Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 40 in total

  1. Lee, CL, Zainuddin AA, Abdul Karim AK, Yulianty A, Law, ZK, Md.Isa N, et al.
    We report a rare case of altered mental status in a young patient with immature ovarian teratoma. A 22-year-old woman presented with seizures, hallucination, amnesia and orofacial dyskinesia. Examination and investigation revealed an ovarian massand asalphing-oophorectomy was performed. The histopathological examination result showed an immature teratoma grade 2 with thepresence of immature primitive glial tissue. Her CSF N-Methyl-D-Aspartic acid receptor (Anti-NMDAR) antibodytest was positive. N-Methyl-D-Aspartic acid receptor antibody associated limbic encephalitis is an autoimmune antibody-mediated neuropsychiatric disorder. Resection of the tumour and immunotherapy resulted in full recovery.
  2. Lee, CL, Ng, Beng Kwang, Chew, KT, Aruku, N, Lim, PS
    We report the case of a rare, benign mesenchymal tumour arising from the cervix. A 53-year-old post-menopausal woman presented with mass per vagina. Examination revealed stage 2 utero-vaginal prolapse and multiple elongated polyps seen at the cervix. She underwent local excision. Histopathological examination findings and the immunohistochemical studies were consistent with Angiomyofibroblastoma.
  3. Abu Bakar N, Lee CL
    Med J Malaysia, 2013;68(1):73-5.
    PMID: 23466774
    Osteo-odontokeratoprosthesis (OOKP) surgery is a technique used to replace damaged cornea in blind patients for whom cadaveric transplantation is not feasible. OOKP surgery is a complex procedure requiring lifetime follow-up. The preservation of the osteo-odontolamina is the vital feature in maintaining the stability of the OOKP. Early detection of lamina resorption enables early prophylactic measures to be taken and prevent resorption-related complications. This case illustrates the radiological findings of the first OOKP surgery in Malaysia and the role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in postoperative management of OOKP surgery.
  4. Lee CL, Norimah AK, Ismail MN
    Malays J Nutr, 2010 Aug;16(2):251-60.
    PMID: 22691930 MyJurnal
    This cross-sectional study investigates the association between energy intake and macronutrient composition of the diet with overweight and obesity among Malaysian women. One hundred and fifteen adult Malay women aged 20 to 59 years (mean age 37.2±7.6 years) were interviewed. Dietary intake was assessed using the food history method. Body weight status was assessed using weight, height, waist circumference and fat percentage measurements. When energy intake was assessed for accuracy, only 41% of the subjects (n=47) were normal energy reporters. Among the normal energy reporters, 55% were of normal weight whereas 32% and 13% were overweight and obese. Mean energy intake for normal weight, overweight and obese subjects was 1685±199 kcal/day, 1810±166 kcal/day and 2119±222 kcal/day, respectively. Energy intake increased with body mass index (BMI) category. Among the overweight and obese, energy intake was respectively higher by 125 kcal/day and 434 kcal/day as compared to their normal weight counterparts (p< 0.001). There was also a significant, moderate and positive correlation between energy intake and BMI (r=0.635), waist circumference (r=0.545), and body fat percentage (r=0.534). When macronutrient composition of diet was analysed (% energy and g/1000 kcal), there was no significant difference in carbohydrate, protein or fat intake between the obese, overweight and normal weight subjects. There was also no significant correlation between macronutrient composition of the diet and body weight status. Based on these findings, we conclude that the subjects' body weight status is likely to be influenced by energy intake rather than the macronutrient composition of the diet.
  5. Hian CK, Lee CL, Thomas W
    Nephron, 2016;134(2):59-63.
    PMID: 27476173 DOI: 10.1159/000448296
    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is a systemic disease characterised by the formation of multiple renal cysts that adversely affect renal function. ADPKD shows significant progression with age when complications due to hypertension are most significant. The activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) occurs in progressive kidney disease leading to hypertension. The RAAS system may also contribute to ADPKD progression by stimulating signalling pathways in the renal cyst cells to promote growth and deregulate epithelial transport. This mini review focuses on the contribution of the RAAS system to renal cyst enlargement and the potential for antagonists of the RAAS system to suppress cyst enlargement as well as control ADPKD-associated hypertension.
  6. Wu KL, Chua PT, Lee CL
    Gynecol Minim Invasive Ther, 2021 11 05;10(4):265-267.
    PMID: 34909388 DOI: 10.4103/GMIT.GMIT_27_20
    Deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) is a common finding in patients diagnosed with adenomyosis. Women commonly present with severe, incapacitating dysmenorrhea. We report a case of severe dysmenorrhea and lower abdominal tightness for 4 years, diagnosed with posterior adenomyosis. The patient underwent surgery and DIE involving the rectosigmoid and coexisting uterocervical adenomyosis infiltrating bowel muscularis successfully diagnosed and treated using laparoscopic "shaving" technique. Dysmenorrhea significantly resolved after surgery. Laparoscopic surgical "shaving" technique for external adenomyosis infiltrating Rectosigmoid muscularis is feasible, where uterine preservation is desired.
  7. Wong DZ, Kadir HA, Lee CL, Goh BH
    J Nat Med, 2012 Jul;66(3):544-51.
    PMID: 22318341 DOI: 10.1007/s11418-011-0622-y
