Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 41 in total

  1. Sellappans R, Lai PS, Ng CJ
    BMJ Open, 2015 Aug 27;5(8):e007817.
    PMID: 26316648 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-007817
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the challenges faced by primary care physicians (PCPs) when prescribing medications for patients with chronic diseases in a teaching hospital in Malaysia.
    DESIGN/SETTING: 3 focus group discussions were conducted between July and August 2012 in a teaching primary care clinic in Malaysia. A topic guide was used to facilitate the discussions which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic approach.
    PARTICIPANTS: PCPs affiliated to the primary care clinic were purposively sampled to include a range of clinical experience. Sample size was determined by thematic saturation of the data.
    RESULTS: 14 family medicine trainees and 5 service medical officers participated in this study. PCPs faced difficulties in prescribing for patients with chronic diseases due to a lack of communication among different healthcare providers. Medication changes made by hospital specialists, for example, were often not communicated to the PCPs leading to drug duplications and interactions. The use of paper-based medical records and electronic prescribing created a dual record system for patients' medications and became a problem when the 2 records did not tally. Patients sometimes visited different doctors and pharmacies for their medications and this resulted in the lack of continuity of care. PCPs also faced difficulties in addressing patients' concerns, and dealing with patients' medication requests and adherence issues. Some PCPs lacked time and knowledge to advise patients about their medications and faced difficulties in managing side effects caused by the patients' complex medication regimen.
    CONCLUSIONS: PCPs faced prescribing challenges related to patients, their own practice and the local health system when prescribing for patients with chronic diseases. These challenges must be addressed in order to improve chronic disease management in primary care and, more importantly, patient safety.
    Study site: Primary care clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  2. Sellappans R, Ng CJ, Lai PS
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2015 Dec;37(6):1242-9.
    PMID: 26408408 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-015-0200-6
    BACKGROUND: Establishing a collaborative working relationship between doctors and pharmacists is essential for the effective provision of pharmaceutical care. The Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Index (PPCI) was developed to assess the professional exchanges between doctors and pharmacists. Two versions of the PPCI was developed: one for physicians and one for pharmacists. However, these instruments have not been validated in Malaysia.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity and reliability of the PPCI for physicians in Malaysia.

    SETTING: An urban tertiary hospital in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This prospective study was conducted from June to August 2014. Doctors were grouped as either a "collaborator" or a "non-collaborator". Collaborators were doctors who regularly worked with one particular clinical pharmacist in their ward, while non-collaborators were doctors who interacted with any random pharmacist who answered the general pharmacy telephone line whenever they required assistance on medication-related enquiries, as they did not have a clinical pharmacist in their ward. Collaborators were firstly identified by the clinical pharmacist he/she worked with, then invited to participate in this study through email, as it was difficult to locate and approach them personally. Non-collaborators were sampled conveniently by approaching them in person as these doctors could be easily sampled from any wards without a clinical pharmacist. The PPCI for physicians was administered at baseline and 2 weeks later.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Validity (face validity, factor analysis and discriminative validity) and reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) of the PPCI for physicians.

    RESULTS: A total of 116 doctors (18 collaborators and 98 non-collaborators) were recruited. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that the PPCI for physicians was a 3-factor model. The correlation of the mean domain scores ranged from 0.711 to 0.787. "Collaborators" had significantly higher scores compared to "non-collaborators" (81.4 ± 10.1 vs. 69.3 ± 12.1, p < 0.001). The Cronbach alpha for the overall PPCI for physicians was 0.949, while the Cronbach alpha values for the individual domains ranged from 0.877 to 0.926. Kappa values at test-retest ranged from 0.553 to 0.752.

    CONCLUSION: The PPCI for physicians was a valid and reliable measure in determining doctors' views about collaborative working relationship with pharmacists, in Malaysia.

