicability of BaTiO3/GO composite for photodegradation of MB in synthetic wastewater under UV-vis irradiation. To enhance its performance, the BaTiO3/GO composite is varied based on the BaTiO3 weight. To compare and evaluate any changes in their morphologies and crystalline structures before and after treatment, BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), XRD (X-ray diffraction), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) tests are conducted, while the effects of reaction time, pH, dose of photocatalyst and initial MB concentration on its photodegradation by the composite are also investigated under identical conditions. The degradation pathways and removal mechanisms of MB by the BaTiO3/GO are elaborated. It is evident from this study that the BaTiO3/GO composite is promising for MB photodegradation through ·OH. Under optimized conditions (0.5 g/L of dose, pH 9.0, and 5 mg/L of MB concentration), the composite with 1:2 dose ratio of BaTiO3/GO has the highest MB degradation rate (95%) after 3 h of UV vis irradiation. However, its treated effluents still could not comply with the discharge standard limit of less than 0.2 mg/L imposed by national environmental legislation. This suggests that additional biological treatments are still required to deal with the remaining oxidation by-products of MB, still present in the wastewater samples such as 3,7-bis (dimethyl-amino)-10H-phenothiazine 5-oxide.
This work incorporated technological values into Zn2Cr-layered double hydroxide (LDH), synthesized from unused resources, for removal of pyrophosphate (PP) in electroplating wastewater. To adopt a resource recovery for the remediation of the aquatic environment, the Zn2Cr-LDH was fabricated by co-precipitation from concentrated metals of plating waste that remained as industrial by-products from metal finishing processes. To examine its applicability for water treatment, batch experiments were conducted at optimum M2+/M3+, pH, reaction time, and temperature. To understand the adsorption mechanisms of the PP by the adsorbent, the Zn2Cr-LDH was characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses before and after adsorption treatment. An almost complete PP removal was attained by the Zn2Cr-LDH at optimized conditions: 50 mg/L of PP, 1 g/L of adsorbent, pH 6, and 6 h of reaction. Ion exchange controlled the PP removal by the adsorbent at acidic conditions. The PP removal well fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetics and/or the Langmuir isotherm model with 79 mg/g of PP adsorption capacity. The spent Zn2Cr-LDH was regenerated with NaOH with 86% of efficiency for the first cycle. The treated effluents could comply with the discharge limit of <1 mg/L. Overall, the use of the Zn2Cr-LDH as a low-cost adsorbent for wastewater treatment has contributed to national policy that promotes a zero-waste approach for a circular economy (CE) through a resource recovery paradigm.
This study tested the technical feasibility of pyrite and/or persulfate oxidation system for arsenic (As) removal from aqueous solutions. The effects of persulfate on As removal by the pyrite in the integrated treatment were also investigated. Prior to the persulfate addition into the reaction system, the physico-chemical interactions between As and the pyrite alone in aqueous solutions were explored in batch studies. The adsorption mechanisms of As by the adsorbent were also presented. At the same As concentration of 5 mg/L, it was found that As(III) attained a longer equilibrium time (8 h) than As(V) (2 h), while the pyrite worked effectively at pH ranging from 6 to 11. At optimum conditions (0.25 g/L of pyrite, pH 8.0 and 5 mg/L of As(III) concentration), the addition of persulfate (0.5 mM) into the reaction promoted a complete removal of arsenic from the solutions. Consequently, this enabled the treated effluents to meet the arsenic maximum contaminant limit (MCL) of <10 μg/L according to the World Health Organization (WHO)'s requirements. The redox mechanisms, which involved electron transfer from the S22- of the pyrite to Fe3+, supply Fe2+ for persulfate decomposition, oxidizing As(III) to As(V). The sulfur species played roles in the redox cycle of the Fe3+/Fe2+ of the pyrite by giving its electrons, while the As(III) oxidation to As(V) was attributed to the pyrite. Overall, this work reveals the applicability of the pyrite as an adsorbent for water treatment and the importance of persulfate addition to promote a complete As removal from aqueous solutions.