    Loranthus parasiticus, a Chinese folk medicine, has been widely used for the treatment of brain diseases, particularly in southwest China. Hence, the present neuroprotection model was designed to investigate its neuroprotective properties against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in NG108-15 cells. L. parasiticus aqueous fraction (LPAF), which was selected in the present study, had proved to be the most active fraction among the other tested extracts and fractions in our previous screening. The restoration of depleted intracellular glutathione (GSH), a major endogenous antioxidant, by LPAF was observed after H(2)O(2) insult. Pretreatment with LPAF substantially reduced the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species generated from H(2)O(2). Apoptotic features such as externalization of phosphatidylserine and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly attenuated by LPAF. In addition, cell cycle analysis revealed a prominent decrease in the H(2)O(2)-induced sub-G(1) population by LPAF. Moreover, apoptotic morphological analysis by DAPI nuclear staining demonstrated that NG108-15 cells treated with H(2)O(2) exhibited apoptotic features, while such changes were greatly reduced in cells pretreated with LPAF. Taken together, these findings confirmed that LPAF exerts marked neuroprotective activity, which raises the possibility of potential therapeutic application of LPAF for managing oxidative stress-related neurological disorders and supports the traditional use of L. parasiticus in treating brain-related diseases.
  8. Ariffin H, Ai CL, Lee CL, Abdullah WA
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2006 Dec;42(12):781-4.
    PMID: 17096713
    Empirical therapy for children with febrile neutropenia has traditionally consisted of combination antibiotics, usually a beta-lactam and an aminoglycoside. However, recent trends and international guidelines have now made monotherapy a feasible option in the management of this group of patients. We prospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of cefepime monotherapy in our population of paediatric cancer patients with febrile neutropenia.
  9. Lee CL, binti Che Daud CZ, binti Ismail R
    J Clin Ultrasound, 2014 Jan;42(1):42-4.
    PMID: 23303464 DOI: 10.1002/jcu.22029
    We report a rare case of a gastric duplication cyst in the tail of the pancreas in a child presenting with chronic abdominal pain which was cured by excision of the cyst and adjacent pancreas. This case report highlights the role of sonography as an excellent imaging tool for depiction of the bowel wall and, hence, in aiding diagnosis even when clinical picture and findings of other modalities are nonspecific.
  10. Huang YJ, Brimblecombe P, Lee CL, Latif MT
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2015 Aug 15;97(1-2):78-84.
    PMID: 26093815 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.06.031
    Samples of sea-surface microlayer (SML) and sub-surface water (SSW) were collected from two areas-Kaohsiung City (Taiwan) and the southwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia to study the influence of SML on enrichment and distribution and to compare SML with the SSW. Anionic surfactants (MBAS) predominated in this study and were significantly higher in Kaohsiung than in Malaysia. Industrial areas in Kaohsiung were enriched with high loads of anthropogenic sources, accounted for higher surfactant amounts, and pose higher environmental disadvantages than in Malaysia, where pollutants were associated with agricultural activities. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC), MBAS, and cationic surfactant (DBAS) concentrations in the SML correlated to the SSW, reflecting exchanges between the SML and SSW in Kaohsiung. The relationships between surfactants and the physiochemical parameters indicated that DOC and saltwater dilution might affect the distributions of MBAS and DBAS in Kaohsiung. In Malaysia, DOC might be the important factor controlling DBAS.
  11. Lee CL, Ng HF, Ngeow YF, Thaw Z
    J Med Microbiol, 2021 Jul;70(7).
    PMID: 34236301 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.001378
    Introduction. Tigecycline is currently acknowledged to be one of the most effective antibiotics against infections caused by Mycobacteroides abscessus.Gap statement. The genetic determinants of tigecycline resistance in M. abscessus are not well understood.Aim. In this study, we characterized a tigecycline-resistant M. abscessus mutant, designated CL7, to identify the potential resistance mechanism.Methodology. CL7 was characterized using antimicrobial susceptibility testing, whole-genome sequencing, PCR and RT-qPCR. For biological verification, gene overexpression assays were carried out.Results. Whole-genome sequencing and the subsequent gene overexpression assays showed that CL7 harboured a stop-gain mutation in MAB_3543 c, which may be responsible for the tigecycline resistance phenotype. This gene encodes an orthologue of SigH, which is involved in the positive regulation of physiological stress response and is negatively regulated by the RshA anti-sigma factor in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We hypothesized that the MAB_3543 c mutation may disrupt the interaction between SigH and RshA (MAB_3542 c). RT-qPCR analyses revealed the upregulation of MAB_3543 c and other key stress response genes, which has previously been shown to be a hallmark of SigH-RshA bond disruption and tigecycline resistance.Conclusion. The MAB_3543c mutation may represent a novel determinant of tigecycline resistance in M. abscessus. The findings of this study will hopefully contribute to our knowledge of potential tigecycline resistance mechanisms in M. abscessus, which may lead to better diagnostics and treatment modalities in the future.
  12. Lee CL, Kandasamy R, Mohammad Raffiq MAB
    Surg Neurol Int, 2019;10:159.
    PMID: 31528494 DOI: 10.25259/SNI_64_2019
    Background: Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is an emerging modality which produces maps of time-to- peak (TTP), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV), with a computerized automated map of the infarct and penumbra. This modality provides a better evaluation of the extent of infarction, making it a potential method for assessing patients suffering from large middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions.

