Four new species of black flies are described, and three others are reported as newly recorded, based on adults reared from pupae, pupae and larvae collected in and near Tam Dao National Park, Vinh Phuc Province, Vietnam. New species include Simulium (Gomphostilbia) hongthaii sp. nov., S. (G.) tamdaoense sp. nov. (both species placed in the asakoae species-group), S. (Simulium) taythienense sp. nov. and S. (S.) xuandai sp. nov. (the two latter species placed in the striatum species-group). Newly recorded species are S. (G.) brinchangense Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Hashim, S. (Nevermannia) aureohirtum Brunetti and S. (S.) brevipar Takaoka & Davies. These discoveries increase the number of species of black flies known in Vietnam from 21 to 28.
Three new species of black flies, Simulium (Nevermannia) langbiangense, S. (N.) phami, and S. (N.) bachmaense, are described on the basis of females, males, pupae and larvae collected in Vietnam. All three species are assigned to the Simulium feuerborni species-group of Simulium (Nevermannia). Simulium (N.) langbiangense sp. nov. is characterized by the female sensory vesicle with a large opening, and a short common basal stalk of the six pupal gill filaments, S. (N.) phami sp. nov. is most striking in having the pupal gill with five filaments, a character not reported in species of the S. feuerborni species-group, and S. (N.) bachmaense sp. nov. is characterized by the female genital fork with a triangular lobe-like projection pointed posteromedially on each arm, and the small larval postgenal cleft. This represents the first record of the S. feuerborni species-group from Vietnam.
The aim of the present study was to determine the vertical distribution and abundance of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ovitrap surveillance was conducted for 4 continuous weeks in multiple storey buildings in 4 residential areas located in Selangor [Kg. Baiduri (KB)] and Kuala Lumpur [Student Hostel of University of Malaya (UM), Kg. Kerinchi (KK) and Hang Tuah (HT)]. The results implied that Aedes mosquitoes could be found from ground floor to highest floor of multiple storey buildings and data from different elevation did not show significant difference. Ovitrap index for UM, KB, HT and KK ranged from 0 - 29.17%, 0 - 55.56%, 8.33 - 83.33% and 0 - 91.17% respectively. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were found breeding in HT, KK and KB; while only Ae. albopictus was obtained from UM. The results indicate that the invasion of Aedes mosquitoes in high-rise apartments could facilitate the transmission of dengue virus and new approaches to vector control in this type of residential area should be developed.
The bioefficacy of nine commercial formulations of temephos against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were evaluated in the laboratory. WHO larval bioassay with operational dosage of temephos at 1 mg/L was performed. The larval mortality was recorded every 5 minutes until complete mortality was achieved. All formulations of temephos exhibited various toxicity level against Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Generally, larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus was susceptible to all formulations of temephos, followed by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.
Susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse larvae obtained from 12 states in Malaysia were evaluated against five insect growth regulators (IGRs), namely, pyriproxyfen, methoprene, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron under laboratory conditions. Field populations of Ae. aegypti exhibited moderate resistance toward methoprene and low resistance toward pyriproxyfen, with resistance ratios of 12.7 and 1.4, respectively, but susceptibility to diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron. On the other hand, field populations of Ae. albopictus exhibited low resistance against diflubenzuron and novaluron, with resistance ratio of 2.1 and 1.0, respectively, but susceptibility to other tested IGRs. Our study concluded that the tested IGRs provide promising results and can be used to control field population of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, especially cyromazine. The use of IGR should be considered as an alternative when larvae develop resistance to conventional insecticides.
Species of the Simulium (Simulium) melanopus species-group in Sabah are taxonomically revised by examining type specimens of S. (S.) crassimanum S. (S.) laterale, and S. (S.) nigripilosum, all described from females by Edwards in 1933, and newly collected samples from the vicinity of Mt. Kinabalu. The females of these three species are redescribed, and their males and pupae are described for the first time based on adults reared from pupae. Simulium (S.) liewi Takaoka, 2007 and S. (S.) kinabaluense Smart & Clifford, 1969 are synonymized with S. (S.) crassimanum and S. (S.) laterale, respectively. Simulium (S.) cheedhangi Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Ya'cob, 2015 is newly recorded from Sabah. Two new related species, S. (S.) lardizabalae and S. (S.) timpohonense, are described from males reared from pupae. Keys to identify eight species of the S. melanopus species-group in Sabah are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.