We aim at fabricating a ternary magnetic recyclable Bi2WO6/BiOI@Fe3O4 composite that could be applied for photodegradation of tetracycline (TC) from synthetic wastewater. To identify any changes with respect to the composite's morphology and crystal structure properties, ΧRD, FTIR, FESEM-EDS, PL and VSM analyses are carried out. The effects of Fe3O4 loading ratio on the Bi2WO6/BiOI for TC photodegradation are evaluated, while operational parameters such as pH, reaction time, TC concentration, and photocatalyst's dose are optimized. Removal mechanisms of the TC by the composite and its photodegradation pathways are elaborated. With respect to its performance, under the same optimized conditions (1 g/L of dose; 5 mg/L of TC; pH 7; 3 h of reaction time), the Bi2WO6/BiOI@5%Fe3O4 composite has the highest TC removal (97%), as compared to the Bi2WO6 (63%). After being saturated, the spent photocatalyst could be magnetically separated from solution for subsequent use. In spite of three consecutive cycles with 71% of efficiency, the spent composite still has reasonable photocatalytic activities for reuse. Overall, this suggests that the composite is a promising photocatalyst for TC removal from aqueous solutions.
Methylene blue is a refractory pollutant commonly present in textile wastewater. This study tests the feasibility of TiO2/graphene oxide (GO) composite in enhancing photocatalytic degradation of MB in synthetic wastewater with respect to scientific and engineering aspects. To enhance its removal, we vary the composition of the composite based on the TiO2 weight. Under UV-vis irradiation, the effects of photocatalyst's dose, pH, and reaction time on MB removal by the composites are evaluated under optimum conditions, while any changes in their physico-chemical properties before and after treatment are analyzed by using TEM, SEM, XRD, FTIR and BET. The photodegradation pathways of the target pollutant by the composite and its removal mechanisms are also elaborated. It is found that the same composite with a 1:2 wt ratio of GO/TiO2 has the largest surface area of 104.51 m2/g. Under optimum reactions (0.2 g/L of dose, pH 10, and 5 mg/L of pollutant's concentration), an almost complete MB removal could be attained within 4 h. This result is higher than that of the TiO2 alone (30%) under the same conditions. Since the treated effluents could meet the strict discharge standard limit of ≤0.2 μg/L set by China's regulation, subsequent biological treatments are unnecessary for completing biodegradation of remaining oxidation by-products in the wastewater effluents.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a refractory pollutant presents in water body that possesses serious threats to living organisms. To deal with it, we investigate and evaluate the effectiveness of GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 composite as a novel photocatalyst for BPA removal from aqueous solutions under UV-vis irradiation. To enhance its removal for BPA, the surface of BiOI/Bi2WO6 is modified with graphene oxide (GO). This composite is named as 'GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6'. Changes in its physico-chemical properties after surface modification with GO are characterized by XRD, FTIR, FESEM-EDS, XPS, PL, and BET methods. Optimized conditions of BPA degradation by the composite are determined under identical conditions. Photodegradation pathways of BPA and its removal mechanisms by the same composite are presented. It is obvious that the GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 has demonstrated its potential as a promising photocatalyst for BPA removal under UV-vis irradiation. About 81% of BPA removal is attained by the GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 under optimized conditions (10 mg/L of BPA, 0.5 g/L of dose, pH 7 and 5 h of reaction time). The oxidation by-products of BPA degradation include p-hydroquinone or 4-(1-hydroxy-1-methyl-ethyl)-phenol. In spite of its performance, the treated effluents are still unable to meet the maximum discharge limit of <1 mg/L set by national legislation. Therefore, subsequent biological processes are essential to maximize its biodegradation in the wastewater samples before their discharge into waterbody.