    Methods: A prospective cohort study of all patients in Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, who presented with the clinical diagnosis of a large MCA infarction within 48 h of onset were subjected to CT brain, and CTP scans on admission and were followed up to determine the development of malignant infarction requiring surgical decompression.

    Results: CTP parameters were generally lower in patients with malignant brain infarct (MBI) group compared to the nonMBI group. The largest mean difference between the group was noted in the TTP values (P = 0.005). CTP parameters had a comparable positive predictive value (83%-90%) and high net present value (88-93). CBF with cutoff value of >32.85 of the hemisphere could accurately predict malignant infarctions in 81.4% of cases. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of more than 13.5 was also found to be able to accurately determine malignant infarct (97.6%). Functional outcome of patients based on Glasgow outcome scale was similar on discharge, however, showed improvement at 6 months during reviewed base on modified Rankin scale (P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: CTP parameters should be included in the initial evaluation of patients to predict malignant brain infarction and facilitate surgical treatment of large MCA infarctions.

    Key messages: CT perfusion parameters have an important role in predicting malignant brain infarction and should be included in the initial evaluation of patients to facilitate the early identification and surgical treatment of large middle cerebral artery infarctions, to improve patient's prognosis.

  13. Ong J, Lee CL, Huang SJ, Shyr MH
    Ci Ji Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2016 Jul-Sep;28(3):109-112.
    PMID: 28757736 DOI: 10.1016/j.tcmj.2016.06.004
    OBJECTIVES: It remains to be determined whether the TVI-4000 Trachway video intubating (TVI) stylet (Markstein Sichtec Medical Corp, Taichung, Taiwan), an airway device for novices, improves airway management practice by experienced anesthesiologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using the TVI stylet in difficult tracheal intubation situations compared with that of using the Macintosh laryngoscope on an airway manikin.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten anesthesiologists (with 3-21 years' experience), including three senior residents, participated. We compared tracheal intubation in four airway scenarios: normal airway, tongue edema, cervical spine immobilization, and tongue edema combined with cervical spine immobilization. The time of tracheal intubation (TTI), success rate, and perceived difficulty of intubation for each scenario were compared and analyzed.