Surveys of pupae and larvae of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) were carried out in Thua Thien Hue Province of central Vietnam, and Lam Dong Province of southern Vietnam in 2014. A total of 26 species belonging to the genus Simulium were collected, consisting of eight known species, one newly recorded species, and 17 new species (of which three species of the subgenus Nevermannia were described in 2014). The remaining 14 new species (nine of the subgenus Gomphostilbia and five of the subgenus Simulium) are described here based on females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The total number of species of black flies in Vietnam is now 46. Keys to identify all 26 species recorded from the two provinces of Vietnam are given for females, males, pupae and mature larvae.
A total of 29 female black flies were captured by a hand net as they swarmed around humans in Tam Dao National Park, Vinh Phuc Province, Vietnam. They included one species of the subgenus Gomphostilbia (Simulium (Gomphostilbia) asakoae Takaoka & Davies) and five species of the subgenus Simulium, of which one species is described as Simulium (Simulium) vietnamense sp. nov. and the other four species (S. (S.) chungi Takaoka & Huang, S. (S.) grossifilum Takaoka & Davies, S. (S.) maenoi Takaoka & Choochote, and S. (S.) rufibasis Brunetti) are newly recorded from Vietnam.
The susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus (Skuse; Diptera: Culicidea) larvae collected from 13 districts in Sarawak state, Malaysia was evaluated against five insect growth regulators (IGRs) namely, methoprene, pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron. Field populations of Ae. albopictus were susceptible to methoprene, pyriproxyfen, cyromazine and novaluron with resistance ratios (RRs) ranging from 0.19-0.38, 0.05-0.14, 0.50-0.95, and 0.75-1.00, respectively. Nevertheless, tolerance towards diflubenzuron (0.33-1.33) was observed in this study. In general, these IGRs exhibited promising results and can be used as alternative control agents against field populations of Ae. albopictus in Sarawak, Malaysia.
The present study aims to investigate the susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) collected from residential areas in Sabah, Malaysia towards eight WHO-recommended dosages of larvicides representing the classes of organophosphates and organochlorines. Field and reference strains of Ae. albopictus larvae were bioassayed in accordance to WHO standard methods using diagnostic dosages of bromophos, malathion, fenthion, fenitrothion, temephos, chlorpyrifos, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and dieldrin. The results revealed that Ae. albopictus was resistant (mortality < 90%) towards malathion, temephos, and DDT. In addition, most of the Ae. albopictus strains exhibited a wide range of susceptibilities against bromophos, with mortality ranged from 49.33 to 93.33%. On the contrary, only dieldrin was able to induce 100% mortality against all strains of Ae. albopictus. Tolerance to fenitrothion, fenthion, and chlorpyrifos, with mortality ranging from 81.33 to 97.33%, was also observed in this study.
Surveys of pupae and larvae of black flies were carried out in Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa and Flores in the Lesser Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia, where 10 species were known. A total of 14 simuliid species including four new species and five new records of the genus Simulium were collected, bringing the number of species from the Lesser Sunda Archipelago to 19. They are classified into four subgenera: two in Nevermannia, nine in Gomphostilbia, seven in Simulium and one in Wallacellum. One of four new species, Simulium (Simulium) baliense, is described based on females, males, pupae and larvae from Bali and Lombok. This new species, which is placed in the Simulium striatum species-group of the subgenus Simulium, is closely related to S. (S.) argyrocinctum De Meijere from Java and Sumatra, but it is distinguished from the latter species by the smaller number of the male enlarged upper-eye facets and larval abdomen lacking dorsal pairs of conical protuberances. The distribution record of S. (S.) upikae Takaoka & Davies from Flores is corrected as that of S. (S.) eximium De Meijere. Some aberrant characters of the pupal gill filaments of S. (G.) atratum De Meijere, S. (G.) floresense Takaoka, Hadi & Sigit and S. (G.) sunapii Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Suana are illustrated. Characteristics of the fauna of black flies in this archipelago are briefly noted. Keys to all 19 species are provided for females, males, pupae and larvae.