Global food security, which has emerged as one of the sustainability challenges, impacts every country. As food cannot be generated without involving nutrients, research has intensified recently to recover unused nutrients from waste streams. As a finite resource, phosphorus (P) is largely wasted. This work critically reviews the technical applicability of various water technologies to recover macro-nutrients such as P, N, and K from wastewater. Struvite precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, and membrane filtration are applied for nutrient recovery. Technological strengths and drawbacks in their applications are evaluated and compared. Their operational conditions such as pH, dose required, initial nutrient concentration, and treatment performance are presented. Cost-effectiveness of the technologies for P or N recovery is also elaborated. It is evident from a literature survey of 310 published studies (1985-2022) that no single technique can effectively and universally recover target macro-nutrients from liquid waste. Struvite precipitation is commonly used to recover over 95 % of P from sludge digestate with its concentration ranging from 200 to 4000 mg/L. The recovered precipitate can be reused as a fertilizer due to its high content of P and N. Phosphate removal of higher than 80 % can be achieved by struvite precipitation when the molar ratio of Mg2+/PO43- ranges between 1.1 and 1.3. The applications of artificial intelligence (AI) to collect data on critical parameters control optimization, improve treatment effectiveness, and facilitate water utilities to upscale water treatment plants. Such infrastructure in the plants could enable the recovered materials to be reused to sustain food security. As nutrient recovery is crucial in wastewater treatment, water treatment plant operators need to consider (1) the costs of nutrient recovery techniques; (2) their applicability; (3) their benefits and implications. It is essential to note that the treatment cost of P and/or N-laden wastewater depends on the process applied and local conditions.
The recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a significant and topmost global health challenge of today. SARS-CoV-2 can propagate through several direct or indirect means resulting in its exponential spread in short times. Consequently, finding new research based real-world and feasible solutions to interrupt the spread of pathogenic microorganisms is indispensable. It has been established that this virus can survive on a variety of available surfaces ranging from a few hours to a few days, which has increased the risk of COVID-19 spread to large populations. Currently, available surface disinfectant chemicals provide only a temporary solution and are not recommended to be used in the long run due to their toxicity and irritation. Apart from the urgent development of vaccine and antiviral drugs, there is also a need to design and develop surface disinfectant antiviral coatings for long-term applications even for new variants. The unique physicochemical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) have been widely investigated for antimicrobial applications. However, the research work for their use in antimicrobial surface coatings is minimal. This perspective enlightens the scope of using GBNs as antimicrobial/antiviral surface coatings to reduce the spread of transmittable microorganisms, precisely, SARS-CoV-2. This study attempts to demonstrate the synergistic effect of GBNs and metallic nanoparticles (MNPs), for their potential antiviral applications in the development of surface disinfectant coatings. Some proposed mechanisms for the antiviral activity of the graphene family against SARS-CoV-2 has also been explained. It is anticipated that this study will potentially lead to new insights and future trends to develop a framework for further investigation on this research area of pivotal importance to minimize the transmission of current and any future viral outbreaks.
This study investigated physico-chemical interactions among Cu(II), biogenic materials, and Fe2O3 in a continuous-flow biofilm reactor system under a well-controlled environment. The effects of Fe2O3 and bacterial biofilms on the distribution of Cu(II) in a simulated aquatic environment were studied. To control biological and abiotic elements in the marine environment, a biofilm reactor was designed to understand the metal speciation of Cu(II) and its distribution. The reactor consisted of a biofilm chamber equipped with glass slides for biofilms attachment. Due to its ability to grow as biofilm in the medium, Pseudomonas atlantica was cultivated to adsorb trace Cu(II) to attached and suspended cells. It was found that biofilms with 170-285 mequiv chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration/m2 of total oxidizable materials accelerated the Cu(II) adsorption to the surface of the reactor significantly by a factor of five. A significant inhibition to the bacterial growth took place (p ≤ 0.05; t-test) when Cu(II) concentration was higher than 0.5 mg/L. In the absence of Cu(II), bacterial cells grew normally to 0.075 of optical density (OD). However, at the Cu(II) concentration of 0.2 mg/L, the cells grew to a lower OD of 0.58. The presence of glycine and EDTA substantially reduced the toxicity of Cu(II) on bacterial growth (p ≤ 0.05; paired t-test). Their complexation with Cu(II) rendered the metal ions less available to bacterial cells. This implies that the Fe2O3 and bacterial biofilm affected Cu(II) distribution and speciation in the aquatic environment.
