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  1. Kumar V, Li AK, Zanial AZ, Lee DA, Salleh SA
    J Clin Forensic Med, 2005 Oct;12(5):254-7.
    PMID: 16198967
    The main aim of this study was to determine the causes and epidemiological aspects of homicidal deaths. Data were collected on 217 homicidal victims from the total number of 2762 autopsies performed in UMMC, Kuala Lumpur over a five-year period, from year 1999 to 2003. There were 194 male victims and 23 female victims. The largest number of victims (63.6%) were in the age group of 20-39 years. Indians comprised the maximum proportion of victims (28.1%). Approximately 71.9% of victims came from the semiskilled and unskilled group. A majority of victims were married (47%). Injuries caused by sharp weapons (41%) were the most common cause of death, followed by blunt trauma and firearm injuries.
  2. Tilwani RK, Vessillier S, Pingguan-Murphy B, Lee DA, Bader DL, Chowdhury TT
    Inflamm Res, 2017 Jan;66(1):49-58.
    PMID: 27658702 DOI: 10.1007/s00011-016-0991-5
    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Oxygen tension and biomechanical signals are factors that regulate inflammatory mechanisms in chondrocytes. We examined whether low oxygen tension influenced the cells response to TNFα and dynamic compression.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chondrocyte/agarose constructs were treated with varying concentrations of TNFα (0.1-100 ng/ml) and cultured at 5 and 21 % oxygen tension for 48 h. In separate experiments, constructs were subjected to dynamic compression (15 %) and treated with TNFα (10 ng/ml) and/or L-NIO (1 mM) at 5 and 21 % oxygen tension using an ex vivo bioreactor for 48 h. Markers for catabolic activity (NO, PGE2) and tissue remodelling (GAG, MMPs) were quantified by biochemical assay. ADAMTS-5 and MMP-13 expression were examined by real-time qPCR. 2-way ANOVA and a post hoc Bonferroni-corrected t test were used to analyse data.

    RESULTS: TNFα dose-dependently increased NO, PGE2 and MMP activity (all p 

  3. Lee DA, Park KM, Kim HC, Khoo CS, Lee BI, Kim SE
    J Clin Neurophysiol, 2021 Sep 06.
    PMID: 34510091 DOI: 10.1097/WNP.0000000000000894
    PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to identify (1) the spectrum of ictal-interictal continuum (IIC) using the two dimensions of 2HELPS2B score and background suppression and (2) the response to subsequent anti-seizure drugs depends on the spectrum of IIC.

    METHODS: The study prospectively enrolled 62 patients with IIC on EEG. The diagnosis of nonconvulsive status epilepticus was attempted with Salzburg criteria as well as clinical and neuroimaging data. IICs were dichotomized into patients with nonconvulsive status epilepticus and coma-IIC. The 2HELPS2B score was evaluated as the original proposal. The suppression ratio was analyzed with Persyst software.

    RESULTS: Forty-seven cases (75.8%) were nonconvulsive status epilepticus-IIC and 15 cases (24.2%) were coma-IIC. Multivariate analysis revealed that the 2HELPS2B score was the only significant variable dichotomizing the spectrum of IIC (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-8.6; P = 0.03 for nonconvulsive status epilepticus-IIC). In addition, the suppression ratio was significantly negatively correlated with 2HELPS2B scores (Spearman coefficient = -0.37, P = 0.004 for left hemisphere and Spearman coefficient = -0.3, P = 0.02 for right hemisphere). Furthermore, patients with higher 2HELPS2B score (74% [14/19] in ≥2 points vs. 44% [14/32] in <2 points, P = 0.03 by χ2 test) and lower suppression ratio (62% [23/37] in ≤2.18 vs. 35% [6/17] in >2.18, P = 0.06 by χ2 test) seemed to be more responsive to subsequent anti-seizure drug.

    CONCLUSIONS: The 2HELPS2B score and background suppression can be used to distinguish the spectrum of IIC and thereby predict the response to subsequent anti-seizure drug.

  4. Klionsky DJ, Abdel-Aziz AK, Abdelfatah S, Abdellatif M, Abdoli A, Abel S, et al.
    Autophagy, 2021 Jan;17(1):1-382.
    PMID: 33634751 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280
    In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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