Simulium pumatense sp. nov. is described from Vietnam, and is placed in the Simulium feuerborni species-group of the subgenus Simulium (Nevermannia) Enderlein. Its morphological characteristics include the relatively smaller numbers of the following three numerical features: inner teeth of the female mandible (15-18), minute conical processes (16) on the female cibarium, and male upper-eye facets (in 15 vertical columns and 16 horizontal rows). Keys are constructed to distinguish this species from four species of the same group in Vietnam. Our molecular analysis of the DNA barcoding COI gene shows that this species is most closely related to cytoform A of the S. feuerborni complex from Thailand.
This study was conducted using the glass chamber method to determine the susceptibility status of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) from 11 states in Malaysia to commercial mosquito coils containing four different active ingredients, namely metofluthrin, d-allethrin, d-trans allethrin, and prallethrin. Aedes aegypti exhibited various knockdown rates, ranging from 14.44% to 100.00%, 0.00% to 61.67%, 0.00% to 90.00%, and 0.00% to 13.33% for metofluthrin, d-allethrin, d-trans allethrin, and prallethrin, respectively. Overall, mortality rates ranging from 0.00% to 78.33% were also observed among all populations. Additionally, significant associations were detected between the knockdown rates of metofluthrin and d-allethrin, and between metofluthrin and d-trans allethrin, suggesting the occurrence of cross-resistance within pyrethroid insecticides. Overall, this study revealed low insecticidal activity of mosquito coils against Ae. aegypti populations in Malaysia, and consequently may provide minimal personal protection against mosquito bites.
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) marosense sp. nov. is described based on adults, pupae and mature larvae from Sulawesi, Indonesia. This new species is placed in the Simulium duolongum subgroup of the S. batoense species-group, representing the ninth member for the subgroup in Sulawesi. This new species is characterized by a narrow female frons and pupal gill with eight filaments, of which two filaments of the ventral pair are 1.9-3.0 times as long as the six other filaments. Taxonomic notes are provided to distinguish this new species from related species.
The present study aims to investigate the susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Cx. vishnui collected from a pig farm in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, toward 11 insecticides representing the classes of organochlorines, carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. The results of a World Health Organization adult mosquito bioassay revealed that Ae. albopictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. vishnui exhibited different susceptibility toward various insecticides. Overall, pyrethroids were able to induce rapid knockdown for all test mosquito species. The pyrethroids lambdacyhalothrin and etofenprox were able to cause high mortality (> 80%) of all 3 species. The findings of the present study will benefit local authorities in selecting appropriate dosage of insecticides to be used in mosquito control in this area.
A species of Simulium in the Simulium melanopus species-group of the subgenus Simulium (formerly misidentified as S. laterale Edwards from Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia) is suspected to have dimorphic male scutal color patterns linked with different numbers of upper-eye facets. This study aimed to confirm whether or not these two forms of adult males represent a single species.
Surveillance of mosquitoes and their distribution in association with rainfall, relative humidity, and temperature were conducted in selected suburban and forested areas, namely, Sungai Penchala (Kuala Lumpur) and Taman Alam (Selangor) for 12 months. Armigeres kesseli was the most abundant species in Sungai Penchala while Aedes butleri was the most dominant species in Taman Alam. A positive correlation between mosquito distribution and rainfall was observed in selected mosquito species in Sungai Penchala (Armigeres kesseli, r = 0.75; Armigeres subalbatus, r = 0.62; and Aedes albopictus, r = 0.65) and Taman Alam (Armigeres sp, r = 0.59; Ae. butleri, r = 0.85; and Ae. albopictus, r = 0.62). However, no significant cor- relation was found either between selected mosquito species in both study areas and relative humidity or temperature. Results obtained suggested that vector control programs to be conducted based on temporal distribution of vectors in order to achieve beneficial outcomes with effective costing.