Biochar, derived from unused biomass, is widely considered for its potential to deal with climate change problems. Global interest in biochar is attributed to its ability to sequester carbon in soil and to remediate aquatic environment from water pollution. As soil conditioner and/or adsorbent, biochar offers opportunity through a circular economy (CE) paradigm. While energy transition continues, progress toward low-emissions materials accelerates their advance towards net-zero emissions. However, none of existing works addresses CE-based biochar management to achieve carbon neutrality. To reflect its novelty, this work provides a critical overview of challenges and opportunities for biochar to promote CE and carbon neutrality. This article also offers seminal perspectives about strengthening biomass management through CE and resource recovery paradigms, while exploring how the unused biomass can promote net zero emissions in its applications. By consolidating scattered knowledge in the body of literature into one place, this work uncovers new research directions to close the loops by implementing the circularity of biomass resources in various fields. It is conclusive from a literature survey of 113 articles (2003-2023) that biomass conversion into biochar can promote net zero emissions and CE in the framework of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Depending on their physico-chemical properties, biochar can become a suitable feedstock for CE. Biochar application as soil enrichment offsets 12% of CO2 emissions by land use annually. Adding biochar to soil can improve its health and agricultural productivity, while minimizing about 1/8 of CO2 emissions. Biochar can also sequester CO2 in the long-term and prevent the release of carbon back into the atmosphere after its decomposition. This practice could sequester 2.5 gigatons (Gt) of CO2 annually. With the global biochar market reaching USD 368.85 million by 2028, this work facilitates biochar with its versatile characteristics to promote carbon neutrality and CE applications.
Production and extraction systems of algal protein and handling process of functional food ingredients need to control several parameters such as temperature, pH, intensity, and turbidity. Many researchers have investigated the Internet of Things (IoT) approach for enhancing the yield of microalgae biomass and machine learning for identifying and classifying microalgae. However, there have been few specific studies on using IoT and artificial intelligence (AI) for production and extraction of algal protein as well as functional food ingredients processing. In order to improve the production of algal protein and functional food ingredients, the implementation of smart system is a must to have real-time monitoring, remote control system, quick response to sudden events, prediction and characterisation. Techniques of IoT and AI are expected to help functional food industries to have a big breakthrough in the future. Manufacturing and implementation of beneficial smart systems are important to provide convenience and to increase the efficiency of work by using the interconnectivity of IoT devices to have good capturing, processing, archiving, analyzing, and automation. This review investigates the possibilities of implementation of IoT and AI in production and extraction of algal protein and processing of functional food ingredients.
Recently Xiamen (China) has encountered various challenges of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) such as lack of a complete garbage sorting and recycling system, the absence of waste segregation between organic and dry waste at source, and a shortage of complete and clear information about the MSW generated. This article critically analyzes the existing bottlenecks in its waste management system and discusses the way forward for the city to enhance its MSWM by drawing lessons from Hong Kong's effectiveness in dealing with the same problems over the past decades. Solutions to the MSWM problem are not only limited to technological options, but also integrate environmental, legal, and institutional perspectives. The solutions include (1) enhancing source separation and improving recycling system; (2) improving the legislation system of the MSWM; (3) improvement of terminal disposal facilities in the city; (4) incorporating digitization into MSWM; and (5) establishing standards and definitions for recycled products and/or recyclable materials. We also evaluate and compare different aspects of MSWM in Xiamen and Hong Kong SAR (special administrative region) under the framework of 'One Country, Two Systems' concerning environmental policies, generation, composition, characteristics, treatment, and disposal of their MSW. The nexus of society, economics of the MSW, and the environment in the sustainability sphere are established by promoting local recycling industries and the standardization of recycled products and/or recyclable materials. The roles of digitization technologies in the 4th Industrial Revolution for waste reduction in the framework of circular economy (CE) are also elaborated. This technological solution may improve the city's MSWM in terms of public participation in MSW separation through reduction, recycle, reuse, recovery, and repair (5Rs) schemes. To meet top-down policy goals such as a 35% recycling rate for the generated waste by 2030, incorporating digitization into the MSWM provides the city with technology-driven waste solutions.
