MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chondrocyte/agarose constructs were treated with varying concentrations of TNFα (0.1-100 ng/ml) and cultured at 5 and 21 % oxygen tension for 48 h. In separate experiments, constructs were subjected to dynamic compression (15 %) and treated with TNFα (10 ng/ml) and/or L-NIO (1 mM) at 5 and 21 % oxygen tension using an ex vivo bioreactor for 48 h. Markers for catabolic activity (NO, PGE2) and tissue remodelling (GAG, MMPs) were quantified by biochemical assay. ADAMTS-5 and MMP-13 expression were examined by real-time qPCR. 2-way ANOVA and a post hoc Bonferroni-corrected t test were used to analyse data.
RESULTS: TNFα dose-dependently increased NO, PGE2 and MMP activity (all p
METHODS: The study prospectively enrolled 62 patients with IIC on EEG. The diagnosis of nonconvulsive status epilepticus was attempted with Salzburg criteria as well as clinical and neuroimaging data. IICs were dichotomized into patients with nonconvulsive status epilepticus and coma-IIC. The 2HELPS2B score was evaluated as the original proposal. The suppression ratio was analyzed with Persyst software.
RESULTS: Forty-seven cases (75.8%) were nonconvulsive status epilepticus-IIC and 15 cases (24.2%) were coma-IIC. Multivariate analysis revealed that the 2HELPS2B score was the only significant variable dichotomizing the spectrum of IIC (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-8.6; P = 0.03 for nonconvulsive status epilepticus-IIC). In addition, the suppression ratio was significantly negatively correlated with 2HELPS2B scores (Spearman coefficient = -0.37, P = 0.004 for left hemisphere and Spearman coefficient = -0.3, P = 0.02 for right hemisphere). Furthermore, patients with higher 2HELPS2B score (74% [14/19] in ≥2 points vs. 44% [14/32] in <2 points, P = 0.03 by χ2 test) and lower suppression ratio (62% [23/37] in ≤2.18 vs. 35% [6/17] in >2.18, P = 0.06 by χ2 test) seemed to be more responsive to subsequent anti-seizure drug.
CONCLUSIONS: The 2HELPS2B score and background suppression can be used to distinguish the spectrum of IIC and thereby predict the response to subsequent anti-seizure drug.