  3. Ngeow YS, Puthucheary SD, Lai PS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1985 Sep;40(3):196-201.
    PMID: 3939567
    170 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested for in vitro susceptibility to gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin, netilmicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, moxalactam, azlocillin, piperacillin and ticarcillin. Against 93 gentamicin-sensitive strains, the most active antibiotics were in descending order, ceftazidime, tobramycin, gentamicin, amikacin, and the ureidopenicillins. Against 77 gentamicin-resistant strains, only ceftazidime, amikacin and moxalactam had mode minimum inhibitory concentrations within achievable peak serum levels after standard therapeutic dosage. There was no correlation between cephalosporin resistance and aminoglycoside resistance except for cefoperazone, which, together with the ureidopenicillins and ticarcillin, showed marked decrease in activity against gentamicin-resistant strains.
  4. Chung WW, Chua SS, Lai PS, Morisky DE
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(4):e0124275.
    PMID: 25909363 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124275
    Medication non-adherence is a prevalent problem worldwide but up to today, no gold standard is available to assess such behavior. This study was to evaluate the psychometric properties, particularly the concurrent validity of the English version of the Malaysian Medication Adherence Scale (MALMAS) among people with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia. Individuals with type 2 diabetes, aged 21 years and above, using at least one anti-diabetes agent and could communicate in English were recruited. The MALMAS was compared with the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) to assess its convergent validity while concurrent validity was evaluated based on the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C). Participants answered the MALMAS twice: at baseline and 4 weeks later. The study involved 136 participants. The MALMAS achieved acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.565) and stable reliability as the test-retest scores showed fair correlation (Spearman's rho=0.412). The MALMAS has good correlation with the MMAS-8 (Spearman's rho=0.715). Participants who were adherent to their anti-diabetes medications had significantly lower median HbA1C values than those who were non-adherence (7.90 versus 8.55%, p=0.032). The odds of participants who were adherent to their medications achieving good glycemic control was 3.36 times (95% confidence interval: 1.09-10.37) of those who were non-adherence. This confirms the concurrent validity of the MALMAS. The sensitivity of the MALMAS was 88.9% while its specificity was 29.6%. The findings of this study further substantiates the reliability and validity of the MALMAS, in particular its concurrent validity and sensitivity for assessing medication adherence of people with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia.
  5. Chung WW, Chua SS, Lai PS, Chan SP
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2014;8:1185-94.
    PMID: 25214772 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S66619
    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a lifelong chronic condition that requires self-management. Lifestyle modification and adherence to antidiabetes medications are the major determinants of therapeutic success in the management of diabetes.
    Purpose: To assess the effects of a pharmaceutical care (PC) model on medication adherence and glycemic levels of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Patients and methods: A total of 241 people with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a major teaching hospital in Malaysia and allocated at random to the control (n=121) or intervention (n=120) groups. Participants in the intervention group received PC from an experienced pharmacist, whereas those in the control group were provided the standard pharmacy service. Medication adherence was assessed using the Malaysian Medication Adherence Scale, and glycemic levels (glycated hemoglobin values and fasting blood glucose [FBG]) of participants were obtained at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 months.
    Results: At baseline, there were no significant differences in demographic data, medication adherence, and glycemic levels between participants in the control and intervention groups. However, statistically significant differences in FBG and glycated hemoglobin values were observed between the control and intervention groups at months 4, 8, and 12 after the provision of PC (median FBG, 9.0 versus 7.2 mmol/L [P<0.001]; median glycated hemoglobin level, 9.1% versus 8.0% [P0.001] at 12 months). Medication adherence was also significantly associated with the provision of PC, with a higher proportion in the intervention group than in the control group achieving it (75.0% versus 58.7%; P=0.007).