This study investigated the feasibility of integrated ammonium stripping and/or coconut shell waste-based activated carbon (CSWAC) adsorption in treating leachate samples. To valorize unused biomass for water treatment application, the adsorbent originated from coconut shell waste. To enhance its performance for target pollutants, the adsorbent was pretreated with ozone and NaOH. The effects of pH, temperature, and airflow rate on the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) and refractory pollutants were studied during stripping alone. The removal performances of refractory compounds in this study were compared to those of other treatments previously reported. To contribute new knowledge to the field of study, perspectives on nutrients removal and recovery like phosphorus and nitrogen are presented. It was found that the ammonium stripping and adsorption treatment using the ozonated CSWAC attained an almost complete removal (99%) of NH3-N and 90% of COD with initial NH3-N and COD concentrations of 2500 mg/L and 20,000 mg/L, respectively, at optimized conditions. With the COD of treated effluents higher than 200 mg/L, the combined treatments were not satisfactory enough to remove target refractory compounds. Therefore, further biological processes are required to complete their biodegradation to meet the effluent limit set by environmental legislation. As this work has contributed to resource recovery as the driving force of landfill management, it is important to note the investment and operational expenses, engineering applicability of the technologies, and their environmental concerns and benefits. If properly managed, nutrient recovery from waste streams offers environmental and socio-economic benefits that would improve public health and create jobs for the local community.
This work investigates the performances of coconut shell waste-based activated carbon (CSWAC) adsorption in batch studies for removal of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) and refractory pollutants (as indicated by decreasing COD concentration) from landfill leachate. To valorize unused resources, coconut shell, recovered and recycled from agricultural waste, was converted into activated carbon, which can be used for leachate treatment. The ozonation of the CSWAC was conducted to enhance its removal performance for target pollutants. The adsorption mechanisms of refractory pollutants by the adsorbent are proposed. Perspectives on nutrient recovery technologies from landfill leachate from the view-points of downstream processing are presented. Their removal efficiencies for both recalcitrant compounds and ammoniacal nitrogen were compared to those of other techniques reported in previous work. It is found that the ozonated CSWAC substantially removed COD (i.e. 76%) as well as NH3-N (i.e. 75%), as compared to the CSWAC without pretreatment (i.e. COD: 44%; NH3-N: 51%) with NH3-N and COD concentrations of 2750 and 8500 mg/L, respectively. This reveals the need of ozonation for the adsorbent to improve its performance for the removal of COD and NH3-N at optimized reactions: 30 g/L of CSWAC, pH 8, 200 rpm of shaking speed and 20 min of reaction time. Nevertheless, treatment of the leachate samples using the ozonated CSWAC alone was still unable to result in treated effluents that could meet the COD and NH3-N discharge standards below 200 and 5 mg/L, respectively, set by legislative requirements. This reveals that another treatment is necessary to be undertaken to comply with the requirement of their effluent limit.