The increasing attention on Vietnam as a biodiversity hotspot prompted an investigation of the potential for cryptic diversity in black flies, a group well known elsewhere for its high frequency of isomorphic species. We analyzed the banding structure of the larval polytene chromosomes in the Simulium tuberosum species group to probe for diversity beyond the morphological level. Among 272 larvae, 88 different chromosomal rearrangements, primarily paracentric inversions, were discovered in addition to 25 already known in the basic sequences of the group in Asia. Chromosomal diversity in Vietnam far exceeds that known for the group in Thailand, with only about 5% of the rearrangements shared between the two countries. Fifteen cytoforms and nine morphoforms were revealed among six nominal species in Vietnam. Chromosomal evidence, combined with available molecular and morphological evidence, conservatively suggests that at least five of the cytoforms are valid species, two of which require formal names. The total chromosomal rearrangements and species (15) now known from the group in Vietnam far exceed those of any other area of comparable size in the world, supporting the country's status as a biodiversity hotspot. Phylogenetic inference based on uniquely shared, derived chromosomal rearrangements supports the clustering of cytoforms into two primary lineages, the Simulium tani complex and the Southeast Asian Simulium tuberosum subgroup. Some of these taxa could be threatened by habitat destruction, given their restricted geographical distributions and the expanding human population of Vietnam.
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) lemborense sp. nov. is described based on adults, pupae and mature larvae from Flores, in the eastern part of the Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia. This new species is placed in the Simulium batoense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia Enderlein, representing the most eastern distribution record for the group. This new species is characterized by a narrow female frons and pupal gill with eight filaments, of which two filaments of the ventral pair are three to four times as long as the six other filaments. Taxonomic notes are provided to distinguish this new species from related species.
The biodiversity of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), which are biting insects of medical and veterinary importance, is strikingly high in Southeast Asian countries, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand. In 2013, we began to explore the fauna of black flies in Vietnam, which has so far been poorly studied. In this monograph, the wealth of the biodiversity of black flies in Vietnam is also confirmed on the basis of the results of our recent investigations, though limited to five provinces in the country. Morphotaxonomic studies of black flies obtained from Sapa, Lao Cai Province, northern Vietnam, in 2014 and Nghe An Province, northern Vietnam, in 2015, and reexaminations of black flies collected from Tam Dao, Vinh Phuc Province, northern Vietnam, in 2013, Thua Thien Hue Province, central Vietnam, in 2014, and Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam, in 2014, were conducted. A total of 22 species are described as new, including one in the newly recorded subgenus Montisimulium Rubtsov, and three species are recognized as new records from Vietnam. This investigation brings the number of species of black flies known in Vietnam to 70, all of which are assigned to the genus Simulium Latreille, and are placed in four subgenera (25 in Gomphostilbia Enderlein, one in Montisimulium, seven in Nevermannia Enderlein, and 37 in Simulium Latreille s. str.). The numbers of species-groups recognized include seven in Gomphostilbia, three in Nevermannia and nine in Simulium, indicating a high diversity of putative phylogenetic lineages. New species include S. (G.) sanchayense sp. nov. (= the species formerly regarded as S. (G.) brinchangense Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Hashim), S. (S.) lowi sp. nov. (= the species formerly regarded as S. (S.) brevipar Takaoka & Davies), S. (S.) fuscicoxae sp. nov. [= the species formerly regarded as S. (S.) rufibasis Brunetti (in part)], S. (S.) suoivangense sp. nov. [= morphoform 'b' of the S. (S.) tani Takaoka & Davies (complex)]. Newly recorded species are S. (G.) parahiyangum Takaoka & Sigit, S. (N.) maeaiense Takaoka & Srisuka, and S. (S.) doipuiense Takaoka & Choochote (complex) [= the species formerly regarded as S. (S.) rufibasis Brunetti (in part)]. The substitute name, S. (S.) huense, is given for the species that was described under the name of S. (S.) cavum from southern Vietnam. A redescription of the female, male, pupa and larva of S. (G.) asakoae Takaoka & Davies is presented, and the female and larva of S. (G.) hongthaii Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Ya'cob are described for the first time. Keys to 10 subgenera in the Oriental Region and all 70 species recorded from Vietnam are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae. As investigations extend nationwide in all the provinces in Vietnam, more new species and records are expected to be discovered. It is hoped that this monograph will be useful as a baseline taxonomic reference for future studies of black flies in Vietnam and neighbouring countries.