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  1. Lee FY, Lim L, Gee T
    Med J Malaysia, 2016 Aug;71(4):215-216.
    PMID: 27770126 MyJurnal
    Epithelioid sarcoma (ES) of the small bowel is a rare gastrointestinal tumour. We report a case of gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to small bowel ES in a 55-year-old gentleman. After gastroscopy and colonoscopy failed to identify the source of bleeding, we proceeded with computed tomography angiogram of the mesentery, which revealed intraluminal blood clot in the distal jejunum with features of obstruction. This is a rare cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and emphasises the need for additional evaluation in the presence of negative endoscopic findings.
  2. Choong CL, Wong HS, Lee FY, Lee CK, Kho JV, Lai YX, et al.
    Transplant Proc, 2018 Oct;50(8):2515-2520.
    PMID: 30316389 DOI: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2018.04.024
    BACKGROUND: Inhibition of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) metabolism with diltiazem reduces the dose of tacrolimus required to achieve its therapeutic blood concentration in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). This cost-savings maneuver is practiced in several countries, including Malaysia, but the actual impacts of diltiazem on tacrolimus blood concentration, dose-response relationship, cost-savings, and safety aspects are unknown.

    METHODS: This retrospective study was performed on all KTRs ≥18 years of age at our center from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2015, who were prescribed diltiazem as tacrolimus-sparing agent. Blood tacrolimus trough level (TacC0) and other relevant clinical data for 70 eligible KTRs were reviewed.

    RESULTS: The dose of 1 mg tacrolimus resulted in a median TacC0 of 0.83 ± 0.52 ng/mL. With the introduction of a 90-mg/d dose diltiazem, there was a significant TacC0 increase to 1.39 ± 1.31 ng/mL/mg tacrolimus (P < .01). A further 90-mg increase in diltiazem to 180 mg/d resulted in a further increase of TacC0 to 1.66 ± 2.58 ng/mL/mg tacrolimus (P = .01). After this, despite a progressive increment of every 90-mg/d dose diltiazem to 270 mg/d and 360 mg/d, there was no further increment in TacC0 (1.44 ± 1.15 ng/mL/mg tacrolimus and 1.24 ± 0.94 ng/mL/mg tacrolimus, respectively [P < .01]). Addition of 180 mg/d diltiazem reduced the required tacrolimus dose to 4 mg/d, resulting in a cost-savings of USD 2045.92 per year (per patient) at our center. Adverse effects reported within 3 months of diltiazem introduction were bradycardia (1.4%) and postural hypotension (1.4%), which resolved after diltiazem dose reduction.

    CONCLUSION: Coadministration of tacrolimus and diltiazem in KTRs appeared to be safe and resulted in a TacC0 increment until reaching a 180-mg/d total diltiazem dose, at which point it began to decrease. This approach will result in a marked savings in immunosuppression costs among KTRs in Malaysia.

  3. Lee FY, Wong HS, Chan HK, Mohamed Ali N, Abu Hassan MR, Omar H, et al.
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020 12;29(12):1669-1679.
    PMID: 33064335 DOI: 10.1002/pds.5153
    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence, demographic profile, background of reporters, causative agents, severity and clinical outcomes of hepatic adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports in Malaysia using the national ADR reporting database.

    METHODS: The ADR reports recorded between 2000 and 2017 were retrospectively analysed to identify hepatic ADR reports. The trend and characteristics of hepatic ADR cases were described. Multivariate disproportionality analysis of the causative agents was performed to generate signals of hepatic ADRs.

    RESULTS: A total of 2090 hepatic ADRs (1.77% of all ADRs) were reported with mortality rate of 12.7% among cases with known clinical outcomes. The incidence of hepatic ADR reporting in Malaysia increased significantly over 18 years from 0.26 to 9.45 per million population (P 

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