    Conclusion: The provision of PC has positive effects on medication adherence as well as the glycemic control of people with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the PC model used in this study should be duplicated in other health care settings for the benefit of more patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Keywords: pharmaceutical care, medication adherence, glycemic control, type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Study site: major teaching hospital in Malaysia
  6. Lai PS, Chua SS, Chan SP
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2013 Aug;35(4):629-37.
    PMID: 23677816 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-013-9784-x
    BACKGROUND: This study describes the analysis of secondary outcomes from a previously published randomised controlled trial, which assessed the effects of pharmaceutical care on medication adherence, persistence and bone turnover markers. The main focus of this manuscript is the effect of the provision of pharmaceutical care on these secondary outcomes, and details on the design of the intervention provided, the osteoporosis care plan and materials used to deliver the intervention.
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on knowledge, quality of life (QOL) and satisfaction of postmenopausal osteoporotic women prescribed bisphosphonates, and their associating factors.
    SETTING: Randomised controlled trial, performed at an osteoporosis clinic of a tertiary hospital in Malaysia.
    METHODS: Postmenopausal women diagnosed with osteoporosis (T-score ≤-2.5/lowtrauma fracture), just been prescribed weekly alendronate/risedronate were randomly allocated to receive intervention or standard care (controls). Intervention participants received a medication review, education on osteoporosis, risk factors, lifestyle modifications, goals of therapy, side effects and the importance of medication adherence at months 0, 3, 6 and 12.
    MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURE: Knowledge, QOL and satisfaction.
    RESULTS: A total of 198 postmenopausal osteoporotic women were recruited: intervention = 100 and control = 98. Intervention participants reported significantly higher knowledge scores at months 3 (72.50 vs. 62.50 %), 6 (75.00 vs. 65.00 %) and 12 (78.75 vs. 68.75 %) compared to control participants. QOL scores were also lower (which indicates better QOL) at months 3 (29.33 vs. 38.41), 6 (27.50 vs. 36.56) and 12 (27.53 vs. 37.56) compared to control participants. Similarly, satisfaction score was higher in intervention participants (93.67 vs. 84.83 %). More educated women, with back pain, who were provided pharmaceutical care had better knowledge levels. Similarly, older, more educated women, with previous falls and back pain tend to have poorer QOL, whilst women who exercised more frequently and were provided pharmaceutical care had better QOL. Satisfaction also increased as QOL increases and when provided pharmaceutical care.
    CONCLUSION: The provision of pharmaceutical care improved knowledge, QOL and satisfaction in Malaysian postmenopausal osteoporotic women, showing that pharmacists have the potential to improve patients' overall bone health. Policymakers should consider placing a clinical pharmacist in the osteoporosis clinic to provide counselling to improve these outcomes.
    Study site: Osteoporosis clinics, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  7. Lai PS, Chua SS, Chan SP
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2012 Oct;37(5):536-43.
    PMID: 22380577 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2012.01335.x
    Pharmacists have been involved in providing comprehensive interventions to osteoporosis patients, but pharmaceutical care issues (PCIs) encountered during such interventions have not been well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to document PCIs encountered by post-menopausal osteoporotic women prescribed bisphosphonates.
  8. Lai PS, Chua SS, Tan CH, Chan SP
    PMID: 22361093 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-12-18
    Patient's knowledge on diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia and its medications can be used as one of the outcome measures to assess the effectiveness of educational intervention. To date, no such instrument has been validated in Malaysia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Diabetes, Hypertension and Hyperlipidemia (DHL) knowledge instrument for assessing the knowledge of patients with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia.
  9. Nik J, Lai PS, Ng CJ, Emmerton L
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2016 08 30;16:448.
    PMID: 27577560 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-016-1686-x
    BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis has significant impact on healthcare costs and quality of life. Amongst the models for collaborative disease state management services published internationally, there is sparse evidence regarding the role of community pharmacists in the provision of osteoporosis care. Hence, the aim of our study was to explore community pharmacists' opinions (including the barriers and facilitators) and scope of osteoporosis disease state management services by community pharmacists in Malaysia, informing a vision for developing these services.