    RESULTS: The TTI was significantly shorter in both the tongue edema and combined scenarios with the TVI stylet compared with the Macintosh laryngoscope (21.60 ± 1.45 seconds vs. 24.07 ± 1.58 seconds and 23.73 ± 2.05 seconds vs. 26.6 ± 2.77 seconds, respectively). Success rates for both devices were 100%. Concomitantly, participants rated using the TVI stylet in these two scenarios as being less difficult.

    CONCLUSION: The learning time for tracheal intubation using the TVI stylet in difficult airway scenarios was short. Use of the TVI stylet was easier and required a shorter TTI for tracheal intubation in the tongue edema and combined scenarios.
  14. Lee CL, Shyam S, Lee ZY, Tan JL
    Nutr Health, 2021 Jun;27(2):161-169.
    PMID: 33349136 DOI: 10.1177/0260106020975573
    BACKGROUND: Postprandial glycaemia has an impact on health but there is limited data about the effect of food order on postprandial glycaemia by body weight status.

    AIM: To investigate the effects of food order on postprandial glucose (PPG) excursion, in Indian adults with normal (NL) and overweight/obese (OW) Body Mass Index.

    METHODS: This randomised crossover study was conducted at a Malaysian university among Indian adults without diabetes. The participants consumed isocaloric test meals at three study visits based on randomised food orders: carbohydrate first/protein last (CF); protein first/carbohydrate last (CL); and a composite meal containing carbohydrate and protein (CM). Capillary blood glucose was measured at baseline, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after starting the meal.

    RESULTS: The CL food order had a blunting effect on PPG excursion at 30 and 60 minutes (p < 0.01). The CL food order resulted in lower glucose peak when compared with the CF and CM food order (p < 0.001). The CL food order resulted in lower incremental glucose peak (mmol/L) (NL: CF 3.9 ± 0.3, CM 3.0 ± 0.3, CL 2.0 ± 0.2; OW: CF 2.9 ± 0.3, CM 2.5 ± 0.3, CL 1.8 ± 0.2) and iAUC 0-120 min (mmol/Lxmin) (NL: CF 272.4 ± 26.7, CM 206.2 ± 30.3, CL 122.0 ± 14.8; OW: CF 193.2 ± 23.1, CM 160.1 ± 21.7, CL 113.6 ± 15.3) when compared with the CF food order (p < 0.001). The effect of food order on postprandial excursion did not differ between the NL (n = 14) and the OW (n = 17) groups.

    CONCLUSION: In participants with normal and overweight/obese BMI, consuming food in the protein first/carbohydrate last order had the biggest effect in reducing PPG excursion.

  15. Peng HH, Huang KG, Chueh HY, Adlan AS, Chang SD, Lee CL
    Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol, 2014 Sep;53(3):397-400.
    PMID: 25286799 DOI: 10.1016/j.tjog.2013.02.005
    OBJECTIVE: A twin pregnancy consisting of a complete hydatidiform mole with a coexisting normal fetus is extremely rare with an incidence of 1/22,000 to 1/100,000. The incidence of preterm delivery is high and few pregnancies reach near term with a viable fetus.
    CASE REPORT: A 34-year-old woman presented at 20 weeks of gestation with increased levels of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) at 4.74 multiples of the median (310277.7 mIU/mL). Ultrasonography showed a hydatidiform mole together with a normal fetus. Fetal karyotyping revealed 46XY. The serum beta-HCG levels were followed up throughout the remainder of the pregnancy. A male infant weighting 2260 g and the molar tissue were delivered at 37 weeks of gestation. The karyotype of the molar tissue showed 46XX and the histopathological report confirmed our diagnosis. At 4 months postpartum, metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease of the lung was diagnosed in the mother by a computed tomography scan due to increased beta-HCG levels. The patient received three unsuccessful cycles of methotrexate and folinate. Another four cycles of chemotherapy consisting of etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, and vincristine (EMA-CO) were initiated and the beta-HCG levels returned to normal. There was no evidence of recurrence in the subsequent 5 years of regular follow up.
    CONCLUSION: A pregnancy with a complete hydatidiform mole and a living cotwin can be a serious threat to the health of both the mother and the fetus. Early diagnosis depends on a combination of detecting an unusually high level of serum beta-HCG and ultrasound examination. We suggest that continuation of the pregnancy may be an acceptable option and that the pregnancy may continue until term if a normal fetal anatomy is assured and maternal complications are under control. Patients require careful postpartum follow up and any recurrent disease should be managed aggressively.
    KEYWORDS: EMA-CO; metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease; twin pregnancy with one complete hydatidiform mole
  16. Sharifah MI, Lee CL, Suraya A, Johan A, Syed AF, Tan SP
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2015 Mar;23(3):826-30.
    PMID: 24240983 DOI: 10.1007/s00167-013-2766-7
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing meniscal tears in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears and to determine the frequency of missed meniscal tears on MRI.