We test the feasibility of TiO2(B)@carbon composites as adsorbents, derived from wheat straws, for tetracycline (TC) adsorption from aqueous solutions. Hydrochar (HC), biochar (BC), and hydrochar-derived pyrolysis char (HDPC) are synthesized hydrothermally from the waste and then functionalized with TiO2(B), named as 'Composite-1', 'Composite-2', and 'Composite-3', respectively. A higher loading of TiO2(B) into the HC was also synthesized for comparison, named as 'Composite-4'. To compare their physico-chemical changes before and after surface modification, the composites are characterized using FESEM-EDS, XRD, BET, FRTEM, and FTIR. The effects of H2O2 addition on TC removal are investigated. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms of TC removal are studied, while TC adsorption mechanisms are elaborated. We found that the Composite-4 has the highest TC removal (93%) at pH 7, 1 g/L of dose, and 4 h of reaction time at 50 mg/L of TC after adding H2O2 (10 mM). The TC adsorption capacities of the Composite-1 and Composite-4 are 40.65 and 49.26 mg/g, respectively. The TC removal by the Composite-1 follows the pseudo-second order. Overall, this suggests that converting the wheat straw into HC and then functionalizing its surface with TiO2(B) as a composite has added values to the waste as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment.
Hydrothermal method has been proven to be an effective method to synthesise the nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) with good morphology and uniform distribution at low temperature. Despite of employing a well-known and commonly used glass substrate as the support to hydrothermally synthesise the nanostructured TiO2, this study emphasised on the application of kaolin hollow fibre membrane as the support for the fabrication of kaolin/TiO2 nanorods (TNR) membrane. By varying the hydrothermal reaction times (2 h, 6 h, and 10 h), the different morphology, distribution, and properties of TiO2 nanorods on kaolin support were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was found that the well-dispersed of TiO2 nanorods have improved the surface affinity of kaolin/TNR membrane towards water, allowing kaolin/TNR membrane prepared from 10 h of hydrothermal reaction to exhibit the highest water permeation of 165 L/h.m2.bar. In addition, this prepared membrane also showed the highest photocatalytic activity of 80.3% in the decolourisation of reactive black 5 (RB5) under UV irradiation. On top of that, the kaolin/TNR membrane prepared from 10 h of hydrothermal reaction also exhibited a good resistance towards photocorrosion, enabling the reuse of this membrane for three consecutive cycles of photocatalytic degradation of RB5 without showing significant reduction in photocatalytic efficiency towards the decolourisation of RB5.
Acetaminophen (Ace) is a trace pollutant widely found in sewage treatment plant (STP) wastewater. We test the feasibility of coconut shell waste, a low cost adsorbent from coconut industry, for removing Ace from synthetic solution in a fixed-bed column adsorption. To enhance its performance, the surface of granular activated carbon (GAC) was pre-treated with NaOH, HNO3, ozone, and/or chitosan respectively. The results show that the chemical modification of the GAC's surface with various chemicals has enhanced its Ace removal during the column operations. Among the modified adsorbents, the ozone-treated GAC stands out for the highest Ace adsorption capacity (38.2 mg/g) under the following conditions: 40 mg/L of Ace concentration, 2 mL/min of flow rate, 45 cm of bed depth. Both the Thomas and the Yoon-Nelson models are applicable to simulate the experimental results of the column operations with their adsorption capacities: ozone-treated GAC (20.88 mg/g) > chitosan-coated GAC (16.67 mg/g) > HNO3-treated GAC (11.09 mg/g) > NaOH-treated GAC (7.57 mg/g) > as-received GAC (2.84 mg/g). This suggests that the ozone-treated GAC is promising and suitable for Ace removal in a fixed-bed reactor.