    METHODS: Semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups discussions were conducted with community pharmacists from October 2013 to July 2014. Three trained researchers interviewed the participants. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed thematically using an interpretative description approach.

    RESULTS: Nineteen community pharmacists with 1-23 years of experience were recruited (in depth interviews: n = 9; focus group discussions: n = 10). These participants reflected on their experience with osteoporosis-related enquiries, which included medication counseling, bone density screening and referral of at-risk patients. Key barriers were the lack of numerous factors: public awareness of osteoporosis, accurate osteoporosis screening tools for community pharmacists, pharmacists' knowledge on osteoporosis disease and medications, time to counsel patients about bone health, collaboration between pharmacists and doctors, and support from the government and professional body. The pharmacists wanted more continuing education on osteoporosis, osteoporosis awareness campaigns, a simple, unbiased osteoporosis education material, and inter-professional collaboration practices with doctors, and pharmacists' reimbursement for osteoporosis care.

    CONCLUSIONS: The involvement of community pharmacists in the provision of osteoporosis disease state management was minimal. Only ad-hoc counseling on osteoporosis prevention was performed by community pharmacists. Development and trial of collaborative osteoporosis disease state management services in community pharmacy could be facilitated by training, support and remuneration.
  10. Lai PS, Tan SY, Liew SM
    Arch Sex Behav, 2016 Nov;45(8):2081-2089.
    PMID: 27502351 DOI: 10.1007/s10508-016-0796-1
    Sociocultural factors have been shown to be important influencers of sexual health and sexuality. Hence, the aim of our study was to explore the views and experiences of family medicine trainees regarding female sexual dysfunction (FSD) with a focus on the barriers and facilitators towards the initiation of conversation on this topic. A qualitative study design involving semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs) was conducted with 19 family medicine trainees in Malaysia. The conceptual framework used was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Participants perceived FSD as being uncommon and unimportant. According to our participants, patients often presented with indirect complaints, and doctors were not proactive in asking about FSD. Three main barriers were identified: doctor factors, perceived patient factors, and system factors. Lack of confidence, knowledge, experience, time, and embarrassment were the key barriers identified at the doctors' level. Lack of awareness, among patients regarding FSD, and local cultural and religious norms were the perceived patient barriers. System barriers were lack of time and privacy. Various facilitators, such as continuous medical education and public forums, were suggested as means to encourage family medicine trainees to initiate discussion on sexual matters during consultations. In conclusion, family medicine trainees found it difficult to initiate conversation on FSD with patients. Interventions to encourage conversation on FSD should target this and other identified barriers.
  11. Lai PS, Mohd Mudri S, Chinna K, Othman S
    BMC Med Ethics, 2016 10 18;17(1):61.
    PMID: 27756366
    BACKGROUND: Advance care planning is a voluntary process whereby individual preferences, values and beliefs are used to aid a person in planning for end-of-life care. Currently, there is no local instrument to assess an individual's awareness and attitude towards advance care planning. This study aimed to develop an Advance Care Planning Questionnaire and to determine its validity and reliability among older people in Malaysia.

    METHODS: The Advance Care Planning Questionnaire was developed based on literature review. Face and content validity was verified by an expert panel, and piloted among 15 participants. Our study was conducted from October 2013 to February 2014, at an urban primary care clinic in Malaysia. Included were those aged >50 years, who could understand English. A retest was conducted 2 weeks after the first administration.

    RESULTS: Participants from the pilot study did not encounter any problems in answering the Advance Care Planning Questionnaire. Hence, no further modifications were made. Flesch reading ease was 71. The final version of the Advance Care Planning Questionnaire consists of 66 items: 30 items were measured on a nominal scale, whilst 36 items were measured on a Likert-like scale; of which we were only able to validate 22 items, as the remaining 14 items were descriptive in nature. A total of 245 eligible participants were approached; of which 230 agreed to participate (response rate = 93.9 %). Factor analysis on the 22 items measured on a Likert-scale revealed four domains: "feelings regarding advance care planning", "justifications for advance care planning", "justifications for not having advance care planning: fate and religion", and "justifications for not having advance care planning: avoid thinking about death". The Cronbach's alpha values for items each domain ranged from 0.637-0.915. In test-retest, kappa values ranged from 0.738-0.947.