    METHODS: This prospective comparative study was conducted from 2009 to 2012. Patients with ACL injuries who underwent knee arthroscopy and MRI were included in the study. Two radiologists who were blinded to the clinical history and arthroscopic findings reviewed the pre-arthroscopic MR images. The presence and type of meniscal tears on MRI and arthroscopy were recorded. Arthroscopic findings were used as the reference standard. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) of MRI in the evaluation of meniscal tears were calculated.

    RESULTS: A total of 65 patients (66 knees) were included. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, and NPV for the MRI diagnosis of lateral meniscal tears in our patients were 83, 97, 92, 96, and 90 %, respectively, whereas those for medial meniscus tears were 82, 92, 88, 82, and 88 %, respectively. There were five false-negative diagnoses of medial meniscus tears and four false-negative diagnoses of lateral meniscus tears. The majority of missed meniscus tears on MRI affected the peripheral posterior horns.

    CONCLUSION: The sensitivity for diagnosing a meniscal tear was significantly higher when the tear involved more than one-third of the meniscus or the anterior horn. The sensitivity was significantly lower for tears located in the posterior horn and for vertically oriented tears. Therefore, special attention should be given to the peripheral posterior horns of the meniscus, which are common sites of injury that could be easily missed on MRI. The high NPVs obtained in this study suggest that MRI is a valuable tool prior to arthroscopy.

  17. Ariffin H, Navaratnam P, Mohamed M, Arasu A, Abdullah WA, Lee CL, et al.
    Int J Infect Dis, 2000;4(1):21-5.
    PMID: 10689210
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate prevalence of ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in the pediatric oncology unit of University Hospital, Kuala, Lumpur, and to identify differences between febrile neutropenic pediatric patients with CRKP and ceftazidime-sensitive K. pneumoniae (CSKP) bacteremia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Febrile neutropenic patients treated between January 1996 and December 1997 at the pediatric oncology unit of University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, were prospectively studied. Empirical antibiotic therapy consisted of ceftazidime and amikacin. Those who developed K. pneumoniae bacteremia were identified, and clinical features analyzed. Ceftazidime-resistance was documented via disk-diffusion testing. Production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) was inferred on the basis of synergy between ceftazidime and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. The different features between the two groups and variables associated with the development of CRKP bacteremia were analyzed using chi-square and t-tests and calculation of odds ratios. A multivariate analysis was used to identify independent factors for CRKP development.

    RESULTS: Ceftazidime-resistance was seen in 51.6% of all K. pneumoniae isolates, and all these isolates were inferred to be ESBL producers. All isolates were sensitive to imipenem. Susceptibility to gentamicin was 90.5%. The mean continuous hospital stay prior to the detection of bacteremia was 13.7 days overall, but significantly longer in the CRKP group (21.9 d) compared to the CSKP group (4.3 d) (P = 0.003). Children with CRKP were more likely to have received antibiotics in the 2 weeks prior to detection of bacteremia (87.5% of cases) than the CSKP group (20.0% of cases) (P = 0.0008). Sepsis-related mortality was higher in those with CRKP (50.0%) than in the CSKP group (13.3%) (P = 0.02). Patients who did not receive CRKP-directed antibiotics within 48 hours of admission were more likely to have a fatal outcome than those who did (P = 0.009). Logistic regression analysis identified use of third-generation cephalosporins 2 weeks prior to presentation and a hospital stay of 2 weeks or more as independent risk factors for development of CRKP.

    CONCLUSIONS: More than half of total K. pneumoniae isolated from blood cultures in the unit were ceftazidime-resistant. Children with febrile neutropenia with prolonged hospital stay and recent prior antibiotic exposure are at high risk of developing CRKP bacteremia. Mortality was significantly higher in this group. Early commencement of appropriate antibiotics (e.g., imipenem with or without gentamicin), according to susceptibility study results, may be beneficial in such circumstances.

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