Due to its increasing demands for fossil fuels, Indonesia needs an alternative energy to diversify its energy supply. Landfill gas (LFG), which key component is methane (CH4), has become one of the most attractive options to sustain its continued economic development. This exploratory study seeks to demonstrate the added value of landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) in generating sustainable energy, resulting from CH4 emissions in the Bantargebang landfill (Jakarta). The power generation capacity of a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant based on a mathematical modeling was investigated. This article critically evaluated the production of electricity and potential income from its sale in the market. The project's environmental impact assessment and its socio-economic and environmental benefits in terms of quantitative and qualitative aspects were discussed. It was found that the emitted CH4 from the landfill could be reduced by 25,000 Mt annually, while its electricity generation could reach one million kW ⋅h annually, savings on equivalent electricity charge worth US$ 112 million/year (based on US' 8/kW ⋅ h). An equivalent CO2 mitigation of 3.4 × 106 Mt/year was obtained. The income from its power sale were US$ 1.2 ×106 in the 1st year and 7.7 ×107US$ in the 15th year, respectively, based on the projected CH4 and power generation. The modeling study on the Bantargebang landfill using the LFG extraction data indicated that the LFG production ranged from 0.05 to 0.40 m3 per kg of the landfilled MSW. The LFG could generate electricity as low as US' 8 per kW ⋅ h. With respect to the implications of this study, the revenue not only defrays the cost of landfill's operations and maintenance (O&M), but also provides an incentive and means to further improve its design and operations. Overall, this work not only leads to a diversification of primary energy, but also improves environmental protection and the living standard of the people surrounding the plant.
Over the past years, Indonesia, the world's fourth most populous country, has confronted environmental problems due to uncontrolled generation of municipal solid waste (MSW). While the integrated solid waste management (ISWM) represents a critical strategy for Indonesia to control its production, it is also recognized that economic approaches also need to be promoted to address the waste problem concertedly. In this case study, empirical approaches are developed to understand how a volume-based waste fee could be incorporated into MSW collection services and how to apply a zero-waste approach in Indonesia by adapting resource recovery initiatives, adapted from Germany's mature experiences in integrating the CE paradigm into the latter's MSWM practices. Currently, Sukunan village (Yogyakarta, Indonesia) promotes waste reduction at sources in the framework of community-based solid waste management (CBSWM) by mobilizing the local community for waste separation (organic and non-organic) and waste recycling. As a result, about 0.2 million Mt of CO2-eq emissions was avoided annually from local landfills. The economic benefits of recycling activities by the village's community also resulted in 30% reduction of the waste generated. This CBSWM scheme not only saves the government budget on waste collection, transport and disposal, but also extends the lifetime of local landfills as the final disposal sites. By integrating the CE paradigm into its MSWM practices through the implementation of economic instruments and adherence to the rule of law in the same way as Germany does, Indonesia could make positive changes to its environmental policy and regulation of MSW. A sound MSWM in Indonesia could play important roles in promoting the effectiveness of urban development with resource recovery approaches to facilitate its transition towards a CE nationwide in the long-term.
The generation of microplastics (MPs) has increased recently and become an emerging issue globally. Due to their long-term durability and capability of traveling between different habitats in air, water, and soil, MPs presence in freshwater ecosystem threatens the environment with respect to its quality, biotic life, and sustainability. Although many previous works have been undertaken on the MPs pollution in the marine system recently, none of the study has covered the scope of MPs pollution in the freshwater. To consolidate scattered knowledge in the literature body into one place, this work identifies the sources, fate, occurrence, transport pathways, and distribution of MPs pollution in the aquatic system with respect to their impacts on biotic life, degradation, and detection techniques. This article also discusses the environmental implications of MPs pollution in the freshwater ecosystems. Certain techniques for identifying MPs and their limitations in applications are presented. Through a literature survey of over 276 published articles (2000-2023), this study presents an overview of solutions to the MP pollution, while identifying research gaps in the body of knowledge for further work. It is conclusive from this review that the MPs exist in the freshwater due to an improper littering of plastic waste and its degradation into smaller particles. Approximately 15-51 trillion MP particles have accumulated in the oceans with their weight ranging between 93,000 and 236,000 metric ton (Mt), while about 19-23 Mt of plastic waste was released into rivers in 2016, which was projected to increase up to 53 Mt by 2030. A subsequent degradation of MPs in the aquatic environment results in the generation of NPs with size ranging from 1 to 1000 nm. It is expected that this work facilitates stakeholders to understand the multi-aspects of MPs pollution in the freshwater and recommends policy actions to implement sustainable solutions to this environmental problem.