    CONCLUSIONS: The final Advance Care Planning Questionnaire consisted of 63 items and 4 domains. It was found to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess the awareness and attitude of older people in Malaysia towards advance care planning.
  12. Siow JY, Lai PS, Chua SS, Chan SP
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2009 Oct;17(5):305-11.
    PMID: 20214273
    In recent years, the usage of activated vitamin D (alpha-calcidol and calcitriol) in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) has escalated and this has put unnecessary burden on the hospital's limited health care budget. The main aim of this study was to determine the effects of a clinical pharmacist's intervention in reducing the inappropriate use of activated vitamin D.
  13. Lai PS, Chua SS, Chong YH, Chan SP
    Curr Med Res Opin, 2012 Aug;28(8):1347-55.
    PMID: 22746354 DOI: 10.1185/03007995.2012.708326
    Generic medicines are often used in public hospitals. However, data on the quality of generic alendronate, its efficacy, side-effects and medication adherence in clinical practice is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the side-effects and medication adherence of generic (apo-alendronate*) and proprietary alendronate (Fosamax†).
  14. Lai PS, Chua SS, Chan SP, Low WY
    Maturitas, 2008 Jun 20;60(2):122-30.
    PMID: 18508210 DOI: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2008.04.006
    OBJECTIVES: To design a valid and reliable questionnaire, the Malaysian Osteoporosis Knowledge Tool (MOKT), to assess the knowledge of postmenopausal osteoporotic women in Malaysia, on osteoporosis and its treatment.
    METHODS: A 40-item instrument was designed and tested in this study. The scores ranged from 1 to 40, which were then converted into percentage. This was administered to 88 postmenopausal osteoporotic women who were taking alendronate (patient group) and 43 pharmacists (professional group). The MOKT was administered again to the patient group after 1 month.
    RESULTS: Flesch reading ease was 57, which is satisfactory, while the mean difficulty factor+/-S.D. was 0.73+/-0.25, indicating that the MOKT is moderately easy. Internal consistency of the instrument was good with Cronbach's alpha=0.82. The test and retest scores showed no significant difference for 38 out of the 40 items, indicating that the questionnaire has achieved a stable reliability. Level of knowledge on osteoporosis and its treatment was good with a mean score+/-S.D. of 69.0+/-13.9 and 81.6+/-9.5 in the patient and professional group, respectively. The difference in knowledge scores between the two groups was statistically significant (p<0.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the 40-item questionnaire (MOKT) is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring knowledge on osteoporosis in the Malaysian setting. Therefore, it can be used to identify individuals in need of educational interventions and to assess the effectiveness of education efforts as part of osteoporosis management.
  15. Lai PS, Chua SS, Chew YY, Chan SP
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2011 Oct;36(5):557-67.
    PMID: 21916908 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2010.01210.x
    Studies have shown that comprehensive interventions by pharmacists can improve adherence and persistence to osteoporosis therapy, but the association between adherence and bone turnover markers (BTMs) has never been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on medication adherence (and its effects on BTMs), as well as persistence of postmenopausal osteoporotic women to prescribed bisphosphonates.
  16. Chin YW, Lai PS, Chia YC
    BMC Fam Pract, 2017 02 20;18(1):25.
    PMID: 28219325 DOI: 10.1186/s12875-017-0601-9
    BACKGROUND: Several disease specific instruments have been developed to identify and assess diabetes distress. In Malaysia, the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale has been validated in Malay, but it does not have specific domains to assess the different areas of diabetes-related distress. Hence, we decided to use the Diabetes Distress Scale instead. To date, only the Malay version of the Diabetes Distress Scale has been validated in Malaysia. However, English is widely spoken by Malaysians, and is an important second language in Malaysia. Therefore, our aim was to determine the validity and reliability of the English version of the Diabetes Distress Scale among patients with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia.

    METHODS: The Diabetes Distress Scale was administered to 114 patients with type 2 diabetes, who could understand English, at baseline and 4 weeks later, at a primary care clinic in Malaysia. To assess for convergent validity, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale was administered at baseline. Discriminative validity was assessed by analysing the total diabetes distress scores of participants with poor (HbA1c > 7.0%) and good glycaemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7.0%).

    RESULTS: The majority of our participants were male 65(57.0%), with a median duration of diabetes of 9.5 years. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the Diabetes Distress Scale had 4 subscales, as per the original Diabetes Distress Scale. The overall Cronbach's α was 0.920 (range = 0.784-0.859 for each subscale). The intraclass correlation ranged from 0.436 to 0.643 for test-retest. The Diabetes Distress Scale subscales were significantly correlated with the different subscales of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (spearman's rho range = 0.427-0.509, p 
  17. Wasant P, Padilla C, Lam S, Thong MK, Lai PS
    Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet, 2019 06;181(2):155-165.
    PMID: 31050142 DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31701
    Putting together the reports in this issue that come from a representation of the different countries in Asia presents an opportunity to share the unique story of the Asia Pacific Society of Human Genetics (APSHG), which has provided the authors of many of these articles. This paper, authored by the Past Presidents of the Society, shares glimpses of how medical genetics activities were first organized in the Asia Pacific region and provides interesting corollaries on how under-developed and developing countries in this part of the world had developed a unique network for exchange and sharing of expertise and resources. Although APSHG was formally registered as a Society in Singapore in 2006, the Society has its origins as far back as in the 1990s with members from different countries meeting informally, exchanging ideas, and collaborating. This treatise documents the story of the experiences of the Society and hopes it will provide inspiration on how members of a genetics community can foster and build a thriving environment to promote this field.
  18. Ng CJ, Lai PS, Lee YK, Azmi SA, Teo CH
    Int. J. Clin. Pract., 2015 Oct;69(10):1050-70.
    PMID: 26147376 DOI: 10.1111/ijcp.12691
    AIM: To identify the barriers and facilitators to start insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes.
    METHOD: This was a systematic review. We conducted a systematic search using PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Web of Science (up to 5 June 2014) for original English articles using the terms 'type 2 diabetes', 'insulin', and free texts: 'barrier' or 'facilitate' and 'initiate'. Two pairs of reviewers independently assessed and extracted the data. Study quality was assessed with Qualsyst.
    RESULTS: A total of 9740 references were identified: 41 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Twenty-five articles (15 qualitative, 10 quantitative) were included in the review. Good inter-rater reliability was observed for the Qualsyst score (weighted kappa 0.7). Three main themes identified were as follows: patient-related, healthcare professional and system factors. The main patient-related barriers were fear of pain and injection (n = 18), concerns about side effects of insulin (n = 12), perception that insulin indicated end stage of diabetes (n = 11), inconvenience (n = 10), difficulty in insulin administration (n = 7), punishment (n = 7) and stigma and discrimination (n = 7). Healthcare professionals' barriers were as follows: poor knowledge and skills (n = 9), physician inertia (n = 5) and language barriers (n = 4). System barriers included lack of time (n = 5). The most common facilitators were understanding the benefits of insulin (n = 7), not being afraid of injections (n = 5), and patient education and information (n = 5).
    CONCLUSION: Major barriers to insulin initiation persist despite availability of newer and safer insulin. Healthcare professionals should explore and address these barriers. Targeted interventions should be developed to overcome these barriers.
  19. Lai PS, Khoo LS, Mohd Hilmi S, Ahmad Hafizam H, Mohd Shah M, Nurliza A, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2015 Aug;37(2):123-35.
    PMID: 26277669 MyJurnal
    Skeletal examination is an important aspect of forensic pathology practice, requiring effective bone cleaning with minimal artefact. This study was conducted to compare between chemical and entomology methods of bone cleaning. Ten subjects between 20 and 40 years old who underwent uncomplicated medico-legal autopsies at the Institute of Forensic Medicine Malaysia were randomly chosen for this descriptive cross sectional study. The sternum bone was divided into 4 parts, each part subjected to a different cleaning method, being two chemical approaches i.e. laundry detergent and a combination of 6% hydrogen peroxide and powder sodium bicarbonate and two entomology approaches using 2nd instar maggots of Chrysomyia rufifacies and Ophyra spinigera. A scoring system for grading the outcome of cleaning was used. The effectiveness of the methods was evaluated based on average weight reduction per day and median number of days to achieve the average score of less than 1.5 within 12 days of the bone cleaning process. Using maggots was the most time-effective and costeffective method, achieving an average weight reduction of 1.4 gm per day, a median of 11.3 days to achieve the desired score and an average cost of MYR 4.10 per case to reach the desired score within 12 days. This conclusion was supported by blind validation by forensic specialists achieving a 77.8% preference for maggots. Emission scanning electron microscopy evaluation also revealed that maggots especially Chrysomyia rufifacies preserved the original condition of the bones better allowing improved elucidation of bone injuries in future real cases.
  20. Abdullah A, Liew SM, Hanafi NS, Ng CJ, Lai PS, Chia YC, et al.
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2016;10:99-106.
    PMID: 26869773 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S94687
    BACKGROUND: Telemonitoring of home blood pressure (BP) is found to have a positive effect on BP control. Delivering a BP telemonitoring service in primary care offers primary care physicians an innovative approach toward management of their patients with hypertension. However, little is known about patients' acceptance of such service in routine clinical care.
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore patients' acceptance of a BP telemonitoring service delivered in primary care based on the technology acceptance model (TAM).
    METHODS: A qualitative study design was used. Primary care patients with uncontrolled office BP who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled into a BP telemonitoring service offered between the period August 2012 and September 2012. This service was delivered at an urban primary care clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Twenty patients used the BP telemonitoring service. Of these, 17 patients consented to share their views and experiences through five in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions. An interview guide was developed based on the TAM. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used for analysis.
    RESULTS: Patients found the BP telemonitoring service easy to use but struggled with the perceived usefulness of doing so. They expressed confusion in making sense of the monitored home BP readings. They often thought about the implications of these readings to their hypertension management and overall health. Patients wanted more feedback from their doctors and suggested improvement to the BP telemonitoring functionalities to improve interactions. Patients cited being involved in research as the main reason for their intention to use the service. They felt that patients with limited experience with the internet and information technology, who worked out of town, or who had an outdoor hobby would not be able to benefit from such a service.
    CONCLUSION: Patients found BP telemonitoring service in primary care easy to use but needed help to interpret the meanings of monitored BP readings. Implementations of BP telemonitoring service must tackle these issues to maximize the patients' acceptance of a BP telemonitoring service.
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